Italian battleship Ammiraglio di Saint Bon

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Italian battleship Ammiraglio di Saint Bon.jpg
Ammiraglio di Saint Bon underway
Career (Italy)
Name: Ammiraglio di Saint Bon
Namesake: Simone de Pacoret Saint Bon (1828-1892), Italian admiral, politician, and Minister of the Navy
Operator: Italian Navy
Builder: Venice Naval Shipyard
Laid down: 18 July 1893
Launched: 29 April 1897
Completed: 24 May 1901
Commissioned: 1 February 1901
Struck: 18 June 1920
General characteristics
Class & type: Ammiraglio di Saint Bon-class pre-dreadnought battleship
Displacement: 10,531 long tons (10,700 t)
Length: 111.8 meters (367 ft)
Beam: 21.12 m (69.3 ft)
Draft: 7.69 m (25.2 ft)
Installed power: 14,296 ihp (10,661 kW)
Propulsion: 2 shafts, triple expansion steam engines, 12 cylindrical boilers
Speed: 18.3 knots (21.1 mph; 33.9 km/h)
Range: 3,400–5,500 nautical miles (6,297–10,186 km) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph)
Complement: 557
Armament: 4 × 10-inch (254 mm)/40 guns
8 × 6-inch (152 mm)/40 guns
8 × 4.7-inch (119 mm)/40 guns
8 × 57-millimeter (2.2 in)/43 six-pounder guns
2 × 37-millimeter (1.5 in)/20 guns
4 × 17.7-inch (450 mm) torpedo tubes
Armor: Belt: 9.8 in (249 mm)
Deck: 2.75 in (69.9 mm)
Turrets: 9.8 in (249 mm)
Conning tower: 9.8 in (249 mm)
Casemates: 5.9 in (150 mm)

Ammiraglio di Saint Bon was a pre-dreadnought battleship of the Italian Navy (Italian: Regia Marina) built during the 1890s. She was laid down in July 1893, launched in April 1897, and completed in May 1901. She was the lead ship of her class, and had one sister ship, Emanuele Filiberto. The ship was armed with a main battery of four 10-inch (254 mm) guns and was capable of a top speed of 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph).

Ammiraglio di Saint Bon served in the active squadron of the Italian navy for the first several years of her career. She was assigned to the 3rd Division during the Italo-Turkish War of 1911–1912. During the war, she was involved in the seizure of the island of Rhodes, where she provided gunfire support to Italian infantry. The ship was obsolescent by World War I and was slated to be broken up in 1914–15, but the need for warships granted Ammiraglio di Saint Bon a respite. She spent the war as a harbor defense ship in Venice and, after April 1916, was used primarily as a floating anti-aircraft battery. She was stricken from the naval register in June 1920 and subsequently broken up for scrap.

Design[edit]

Line-drawing of the Ammiraglio di Saint Bon class

Ammiraglio di Saint Bon was 111.8 meters (367 ft) long overall, and had a beam of 21.12 m (69.3 ft) and a maximum draft of 7.69 m (25.2 ft). She displaced 10,531 long tons (10,700 t) at full combat load. Her propulsion system consisted of two triple expansion engines rated at 14,296 indicated horsepower (10,661 kW). Steam for the engines was provided by twelve coal-fired cylindrical water-tube boilers. The ship's propulsion system provided a top speed of 18.3 kn (33.9 km/h; 21.1 mph) and a range of approximately 5,500 nautical miles (10,200 km; 6,300 mi) at 10 kn (19 km/h; 12 mph). Ammiraglio di Saint Bon had a crew of 557 officers and enlisted men.[1]

As built, the ship was armed with four 10 in (254 mm) 40-caliber guns placed in two twin gun turrets, one forward and one aft. She was also equipped with eight 6 in (152 mm) 40-cal. guns in individual casemates amidships, and eight 4.7 in (119 mm) 40-cal. guns in shielded pivot mounts directly above the casemate battery. The ship's gun armament was rounded out by eight 57 mm (2.2 in) guns and two 37 mm (1.5 in) guns. Ammiraglio di Saint Bon also carried four 17.7 in (450 mm) torpedo tubes in deck-mounted launchers. The ship was protected by Harvey steel. The main belt was 9.8 in (249 mm) thick, and the deck was 2.75 in (70 mm) thick. The conning tower was protected by 9.8 in of armor plating. The main battery guns had 9.8 in thick plating, and the casemates were 5.9 in (150 mm) thick.[1]

Service[edit]

Ammiraglio di Saint Bon was built by the Venice Naval Shipyard. She was laid down on 18 July 1893 and launched on 29 April 1897, after which her fitting out took place.[1] The ship began her sea trials in January 1901 off La Spezia,[2] and was commissioned on 1 February.[1] Her preliminary full-power trials began on 5 May, during which she reached 19.2 kn (35.6 km/h; 22.1 mph). Her official speed trials took place on 23 May, where she reached a top speed of 18.5 kn (34.3 km/h; 21.3 mph).[2] Her trials were completed the following day.[1]

The ship spent the first several years of her career in the 1st Squadron, along with her sister Emanuele Filiberto and the two Regina Margherita-class battleships. In October 1906, Ammiraglio di Saint Bon participated in major fleet maneuvers under the command of Vice Admiral Alfonso di Brochetti in the Ionian Sea. The exercises lasted from 10 to 26 October.[3] The maneuvers culminated in a mock attack by the Italian fleet on the harbor defenses at Taranto.[4] During the 1908 maneuvers, Ammiraglio di Saint Bon served in the hostile squadron, tasked with attacking the friendly squadron, where her sister was assigned.[5]

Italo-Turkish War[edit]

On 29 September 1911, Italy declared war on the Ottoman Empire in order to seize Libya.[6] Ammiraglio di Saint Bon initially served in the 3rd Division of the 2nd Squadron, but was later transferred to the Division of the Torpedo Boat Inspector, commanded by Rear Admiral Prince Luigi Amedeo.[7] The ship was not heavily involved in the fighting in North Africa in the first months of the war and, in December, was transferred to Italy.[8] On 13 April 1912, Ammiraglio di Saint Bon and the rest of the Division sailed from Tobruk to the Aegean Sea to rendezvous with the 1st Division. The two divisions met on 17 April off the island of Stampalia, after which the combined fleet steamed north. The following day, the ships cut submarine telegraph cables between Imbros, Tenedos, Lemnos, Salonica, and the Dardanelles. They then steamed to the entrance to the Dardanelles in an attempt to lure out the Ottoman fleet. When the Ottoman coastal fortifications began to take the Italian ships under fire, the Italians returned fire and inflicted serious damage on them. On 19 April, Ammiraglio di Saint Bon and most of the fleet returned to Italy, leaving only Pisa, Amalfi, and a flotilla of torpedo boats to cruise off the Ottoman coast.[9]

On 30 April 1912, Ammiraglio di Saint Bon and the rest of the 3rd Division escorted a convoy of troopships from Tobruk to the island of Rhodes. The Italian heavy ships demonstrated off the city of Rhodes, while the transports landed the expeditionary force 10 miles (16 km) to the south on 4 May; the soldiers quickly advanced on the city, supported by artillery fire from the Italian fleet. The Turks surrendered the city the following day. While the Italian troops completed the conquest of the island, Ammiraglio di Saint Bon bombarded Ottoman positions in support of the Italian offensive.[10] Toward the end of May, the 3rd Division returned to Italy.[11] In July, Ammiraglio di Saint Bon and the rest of the Division had withdrawn to Italy to replace worn-out gun barrels, along with other repairs.[12] By October, the Ottomans had agreed to sign a peace treaty to end the war.[13] After the war, Ammiraglio di Saint Bon had six searchlights installed on platforms abreast the funnels and the mast. A rangefinder was also added on top of the conning tower.[14]

In 1913, Ammiraglio di Saint Bon participated in an international naval demonstration in the Ionian Sea to protest the Balkan Wars. Ships from other navies included in the demonstration were the British pre-dreadnought HMS King Edward VII, the Austro-Hungarian pre-dreadnought SMS Zrínyi, the French armored cruiser Edgar Quinet, and the German light cruiser SMS Breslau. The most important action of the combined flotilla, which was under the command of British Admiral Cecil Burney, was to blockade the Montenegrin coast. The goal of the blockade was to prevent Serbian reinforcements from supporting the siege at Scutari, where Montenegro had besieged a combined force of Albanians and Ottomans. Pressured by the international blockade, Serbia withdrew its army from Scutari, which was subsequently occupied by a joint Allied ground force.[15]

World War I[edit]

Italy declared her neutrality after the outbreak of World War I in August 1914 but, by July 1915, the Triple Entente had convinced the Italians to enter the war against the Central Powers.[16] Nevertheless, the outbreak of war prompted Italy to retain Ammiraglio di Saint Bon and her sister, which had been scheduled for disposal in 1914–15.[14] The Austro-Hungarian Navy, Italy's traditional naval rival, was the primary opponent in the conflict. The Italian Naval Chief of Staff, Admiral Paolo Thaon di Revel, believed that an active fleet policy was prohibited by the serious threat from submarines in the confined waters of the Adriatic Sea.[17] Instead, Revel decided to implement blockade at the southern end of the Adriatic with the battle fleet, while smaller vessels, such as the MAS boats, conducted raids on Austro-Hungarian ships and installations. Meanwhile, Revel's capital ships would be preserved to confront the Austro-Hungarian battle fleet in the event that it sought a decisive engagement. As a result, the ship was not particularly active during the war.[18]

From the onset of Italian participation in the war, Ammiraglio di Saint Bon was used as a harbor defense ship in Venice, along with her sister and the old battleship Sardegna, as well as two cruisers and several smaller craft.[19] After April 1916, Ammiraglio di Saint Bon was used as a floating anti-aircraft battery to defend Venice. She continued in this role until the end of the war in November 1918.[14] The ship remained in the Italian Navy's inventory for only a short time after the end of the war; she was stricken from the naval register on 18 June 1920 and subsequently broken up for scrap.[1]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Gardiner, p. 343
  2. ^ a b Notes on Naval Progress, p. 135
  3. ^ "Naval Notes", p. 226
  4. ^ "Naval Notes", p. 229
  5. ^ Brassey, p. 78
  6. ^ Beehler, p. 6
  7. ^ Beehler, p. 9
  8. ^ Beehler, p. 47
  9. ^ Beehler, pp. 67–68
  10. ^ Beehler, pp. 74–75
  11. ^ Beehler, p. 79
  12. ^ Beehler, p. 87
  13. ^ Beehler, p. 95
  14. ^ a b c Gardiner & Gray, p. 256
  15. ^ Vego, pp. 151–152
  16. ^ Halpern 1995, p. 140
  17. ^ Halpern 1995, p. 150
  18. ^ Halpern 1995, pp. 141–142
  19. ^ Sondhaus, p. 274

References[edit]

  • Beehler, William Henry (1913). The History of the Italian-Turkish War: September 29, 1911, to October 18, 1912. Annapolis, MD: United States Naval Institute. 
  • Brassey, Thomas A., ed. (1908). Brassey's Naval Annual (Portsmouth, UK: J. Griffin & Co.). 
  • Gardiner, Robert, ed. (1979). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships: 1860-1905. Annapolis: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-133-5. 
  • Gardiner, Robert; Gray, Randal, eds. (1984). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships: 1906–1922. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-0-87021-907-8. 
  • Halpern, Paul G. (1995). A Naval History of World War I. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-352-4. 
  • "Naval Notes". Journal of the Royal United Service Institution (London: J. J. Keliher & Co.) LI: 221–238. June 1907. 
  • Notes on Naval Progress (Washington, DC: Office of Naval Intelligence). July 1901. OCLC 6954233. 
  • Sondhaus, Lawrence (1994). The Naval Policy of Austria-Hungary, 1867–1918. West Lafayette, In: Purdue University Press. ISBN 9781557530349. 
  • Vego, Milan N. (1996). Austro-Hungarian Naval Policy, 1904–14. Abingdon, UK: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780714642093. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Crawford, Steve (2000). Battleships and Carriers. Rochester: Grange. ISBN 1-84013-337-6. 
  • Fraccaroli, Aldo (1970). Italian Warships of World War I. London: Ian Allan. ISBN 978-0-7110-0105-3.