Dhulka Talyaaniga ee Soomaaliya
|Languages||Italian (official), Somali, Arabic|
|-||1939–1946||Victor Emmanuel III|
|-||1889–1893 1896–1897||Vincenzo Filonardi|
|-||1940–1941||Carlo De Simone|
|Historical era||Interwar period|
|-||Italian East Africa||1936-41|
Italian Somaliland (Italian: Somalia italiana, Arabic: الصومال الإيطالي Al-Sumal Al-Italiy, Somali: Dhulka Talyaaniga ee Soomaaliya), also known as Italian Somalia, was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy in present-day northeastern, central and southern Somalia. Ruled in the 19th century by the Somali Majeerteen Sultanate and the Sultanate of Hobyo, the territory was later acquired in the 1880s by Italy through various treaties.
In 1936, the region was integrated into Italian East Africa as part of the Italian Empire. This would last until 1941, during World War II. Italian Somaliland then came under British military administration until 1949, when it became a United Nations trusteeship, the Trust Territory of Somalia, under Italian administration. On July 1, 1960, the Trust Territory of Somalia united as scheduled with the briefly extant State of Somaliland (the former British Somaliland) to form the Somali Republic.
- 1 History
- 2 Governors
- 3 See also
- 4 References
- 5 Further reading
- 6 External links
The late 19th century had a huge impact on developments occurring in the Horn of Africa. The European powers (Italy, Great Britain and France) first gained a foothold in Somalia through the signing of various pacts and agreements with the Somali Sultans that then controlled the region, such as Yusuf Ali Kenadid, Boqor Osman Mahamuud and Mohamoud Ali Shire.
At the end of the 19th century, a growing social-political movement developed within Italy to start expanding its influence, since many other European countries had already been doing so, which was effectively leaving Italy behind. There was also a huge shortage of capital and serious economic problems in Italy. It is also argued by some historians that Italy had a minor interest in the mutton and livestock that were then plentiful in Somalia, though whatever designs Italy may have had on the resource-challenged Somali landscape were undoubtedly subordinate to its interest in the region's ports and the waters and lands they gave access to.
Cesare Correnti organized an expedition under the "Società Geografica Italiana" in 1876. The next year, the travel journal "L’Esploratore" was established by Manfredo Camperio. The "Società di Esplorazioni Commerciali in Africa" was created in 1879, with the Italian Industrial Establishment involved as well. The "Club Africano", which three years later became the "Società Africana D’Italia", was also established in Somalia in 1880.
|Part of a series on the|
|History of Somalia|
In late 1888, Sultan Yusuf Ali Kenadid entered into a treaty with the Italians, making his Sultanate of Hobyo an Italian protectorate. His rival Boqor Osman Mahamuud was to sign a similar agreement vis-a-vis his own Majeerteen Sultanate (Majeerteenia) the following year. Both rulers had entered into the protectorate treaties to advance their own expansionist goals, with Sultan Kenadid looking to use Italy's support in his ongoing power struggle with Boqor Osman over the Majeerteen Sultanate, as well as in a separate conflict with the Omani Sultan of Zanzibar over an area to the north of Warsheikh. In signing the agreements, the rulers also hoped to exploit the rival objectives of the European imperial powers so as to more effectively assure the continued independence of their territories. The Italians, for their part, were interested in the largely arid territory mainly because of its ports, the latter of which could grant them access to the strategically important Suez Canal and the Gulf of Aden.
The terms of each treaty specified that Italy was to steer clear of any interference in the sultanates' respective administrations. In return for Italian arms and an annual subsidy, the Sultans conceded to a minimum of oversight and economic concessions. The Italians also agreed to dispatch a few ambassadors to promote both the sultanates' and their own interests. The new protectorates were thereafter managed by Vincenzo Filonardi through a chartered company. An Anglo-Italian border protocol was later signed on 5 May 1894, followed by an agreement in 1906 between Cavalier Pestalozza and General Swaine acknowledging that Baran fell under the Majeerteen Sultanate's administration.
The last piece of land acquired by Italy in Somalia in order to form Italian Somaliland was the Jubaland region. Britain ceded the territory in 1925 as a reward for the Italians having joined the Allies in World War I. The British retained control of the southern half of the partitioned Jubaland territory, which was later called the Northern Frontier District (NFD).
In January 1887 Italian troops from Somalia fought a battle against Ras Alula Engida’s militia in Dogali, Eritrea, where they lost 500 troops. The Prime Minister, Agostino Depretis, resigned because of this defeat in July 1887. Prime Minister Francesco Crispi replaced him. On May 2, 1889, the Ethiopian Emperor Menelik II and Italy signed a peace treaty.
Around 1895, Italy launched the First Italo-Abyssinian War against Ethiopia from its territories in Eritrea and Italian Somaliland.
Italy gained control of the ports of the Benadir coastal area with the concession of a small strip of land on the coast from the Sultan of Zanzibar, and over the following decades, Italian settlement was encouraged. In 1905, Italy assumed the responsibility of creating a colony in southern Somalia, after several failed attempts, following revelations that the Benadir Company had tolerated or collaborated in the perpetuation of the slave trade. The administrative regulator was Governor Mercantelli, with the six subdivisions of Brava, Merca, Lugh, Itala, Bardera, and Jumbo.
On April 5, 1908 the Italian Parliament enacted a basic law to unite all of the parts of southern Somalia into an area called "Somalia Italiana". The colonial power was then divided between the Parliament, the metropolitan government, and the colonial government. The power of the colonial government was the only power that was changed. The civil governor controlled export rights, regulated the rate of exchange, raised or lowered native taxes, and administered all civil services and matters relating to hunting, fishing, and conservation. The governor was in control of the police force, while nominating local residents and military arrangements.
Effective Italian control remained largely limited to the coastal areas until the early 1920s. After the collapse of Muhammad Abdullah Hassan's Dervish movement, rebellion and revolt occurred, with disputes arising between different clans in Northern Somalia. The government of the time served as a mediator, while maintaining close control over the military.
From 5 April 1908 to 5 May 1936, the Royal Corps of Somali Colonial Troops (Regio corpo truppe coloniali della Somalia Italiana), originally called the "Guard Corps of Benadir", served as the territory's formal military corps. At the start of its establishment, the force had 2,600 Italian officers.
Colonial development and fascist era
In 1920, the Italian explorer and nobleman Prince Luigi Amedeo would establish the Società Agricola Italo-Somala (SAIS) in order to explore the agricultural potential of the territory. That same year, the Prince founded the Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi ("Villabruzzi"; Jowhar) as an agricultural settlement in Italian Somaliland. The area produced sugar, bananas and cotton. On December 5, 1923, Cesare Maria De Vecchi di Val Cismon was named Governor in charge of the new colonial administration.
Following an examination of the layout of the land, the Italians began new local infrastructure projects, including the construction of hospitals, farms and schools.
The relationship between the Sultanate of Hobyo and Italy soured when Sultan Kenadid refused the Italians' proposal to allow a British contingent of troops to disembark in his Sultanate so that they might then pursue their battle against the Somali religious and nationalist leader Muhammad Abdullah Hassan's Dervish forces. Viewed as too much of a threat, Sultan Kenadid was eventually exiled to Aden in Yemen and then to Eritrea. His son Ali Yusuf Kenadid succeeded him on the throne. In 1924, Governor Cesare Maria De Vecchi adopted a policy of dismarment of the northern Somali Sultanates. Sultan Ali Yusuf Kenadid was thereafter in turn exiled. By November 1927, the forces of Sultan Osman Mahamuud of the Majeerteen Sultanate were also defeated. The Dubats colonial troops and the Zaptié gendarmerie were extensively used by De Vecchi during these military campaigns. However, unlike the southern territories, the northern sultanates were not subject to direct rule due to the earlier treaties they had signed with the Italians.
In 1926, the agricultural colony of Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi comprised 16 villages, with some 3,000 Somali and 200 Italian inhabitants, and was connected by a 114 km new railway to Mogadishu. Italian colonial policy followed two principles in Italian Somaliland: preservation of the dominant clan and ethnic configurations and respect for Islam as the territory's religion.
In 1928, the Italian authorities built the Mogadishu Cathedral (Cattedrale di Mogadiscio). It was constructed in a Norman Gothic style, based on the Cefalù Cathedral in Cefalù, Sicily. Following its establishment, Crown Prince Umberto II made his first publicized visit to Mogadishu.
In the early 1930s, the new Italian Governors, Guido Corni and Maurizio Rava, started a policy of assimilation of the Somalis. Many Somalis were enrolled in the Italian colonial troops, and thousands of Italian colonists moved to live in Mogadishu. The city grew in size and some small manufacturing companies opened up. The Italians also settled in agricultural areas around the capital, such as Jowhar and Janale (Genale).
In 1930, there were 22,000 Italians living in Italian Somaliland, representing 2% of the territory's population. The majority resided in the capital Mogadishu, with other Italian communities concentrated in Jowhar, Adale (Itala), Janale, Jamame and Kismayo.
In October 1934, Crown Prince Umberto II made his second publicized visit to Italian Somaliland.
Italian East Africa (1936-1941)
In October 1935, the southern front of the Second Italo-Abyssinian War was launched into Ethiopia from Italian Somaliland. Italian General Rodolfo Graziani commanded the invasion forces in the south.
From 1936 to 1940, new roads were constructed in the region, such as the "Imperial Road" from Mogadishu to Addis Abeba. New railways (114 km from Mogadishu to Jowhar) and many schools, hospitals, ports and bridges were also built.
Since the start of the colony, many Somali troops fought in the so-called Regio Corpo Truppe Coloniali. The soldiers were enrolled as Dubats, Zaptié and Bande irregolari. During World War II, these troops were regarded as a wing of the Italian Army's Infantry Division, as was the case in Libya and Eritrea. The Zaptié were considered the best: they provided a ceremonial escort for the Italian Viceroy (Governor) as well as the territorial police. There were already more than one thousand such soldiers in 1922. In 1941, in Italian Somaliland and Ethiopia, 2,186 Zaptìé plus an additional 500 recruits under training officially constituted a part of the Carabinieri. They were organised into a battalion commanded by Major Alfredo Serranti that defended Culqualber (Ethiopia) for three months until this military unit was destroyed by the Allies. After heavy fighting, all the Italian Carabinieri, including the Somali troops, received full military honors from the British.
In 1935, there were over 50,000 Italians settlers living in Italian Somaliland, constituting 5% of the territory's population. Of those, 20,000 resided in Mogadishu (Mogadiscio), representing around 40% of the city's 50,000 residents. Mogadishu was an administrative capital of Italian East Africa, and new buildings were erected in the Italian architectural tradition. Other Italian settler communities were concentrated in Jowhar, Adale (Itala), Janale, Jamame, and Kismayo. These figures do not include the more than 220,000 Italian soldiers stationed throughout Italian Somaliland during the Second Italo-Ethiopian War.
The colony was also one of the most developed in Africa in terms of the standard of living of the colonists and of the local inhabitants, mainly in the urban areas. By 1940, the Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi ("Villabruzzi"; Jowhar) had a population of 12,000 people, of whom nearly 3,000 were Italian Somalis, and enjoyed a notable level of development with a small manufacturing area with agricultural industries (sugar mills, etc.).
In the second half of 1940, Italian troops invaded British Somaliland, and ejected the British. The Italians also occupied Kenyan areas bordering Jubaland around the villages of Moyale and Buna.
In the spring of 1941, Britain regained control of British Somaliland and conquered Italian Somaliland with the Ogaden. However, until the summer of 1943, there was an Italian guerrilla war in all the areas of the former Italian East Africa.
British Military Administration (1941-1949)
During the Second World War, Britain occupied Italian Somaliland and militarily administered the territory as well as British Somaliland. Faced with growing Italian political pressure inimical to continued British tenure and Somali aspirations for independence, the Somalis and the British came to see each other as allies. The first modern Somali political party, the Somali Youth Club (SYC), was subsequently established in Mogadishu in 1943; it was later renamed the Somali Youth League (SYL). The SYL evolved into the dominant party, and had a moderate ideology. Hizbia Digil Mirifle Somali (HDMS) party served as the principal opposition to the right, although its platform was generally in agreement with that of the SYL.
In 1945, the Potsdam conference was held, where it was decided not to return Italian Somaliland to Italy. and that the territory would be under British Military Administration (BMA). As a result of this failure on the part of the Big Four powers to agree on what to do with Italy's former colonies, Somali nationalist rebellion against the Italian colonial administration culminated in violent confrontation in 1948. 24 Somalis and 51 Italians died in the ensuing political riots in several coastal towns.
In November 1949, the United Nations finally opted to grant Italy trusteeship of Italian Somaliland, but only under close supervision and on the condition — first proposed by the Somali Youth League (SYL) and other nascent Somali political organizations, such as Hizbia Digil Mirifle Somali (later Hizbia Dastur Mustaqbal Somali, or HDMS) and the Somali National League (SNL), that were then agitating for independence — that Somalia achieve independence within ten years.
Trust Territory of Somalia (1950-1960)
In 1949, whenthe British military administration ended, Italian Somaliland became a United Nations trusteeship known as the Trust Territory of Somalia. Under Italian administration, this trust territory lasted ten years, from 1950 to 1960, with legislative elections held in 1956 and 1959.
During the 1950s, with UN funds pouring in and the presence of experienced Italian administrators who had come to see the region as their home, infrastructural and educational development blossomed in the region. The decade passed relatively without incident, and was marked by positive growth in virtually all aspects of local life.
The conditional return of Italian administration to southern Somalia gave the new trust territory several unique advantages compared with other African colonies. To the extent that Italy held the territory by UN mandate, the trusteeship provisions gave the Somalis the opportunity to gain experience in political education and self-government. These were advantages that British Somaliland, which was to be incorporated into the new Somali state, did not have. Although in the 1950s British colonial officials attempted, through various development efforts, to make up for past neglect, the protectorate stagnated. The disparity between the two territories in economic development and political experience would cause serious difficulties when it came time to integrate the two parts.
In the 1956 parliamentary election, the Somali Youth League would win 54.29% of votes versus 26.01% for the nearest party, the Hizbia Digil Mirifle Somali. The SYL would also earn 416 of the 663 seats in the 1958 municipal election, with the HDMS securing 175 seats. By the 1959 parliamentary election, SYL would capture an even greater share of votes by winning 75.58% of the total ballot.
Italian was an official language in Italian Somaliland during the Fiduciary Mandate as well as the first years of independence. In 1954, the Italian government established post-secondary institutions of law, economics and social studies in Mogadishu, the territory's capital. These institutions were satellites of the University of Rome, which provided all the instruction material, faculty and administration.
In 1960, the Trust Territory of Somalia (the former Italian Somaliland) became independent, following in the footsteps of the briefly extant State of Somaliland (the former British Somaliland), which had gained independence five days earlier on June 26, 1960. On July 1, 1960, the two territories united to form the Somali Republic, with Mogadishu as the nation's capital.
A government was formed by Abdullahi Issa and other members of the trusteeship and protectorate governments, with Haji Bashir Ismail Yusuf as President of the Somali National Assembly, Aden Abdullah Osman Daar as President of the Somali Republic, and Abdirashid Ali Shermarke as Prime Minister (later to become President from 1967–1969). On 20 July 1961 and through a popular referendum, the people of Somalia ratified a new constitution, which was first drafted in 1960.
- 1889-1893 Vincenzo Filonardi
- 1893-1896 Vacant
- 1896-1897 Vincenzo Filonardi
- 1897-1897 Ernesto Dulio
- 1897-1898 Giorgio Sorrentino
- 1898-1905 Emilio Dulio
- 1905-1906 Luigi Mercatelli
- 1906-1907 Giuseppe Salvago Raggi
- 1907-1908 Tommaso Carletti
- 1908-1910 Tommaso Carletti
- 1910-1916 Giacomo De Martino
- 1916-1919 Giovanni Cherina Ferroni
- 1920-1923 Carlo Ricci
- 1923-1928 Cesare Maria De Vecchi
- 1928-1931 Guido Corni
- 1931-1935 Maurizio Rava
- 1935-1936 Rodolfo Graziani
- 1936-1937 Angelo De Ruben
- 1937-1939 Francesco Saveno
- 1939-1940 Gustavo Pesenti
- 1940-1941 Carlo De Simone
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Italian Somaliland.|
- Mariam Arif Gassem, Somalia: clan vs. nation, (s.n.: 2002), p.4
- Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Clarendon Press. 2008. p. 1783. Retrieved 2014-04-08.
- Tripodi, Paolo. The Colonial Legacy in Somalia. New York: St. Martin's P Inc,, 1999. p 16
- Tripodi, Paolo. The Colonial Legacy in Somalia, p 12-13
- Esplorazione commerciale. Clarendon Press. 1901. p. 103. Retrieved 2014-04-08.
- Bollettino della Società geografica italiana. Clarendon Press. 1901. p. 948. Retrieved 2014-04-08.
- Issa-Salwe (1996), 34–35.
- Fitzgerald, Nina J. Somalia (New York: Nova Science, 2002), p 33
- Hess (1964), 416–17.
- Oliver, Roland Anthony (1976). History of East Africa, Volume 2. Clarendon Press. p. 7.
- Osman, Mohamed Amin AH (1993). Somalia, proposals for the future. SPM. pp. 1–10.
- Ben-Ghiat, Ruth, Italy and its colonies, in A historical companion to postcolonial literatures: continental Europe and Africa, Poddar, Prem, Patke, Rejeev S. and Jensen, Lars eds., Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2008, p. 310
- Olsen, James Stuart and Shadle, Robert, eds., Historical dictionary of European imperialism, Westport, Conn.: 1991, Greenwood Press, p. 567
- Hess, Robert L. Italian Colonialism in Somalia Chicago: University of Chicago P, 1966. p 101
- Cassanelli, Lee V. The End of slavery in Africa, Meiers, Suzanne and Roberts, Richard L., eds, University of Wisconsin Press, p. 310
- Robert L. Hess. Italian colonialism in Somalia. p. 101. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- Hess, Robert L. Italian Colonialism, p 102
- Ben-Ghiat, p. 310
- Hess, Robert L. Italian Colonialism, p 146
- John A. Houtkamp. Tropical Africa's Emergence As a Banana Supplier in the Inter-War Period. p. 77. Retrieved 2014-04-06.
- Roland Anthony (2007). Somalia in Pictures. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 28. Retrieved 2014-02-03.
- The Majeerteen Sultanates
- Sheik-ʻAbdi, ʻAbdi ʻAbdulqadir (1993). Divine madness: Moḥammed ʻAbdulle Ḥassan (1856-1920). Zed Books. p. 129. ISBN 0-86232-444-0.
- Raphael Chijioke Njoku. "The History of Somalia". p. 85. Retrieved 2014-04-06.
- Ismail, Ismail Ali (2010). Governance: The Scourge and Hope of Somalia. Trafford Publishing. p. xxiii. ISBN 1426983743.
- Ben-Ghiat, p. 311
- Giovanni Tebaldi. Consolata Missionaries in the World (1901-2001). p. 127. Retrieved 2014-04-06.
- R. J. B. Bosworth. Mussolini's Italy: Life Under the Fascist Dictatorship, 1915-1945. p. 48. Retrieved 2014-04-06.
- Peter Bridges. Safirka: An American Envoy. p. 71. Retrieved 2014-04-06.
- Bevilacqua, Piero. Storia dell'emigrazione italiana. p. 233
- Article with photos on a 2005 visit to 'Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi' and areas of former Italian Somaliland (in Italian)
- Population of Somalia in 1939
- Andrea L. Stanton, Edward Ramsamy, Peter J. Seybolt. Cultural Sociology of the Middle East, Asia, and Africa: An Encyclopedia. p. 309. Retrieved 2014-04-06.
- Ruth N. Cyr, Edgar C. Alward. Twentieth Century Africa. p. 440. Retrieved 2014-04-12.
- Paul S. Gilbert, Scott Winfield Street, Robert A. Blume. Beginning Somali History. p. 75. Retrieved 2014-04-12.
- "Not everyone knows that ... zaptiehs (in Italian)". Retrieved 2014-04-12.
- A Historical Companion to Postcolonial Literatures: Continental Europe and Its Empires. p. 311. Retrieved 2014-03-26.
- "Gallo, Adriano. Memories from Somalia". Hiiraan Online. 12 July 2011. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
- Rolando Scarano. "The Italian Rationalism in the colonies 1928 to 1943: The "new architecture" of Terre Overseas (In Italian)". Retrieved 2013-11-04.
- Fernando Termentini. "Somalia, a nation that does not exist (In Italian)". Retrieved 2013-11-04.
- Nicolle, David, "The Italian Invasion of Abyssinia 1935–1936", p. 41
- Article with photos on a 2005 visit to 'Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi' and areas of former Italian Somaliland (in italian)
- MacGregor Knox. Mussolini Unleashed, 1939-1941: Politics and Strategy in Fascist Italy's Last War. p. 154. Retrieved 2014-04-08.
- "The loss of Italian East Africa (in Italian)". La Seconda Guerra Mondiale. NA. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
- I. M. Lewis, A pastoral democracy: a study of pastoralism and politics among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa, (LIT Verlag Münster: 1999), p.304.
- Samatar, Ahmed Ismail (1988). Socialist Somalia: Rhetoric and Reality. Institute for African Alternatives. p. 54. ISBN 0862325889.
- Federal Research Division, Somalia: A Country Study, (Kessinger Publishing, LLC: 2004), p.38
- Melvin Eugene Page, Penny M. Sonnenburg. "Colonialism: An International, Social, Cultural, and Political Encyclopedia". p. 544. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
- Zolberg, Aristide R., et al., Escape from Violence: Conflict and the Refugee Crisis in the Developing World, (Oxford University Press: 1992), p.106
- Gates, Henry Louis, Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, (Oxford University Press: 1999), p.1749
- U.S. Library of Congress. "Trusteeship and Protectorate: The Road to Independence of Somalia". Retrieved 2014-04-12.
- "1956 in Elections in Somalia". AFRICAN ELECTIONS DATABASE. NA. Retrieved 29 December 2013.
- Mohamed Haji Mukhtar. Historical Dictionary of Somalia. p. xxxiv. Retrieved 2014-04-12.
- "Somalia-British Military Administration". Mongabay. NA. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- Encyclopædia Britannica, The New Encyclopædia Britannica, (Encyclopædia Britannica: 2002), p.835
- Greystone Press Staff, The Illustrated Library of The World and Its Peoples: Africa, North and East, (Greystone Press: 1967), p. 338
- Antonicelli, Franco. Trent'anni di storia italiana 1915 - 1945. Mondadori Editore. Torino, 1961.
- Hess, Robert L. Italian Colonialism in Somalia. University of Chicago P. Chicago, 1966.
- Issa-Salwe, Abdisalam M. (1996). The Collapse of the Somali State: The Impact of the Colonial Legacy. London: Haan Associates. ISBN 187420991X.
- Tripodi, Paolo. The Colonial Legacy in Somalia. St. Martin's P Inc. New York, 1999.
- Fitzgerald, Nina J. Somalia. Nova Science, Inc. New York, 2002.
- "La Somalia Italiana", written in 1925 by Romolo Onor (in Italian).
- "Atlante delle colonie italiane". Detailed Atlas of Italian colonies, written by Baratta Mario and Visintin Luigi in 1928 (in Italian).