Italian general election, 1953

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Italian general election, 1953
Italy
1948 ←
June 7, 1953 (1953-06-07)
→ 1958

All 590 seats to the Italian Chamber of Deputies
and 237 (of the 243) seats to the Italian Senate
Turnout 93.8%
  Majority party Minority party Third party
  Alcide de Gasperi 2.jpg Palmiro Togliatti Official.jpg Pietro Nenni speech.jpg
Leader Alcide De Gasperi Palmiro Togliatti Pietro Nenni
Party Christian Democracy Communist Party Socialist Party
Leader since 1944 1938 1931
Leader's seat Whole Italy Whole Italy Whole Italy
Last election 305 & 131 seats, 48.5% 130 & 50 seats, inside the Front 53 & 22 seats, inside the Front
Seats won 263 (H)
116 (S)
143 (H)
56 (S)
75 (H)
30 (S)
Seat change Decrease57 Increase19 Increase30
Popular vote 10,862,073 6,120,809 3,441,014
Percentage 40.1% 22.6% 12.7%
Swing Decrease8.4% Increase0.6%[1] Increase3.7%[1]

Italian Election 1953 Province.png

Legislative election results map. Yellow denotes provinces with a Christian Democratic plurality, Red denotes those with a Communist plurality, Gray denotes those with an Autonomist plurality.

Prime Minister before election

Alcide De Gasperi
DC

New Prime Minister

Alcide De Gasperi
DC

General elections were held in Italy on Sunday June 7, 1953, to choose the Second Republican Parliament.[2] They were a test for leading centrist coalition ruled by Prime Minister Alcide De Gasperi.

The Scam Law[edit]

The election was characterized by changes in the electoral law. Even if the general structure remained uncorrupted, the government introduced a superbonus of two thirds of seats in the House for the coalition which would obtain at-large the absolute majority of votes. The change was hugely opposed by the opposition parties as well as the smaller DC coalition partners, which had no realistic chances of success. The new law was called Scam Law by its detractors, including some dissidents of minor government parties who founded special opposition groups to deny the artificial landslide to the Christian Democracy.

Results[edit]

Regional pluralities in Senate

The complaint campaign of the oppositions against the Scam Law reached its goal. The government coalition (DC, PSDI, PLI, PRI, SVP, PSAZ) was stopped at an incredible 49.9% of national vote, resulting in the ordinary proportional distribution of the seats. Minor dissident parties resulted determinant for the final result, especially the short-lived National Democratic Alliance. Leading party Christian Democracy did not repeat the extraordinary result of five years before, which had been obtained under special conditions linked to the Cold War, and lost a lot of votes to the right wing, which included resurgent fascist politicians particularly in Southern Italy.

Technically, the government won the election, reaching the majority of seats in both houses. But the frustration for the lack of the expected result caused big problems to the leading coalition. De Gasperi was forced to resign by the Parliament on August 2: the Trentin statesman consequently retired and died twelve months later. The legislature continued with weak governments, with minor parties refusing institutional responsibilities. Giuseppe Pella rose to power, but fell after five months only, following strong disputes about the status of the Free Territory of Trieste which Pella was claiming. Amintore Fanfani not receiving a vote of confidence, Mario Scelba and Antonio Segni followed with more traditional centrist coalitions supported by PSDI and PLI: under the administration of the first one, the problem of Trieste was closed ceding Koper to Yugoslavia. The parliamentary term was closed by the minority government chaired by Adone Zoli, finishing a legislature which hugely weakened the office of the Prime Minister, held by six different rulers.

Chamber of Deputies[edit]

Party Votes % Seats +/–
Christian Democracy 10,862,073 40.10 263 –41
Italian Communist Party 6,120,809 22.60 143
Italian Socialist Party 3,441,014 12.70 75
Monarchist National Party 1,854,850 6.85 40 +26
Italian Social Movement 1,582,154 5.84 29 +23
Italian Democratic Socialist Party 1,222,957 4.51 19 –14
Italian Liberal Party 815,929 3.01 13 –6
Italian Republican Party 438,149 1.62 5 –4
South Tyrolean People's Party 122,474 0.45 3 0
Others 627,292 2.32 0 –3
Invalid/blank votes 1,318,778
Total 28,406,479 100 590 +16
Registered voters/turnout 30,272,236 93.84
Source: [1]
Popular vote
DC
  
40.10%
PCI
  
22.60%
PSI
  
12.70%
PNM
  
6.85%
MSI
  
5.84%
PSDI
  
4.51%
PLI
  
3.01%
PRI
  
1.62%
Others
  
2.77%
Composition of the Chamber of Deputies after the election.
Composition of the Senate after the election.

Senate[edit]

Party Votes % Seats +/–
Christian Democracy 9,692,584 39.9 113 –18
Italian Communist Party 4,912,093 20.2 51
Italian Socialist Party 2,893,148 11.9 27
Monarchist National Party 1,732,793 7.1 16 +12
Italian Social Movement 1,473,596 6.1 9 +8
Italian Democratic Socialist Party 1,046,659 4.3 4 –4
Italian Liberal Party 695,985 2.9 3 –4
Italian Republican Party 262,484 1.1 0 –4
South Tyrolean People's Party 107,139 0.4 2 0
DC-PRI 634,400 2.6 3
Communists 3
PCI-PSI-IS 2
PCI-PSI 2
National Democratic Alliance 1 New
Others 858,470 3.5 1
Invalid/blank votes 1,173,850
Total 25,483,201 100 237 0
Registered voters/turnout 27,172,871 93.8
Source: Nohlen & Stöver

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Due to impossibility of direct confrontation cause the end of the political alliance which linked the Communists and the Socialists during the previous election of 1948, unofficial swing was calculated using the strength ratio (130:53) between the communist group and the socialist group in the House after the division.
  2. ^ Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1048 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7