Italian general election, 1890

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Italian general election, 1890
Kingdom of Italy
1886 ←
23–30 November 1890 → 1892

All 508 seats to the Chamber of Deputies of the Kingdom of Italy
  Majority party Minority party Third party
  Francesco Crispi.jpg Rudini.jpg Andrea Costa Camera.jpg
Leader Francesco Crispi Antonio Starabba di Rudinì Andrea Costa
Party Historical Left Historical Right The Extreme
Seats won 401 48 42
Seat change Increase109 Decrease97 Decrease3
Percentage 78.9% 9.4% 8.3%
Swing Increase21.4% Decrease18.5% Decrease0.5%

Italian Parliament, 1890.svg

Composition of the Parliament

Prime Minister before election

Francesco Crispi
Historical Left

Subsequent Prime Minister

Francesco Crispi
Historical Left

General elections were held in Italy on 23 November 1890, with a second round of voting on 30 November.[1] The "ministerial" left-wing bloc emerged as the largest in Parliament, winning 401 of the 508 seats.[2] As in 1886, the election was held using small multi-member constituencies with between two and five seats.[3]

Historical background[edit]

Francesco Crispi was appointed Prime Minister on July 29, 1887.True to his initial progressive leanings he moved ahead with stalled reforms, abolishing the death penalty, revoking anti-strike laws, limiting police powers, reforming the penal code and the administration of justice with the help of his Minister of Justice Giuseppe Zanardelli, reorganising charities and passing public health laws and legislation to protect emigrants that worked abroad. He sought popular support for the state with a programme of orderly development at home and expansion abroad.[4][5]

His desire to make Italy a colonial power led to conflicts with France, which rejected Italian claims to Tunisia and opposed Italian expansion elsewhere in Africa.[4] One of his first acts as premier was a visit to the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck, whom he desired to consult upon the working of the Triple Alliance. Basing his foreign policy upon the alliance, as supplemented by the naval entente with Great Britain negotiated by his predecessor, Robilant, Crispi assumed a resolute attitude towards France, breaking off the prolonged and unfruitful negotiations for a new Franco-Italian commercial treaty, and refusing the French invitation to organize an Italian section at the Paris Exhibition of 1889.

Crispi and his Treasury Minister Giovanni Giolitti knew of an 1889 government inspection report about the Banca Romana, which had loaned large sums to property developers but was left with huge liabilities when the real estate bubble collapsed in 1887, but feared that publicity might undermine public confidence and suppressed the report.[6] Forsaken by his Radical friends, Crispi governed with the help of the right until he was overthrown by Antonio Di Rudinì in February 1891, who was succeeded by Giovanni Giolitti in May 1892.

Parties and leaders[edit]

Party Ideology Leader
Historical Left Liberalism, Centrism Francesco Crispi
Liberal Constitutional Party Conservatism, Monarchism Antonio Starabba di Rudinì
The Extreme Radicalism, Socialism Andrea Costa

Results[edit]

Affiliation Votes % Seats +/–
Historical Left 401 +109
Historical Right 48 –97
The Extreme 42 New
Others 17 New
Invalid/blank votes 24,376
Total 1,477,173 100 508 0
Registered voters/turnout 2,752,658 53.7
Source: Nohlen & Stöver
Parliamentary seats
Historical Left
  
78.9%
Historical Right
  
9.4%
The Extreme
  
8.3%
Others
  
3.4%

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1047 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
  2. ^ Nohlen & Stöver, p1082
  3. ^ Nohlen & Stöver, p1030
  4. ^ a b Sarti, Italy: a reference guide from the Renaissance to the present, pp. 43-44
  5. ^ Seton-Watson, Italy from liberalism to fascism, p. 131
  6. ^ Seton-Watson, Italy from liberalism to fascism, pp. 154–56