Italian Marxist–Leninist Party
|Italian Marxist-Leninist Party|
|Partito Marxista-Leninista Italiano|
|General Secretary||Giovanni Scuderi|
|Split from||Italian Communist Party|
The Italian Marxist–Leninist Party (PMLI) (Partito Marxista-Leninista Italiano) is a communist party in Italy. It was founded in Florence in 1977. The leading core of PMLI began their political activity as they joined the Communist Party of Italy (Marxist–Leninist) (PCd'I(ml)) in 1967. The group broke away from PCd'I(ml) in 1969 in 1969, and formed the Italian Bolshevik Communist Organization Marxist-Leninist (OCBIml, Organizzazione Comunista Bolscevica Italiana marxista-leninista). In 1977 OCBIml was transformed into PMLI.
The PMLI is a communist party, loyal to the teachings of Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin and Mao Zedong, named the five teachers. This movement strives for a proletarian revolution and the establishment of a united, red and socialist Italy. The PMLI believes that Maoism is the highest stage of the workers' movement.
Soviet leader Joseph Stalin is held in high regard within the PMLI due to his construction of the first Socialist country, the Soviet Union, and to his encouragement of the creation of the other Socialist countries of Eastern Europe. Consequently, the PMLI refuses Trotskyism, believing it to be an extremist and anti-Communist diversion from Marxism-Leninism.
The PMLI views the 1936 Soviet Constitution as example of the existence of the socialism in the Soviet Union.
Birth and first battles of Il Bolscevico
The first founders of PMLI, that the Party reminds as the four pioneers, began their Marxist-Leninist militancy in 1967, when they joined the PCd'I(ml). They were Giovanni Scuderi, Mino Pasca, Nerina "Lucia" Paoletti and Patrizia Pierattini. Afterwards, in 1969, one of the densest years of the Cultural Revolution in China, those four pioneers and other followers denounced CPI(ML) as revisionist party, judged the left cover of Italian Communist Party (PCI).
In 14 December 1969, then, the four pioneers and the Provincial Committee of Florence left PCd'I(ml) and, along with other Marxist-Leninist organizations, established the OCBIml, and published, the next day, the first number of the official newspaper Il Bolscevico. In this number, dense of quotes of Karl Marx, Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin and Mao Zedong, the Organization wrote:
Chairman Mao has often said that "without destruction there is not construction. The destruction is the criticism, the revolution. The destruction comes first, it of course brings the construction". By the destruction of PCd'I(ml) of Florence, the Italian Bolshevik Communist Organization Marxist-Leninist arose, on completely Marxist-Leninist foundations. It seeks to build the revolutionary party that assumes Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought as the theoretical foundation that leads its thought.
The work of OCBIml so was mainly the one to accumulate the forces to create a revolutionary party. In 1970 the Organization was officially recognized by the Communist Party of China and the Rome Embassy invited the leaders of the Organization to the official holidays of the People's Republic of China, while the Organization sent some messages to Communist Party of China, regarding its 10th National Congress and condolences when Zhou Enlai and Zhu De died. OCBIml had a wreath near the corpse of Mao in 18 September 1976, when the funerals finished.
To achieve this historical goal, OCBIml immediately launched itself in the student and workers revolts of then, carrying out an abstentionist propaganda and denouncing those who they believe false Communists, as PCI. Those were difficult years for the Organization, mainly for the lack of funds. Giovanni Scuderi, talking about the history of the Party, said:
When we began the struggle for the Party we've not a pen, nor a chair, nor a brush, nor headquarters. Subsequently we rented a foul building of Florence of four rooms inhabited by mouses, cockroaches and spiders, that we restored during the summer holidays of 1968. We removed the bread by our mouths to give a newspaper and a minimum of equipment to the Party and when we could we gave a contribution to the brother parties in worse situation of ours.
The PMLI is born
From 9 April to 11 April 1977, was held in Florence the Founding Congress of the PMLI. During this Congress, were adopted the Constitution and the Program, the symbol (black hammer and sickle and Mao's head) and the Party anthems. Giovanni Scuderi was unanimously acclaimed General Secretary.
For the PMLI, this date ideally represents the beginning of a "new phase" for the Italian working class. The Italian Marxist-Leninists argue that the first phase (1882-1921) was dominated by reformism of the Italian Socialist Party; the second phase was dominated by revisionism of the Italian Communist Party and today is pursued by its heirs, the Party of Communist Refoundation and the Party of Italian Communists.
Political and organizational Long March
Since its establishment, the PMLI began a complex political work. It wanted to gain more and more workers and students and to pursue its abstaining electoral campaign. Through this work, new Party centres were created and the PMLI is today present in almost every region of Italy. Particularly, it is rooted in the South.
The PMLI had five Congresses in 1977, 1982, 1985, 1998 and 2008.
The PMLI "has as theoretical basis Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought which presides its ideological, political, organizational and practical work".
The PMLI had close contacts with the Chinese Communist Party until 1981, when it denounced the restoration of capitalism under Deng Xiaoping and broke the relationship. It tried to have relations with the Party of Labour of Albania, but attacked it after Enver Hoxha rejected Maoism.
After 1975, the PMLI had a close relationship with the Communist Party of Kampuchea, even after the invasion of Cambodia by Vietnam. A PMLI leader visited a CPK-controlled zone of Cambodia in 1987. After Pol Pot's arrest in 1997, the PMLI denounced the Khmer Rouges' betrayal.
Actually, the PMLI has close links with the Marxist-Leninist Communist Party of Greece, the Marxist-Leninist Centre in Mexico and the Marxist-Leninist Party of Ukraine. It has also relations with the Communist Party of the Philippines, the Revolutionary Communist Party of Argentina, the Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist-Leninist, the Revolutionary Communist Party of Uruguay and the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Liberation.
- Number 1 of Il Bolscevico, 15 December 1969
- Giovanni Scuderi, Report to the 3rd Congress of PMLI
- PMLI Statute