Italian War of 1536–38

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Italian War of 1536–38
Part of the Italian Wars

The truce of Nice, 1538, between Francis I and Charles V, and mediated by Pope Paul III. Painting by Taddeo Zuccari.
Date 1536–38
Location Provence, Piedmont and Lombardy
Result Truce of Nice
Savoy and Piedmont acquired by France
 Holy Roman Empire
 Kingdom of France
 Ottoman Empire
Commanders and leaders
Holy Roman Empire Spain Emp. Charles V Kingdom of France King Francis I
Kingdom of France Anne de Montmorency

The Italian War of 1536–1538 between Charles V and Francis I of France began with the death of Francesco II Sforza, the duke of Milan. When Charles's son Philip inherited the duchy, Francis invaded Italy, capturing Turin, but failed to take Milan. In response, Charles invaded Provence, advancing to Aix-en-Provence, but withdrew to Spain rather than attacking the heavily fortified Avignon. There is also a story that French troops deliberately left over-ripe fruit on the trees in an attempt to give Charles's troops dysentery.

France had secured an alliance with the Ottoman Empire in 1536 through the diplomatic efforts of Jean de La Forêt.[1] A Franco-Turkish fleet was stationed in Marseille by the end of 1536, threatening Genoa.[2] In 1537 Barbarossa raided the Italian coast and laid a siege at Corfu, although this provided only limited assistance to the French.[2]

With Charles V unsuccessful in battle and squeezed between the French invasion and the Ottomans, kings Francis I and Charles V ultimately made peace with the Truce of Nice on 18 June 1538.[2] The Truce of Nice ended the war, leaving Turin in French hands but effecting no significant change in the map of Italy. The Truce of Nice was notable because Charles and Francis refused to sit in the same room together, such was their hatred. The negotiations were carried out by Pope Paul III going from room to room, trying to reach an agreement.

Charles V would turn his efforts against the Ottomans, only to lose the Battle of Preveza on 28 September 1538.