|Place of origin||United States|
|Region or state||Chicago|
|Main ingredients||Roast beef, Italian-style roll|
|Cookbook:Italian beef Italian beef|
An Italian beef is a sandwich of thin slices of seasoned roast beef, dripping with meat juices, on a dense, long Italian-style roll, which originated in Chicago where its history dates back at least to the 1930s. The bread itself is often dipped (or double-dipped) into the juices the meat is cooked in, and the sandwich is typically topped off with Chicago-style giardiniera (called "hot") or sauteed, green Italian sweet peppers (called "sweet").
Italian beef sandwiches can be found at most hot dog stands and small Italian-American restaurants in northeastern Illinois, Northwest Indiana and Indianapolis. However, Chicago expatriates have opened restaurants across the country serving Italian beef, Chicago-style hot dogs, and other foods original to the Chicago area.
Italian beef is made using cuts of beef from the sirloin rear or the top/bottom round wet-roasted in broth with garlic, oregano and spices until medium rare or medium. It is slow roasted at high heat (350º), which produces the sandwich’s famous ‘jus’ or gravy. This slow roasting can result in as much as a 45% reduction in yield. The roast is then cooled, shaved using a deli slicer, and then reintroduced to its reheated beef broth. The beef then sits in the broth, typically for hours. The inefficacy of this process, however, has started to concern many larger Italian beef producers and retailers. In response, some attempt to achieve higher yields by lowering the cooking temperature and placing the beef into food-grade polyester and nylon cook bags, which changes the outer appearance of the beef. Though this reduced time is sufficient for cooking the beef all the way through, it does not allow the jus to be harvested fully. Because traditional Italian beefs are dipped in the jus from their own roast, when this more efficient method is used, the sandwich’s potency is affected. Some companies even add MSG, phyoxane, phosphates and other additives in attempts to reach for higher yields. 
At ordering time, the beef is drawn from the broth and placed directly on the bread. Because the meat is served dripping wet it is necessary to use a chewy bread, as a softer bread would disintegrate. The typical bread used is long, Italian style loaves without seeds sliced from six to eight inches in length. Italian beef can also be shredded instead of sliced.
The exact origin is unknown, but many believe it was created by Italian immigrants who worked for the old Union Stock Yards in the early 1900s. They often would bring home some of the tougher, less desirable cuts of beef sold by the company. To make the meat more palatable, it was slow-roasted to make it more tender, then slow-simmered in a spicy broth for flavor. Both the roasting and the broth used Italian-style spices and herbs. The meat was then thinly sliced across the grain and stuffed into fresh Italian bread.
According to Scala's Original Beef and Sausage Company (formed in 1925), this meal was originally introduced at weddings and banquets where the meat was sliced thinly so there would be enough to feed all the guests. It rapidly grew in popularity and eventually became one of Chicago's most famous ethnic foods: the original Italian beef sandwich.
The recipe was popularized by Pasquale Scala, and a group of his associates who started small beef stands in Chicago and used similar recipes, perfecting Chicago’s original Italian beef sandwich.  Al Ferreri and his sister and brother-in-law, Frances and Chris (Baba) Pacelli, founded of Al’s Beef in 1938, and Mr. Beef on Orleans co-founders Carl Bonavolanto Jr. and his Tony (“Uncle Junior” to the Buonavolantos) Ozzauto each set up shop. 
Other Italian beef purveyors likewise set up shop in the 40s, many obtaining their beef from Scala Packing Company of Chicago. Chris Pacelli (Baba) (founder of Al’s Beef in 1938), Carl Bonavolanto Jr. and Tony Ozzauto (co-founders, Mr. Beef on Orleans in1961), were among the group.
By 1954, a local restaurant Al's Beef was advertising its "Pizza, Spaghetti, Ravioli, [and] Italian Beef Sandwiches" in the Chicago Tribune.
Mr. Beef’s founder helped his brother, Joe Buonavolanto, open one of the first Italian beef stands outside of the city limits.  He mentored his brother on the process for making traditional Italian beef when he opened the first Buona Beef in Berwyn in 1980. One of the most notable vendors today, Portillo’s began as a hotdog stand and didn’t start selling Italian beef until companies like Al’s and Mr. Beef became more successful with the product.
There are varying degrees of juiciness, depending on taste. Nomenclature varies from stand to stand, but wet or dipped means the bread is quickly dunked in the juice; juicy even wetter; and soaked is dripping wet.
Most Chicago beef joints also offer a "combo," adding a grilled Italian sausage to the sandwich. Different eateries offer hot or mild sausage, or both.
Typical beef orders are:
- Hot dipped: Italian beef on gravy-wetted bread and giardiniera.
- Hot dipped combo: Italian beef and sausage on gravy-wetted bread with giardiniera.
- Sweet dry: Italian beef placed on dry bread, topped with sweet peppers.
- Gravy bread: meatless Italian bread soaked in the juice of Italian beef, often served with peppers or giardiniera. Also known in some places as "Soakers" or "Juice-ons".
- Cheesy beef or cheef: Italian beef with cheese (Provolone, Mozzarella or, rarely, Cheddar); not all stands offer this.
- Cheesy beef on garlic: Italian beef with cheese (Provolone, Mozzarella or, rarely, Cheddar) and the bread being pre-cooked and seasoned like traditional garlic bread; not all stands offer this.
Some order the "triple double," which consists of double cheese, double sausage and double beef. Other even less common variations include substituting Italian bread with a large croissant or topping with marinara sauce.
In the media
The Italian beef sandwich was featured in a late 2008 episode of the Travel Channel's Man v. Food, when host Adam Richman (who focused his restaurant visits on Chicago in that episode) visited Al's No. 1 Italian Beef to try the signature sandwich.
The sandwich was mentioned in the 1999 History Channel documentary American Eats: History on a Bun as an example of the specialty sandwiches found in different cities in the United States. Chris Pacelli, owner of Al's No. 1 Italian Beef, is shown demonstrating how to eat the sandwich with the "Italian stance."
The 30 Rock episode "Sandwich Day" features "secret" sandwiches with dipping sauce from an unknown Italian delicatessen in Brooklyn. It has been theorised that this sandwich is based on the roast beef sandwich from an Italian delicatessen in Hoboken, New Jersey, which appears to be an Italian beef sandwich.
- Buona Beef
- Mr. Beef on Orleans
- Al’s #1 Italian Beef
- Dukes Drive-In
- Joe Bostons’ Italian Beef
- Johnnie’s Beef
- Bubba’s Place
- Jimmy’s Homemade Italian Beef
- Max’s Italian Beef
- The Patio 
- Arturo Express
- Buona Beef
- Steak sandwich
- Chicago culture
- Chicago-style hot dog
- Chicago-style pizza
- French dip sandwich
- Sandwiches That You Will Like
- List of sandwiches
- List of American sandwiches
- Zeldes, Leah A (2002-09-30). "How to Eat Like a Chicagoan". Chicago's Restaurant Guide (Chicago's Restaurant Guide). Archived from the original on 2002-10-01. Retrieved 2002-09-30.
- [ http://www.huffingtonpost.com/craig-goldwyn/save-mr-beef_b_167076.html]
- "Sandwiches". Chicagojoes.net. Retrieved 2011-07-10.
Media related to Italian beef sandwiches at Wikimedia Commons
- GreaseFreak's images of Chicago-style Italian beefs
- A directory of restaurants that serve Italian Beef around the USA.