Italian general election, 1983

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Italian general election, 1983
Italy
1979 ←
June 26, 1983 → 1987

All 630 seats in the Italian Chamber of Deputies
316 seats were needed for a majority in the Chamber
315 (of the 322) seats in the Italian Senate
Turnout 88.0%
  Majority party Minority party Third party
  Ciriaco De Mita 2010.jpg Berlinguer.jpg Bettino Craxi-1.jpg
Leader Ciriaco De Mita Enrico Berlinguer Bettino Craxi
Party Christian Democracy Communist Party Socialist Party
Leader's seat XXIV - Eastern Campania XX - Latium III - Milan
Last election 262 & 138 seats, 38.3% 201 & 109 seats, 30.4% 62 & 32 seats
Seats won 225 (H)
120 (S)
198 (H)
107 (S)
73 (H)
38 (S)
Seat change Decrease55 Decrease5 Increase17
Popular vote 12,153,081 11,032,318 4,223,362
Percentage 32.9% 29.9% 11.4%
Swing Decrease5.4% Decrease0.5% Increase1.5%

Italia Election 1983 Province.png

Legislative election results map. Light Blue denotes provinces with a Christian Democratic plurality, Red denotes those with a Communist plurality, Gray and Brown denotes those with an Autonomist plurality.

Prime Minister before election

Amintore Fanfani
DC

New Prime Minister

Bettino Craxi
Socialist Party

General elections were held in Italy on June 26, 1983.[1] The Pentaparty formula, the governative alliance between five centrist parties, caused unexpected problems to Christian Democracy. The alliance was fixed and universal, extended both to the national government and to the local administrations. Considering that the election result did not longer depend by the strength of the DC, but by the strength of the entire Pentaparty, centrist electors began to look at the Christian Democratic vote as not necessary to prevent a Communist success. More, voting for one of the four minor parties of the alliance was seen as a form of moderate protest against the government without giving advantages to the PCI. Other minor effects of this election were a reduction of the referendarian Radical Party and the appearance of some regional forces.

Electoral system[edit]

Regional pluralities in Senate

The pure party-list proportional representation had traditionally become the electoral system for the Chamber of Deputies. Italian provinces were united in 32 constituencies, each electing a group of candidates. At constituency level, seats were divided between open lists using the largest remainder method with Imperiali quota. Remaining votes and seats were transferred at national level, where they was divided using the Hare quota, and automatically distributed to best losers into the local lists.

For the Senate, 237 single-seat constituencies were established, even if the assembly had risen to 315 members. The candidates needed a landslide victory of two thirds of votes to be elected, a goal which could be reached only by the German minorities in South Tirol. All remained votes and seats were grouped in party lists and regional constituencies, where a D'Hondt method was used: inside the lists, candidates with the best percentages were elected.

Parties and leaders[edit]

Party Ideology Leader
Christian Democracy (DC) Christian democracy, Popularism Ciriaco De Mita
Italian Communist Party (PCI) Communism, Eurocommunism Enrico Berlinguer
Italian Socialist Party (PSI) Democratic socialism, Social democracy Bettino Craxi
Italian Social Movement (MSI) Neo-Fascism, Italian nationalism Giorgio Almirante
Italian Republican Party (PRI) Republicanism, Centrism Giovanni Spadolini
Italian Democratic Socialist Party (PSDI) Social democracy, Centrism Pietro Longo
Italian Liberal Party (PLI) Liberalism, Conservatism Valerio Zanone
Radical Party (PR) Radicalism, Anti-clericalism Marco Pannella
Proletarian Democracy (DP) Communism, Trotskyism Mario Capanna

Results[edit]

The DC respected the pact of an alternance of leadership between the parties of the alliance and accepted the Socialist secretary, Bettino Craxi, as the new Prime Minister of Italy. The Christian Democrats hoped that their minor responsibility could drive away some popular discontent from their party. The Italian Socialist Party so arrived to the highest office of the government for the first time in history. Differently from the DC, which had an oligarchic structure, the PSI was strongly ruled by its secretary, so the Craxi's premiership resulted the longest one without any political crisis in post-war Italy, despite some international tensions with the United States about the Palestine Liberation Organization. Craxi formed a renewed government in 1986, but could not survive in 1987 to a dispute with DC's secretary Ciriaco De Mita, who was searching and effectively obtained an early national election, ruled by an electoral Christian Democratic government with old Amintore Fanfani as PM.

Chamber of Deputies[edit]

Italian Chamber of Deputies after the election.
Party Votes % Seats +/–
Christian Democracy 12,153,081 32.93 225 –37
Italian Communist Party 11,032,318 29.89 198 –3
Italian Socialist Party 4,223,362 11.44 73 +11
Italian Social Movement 2,511,487 6.81 42 +12
Italian Republican Party 1,874,512 5.08 29 +13
Italian Democratic Socialist Party 1,508,234 4.09 23 +3
Italian Liberal Party 1,066,980 2.89 16 +7
Radical Party 809,810 2.19 11 –7
Proletarian Democracy 542,039 1.47 7 +7
National Pensioners Party 503,461 1.36 0 new
South Tyrolean People's Party 184,940 0.50 3 –1
Liga Veneta 125,311 0.34 1 new
List for Trieste 92,101 0.25 0 –1
Sardinian Action Party 91,923 0.25 1 +1
Aosta Valley (UVUVPDP) 26,086 0.08 1
Others 158,360 0.42 0
Invalid/blank votes 2,282,177
Total 39,188,182 100 630 0
Registered voters/turnout 44,526,357 88.01
Source: Ministry of the Interior
Popular vote
DC
  
32.93%
PCI
  
29.89%
PSI
  
11.44%
MSI
  
6.81%
PRI
  
5.08%
PSDI
  
4.09%
PLI
  
2.89%
PR
  
2.19%
DP
  
1.47%
PP
  
1.36%
Others
  
1.84%

Senate of the Republic[edit]

Italian Senate after the election.
Party Votes % Seats +/–
Christian Democracy 10,077,204 32.41 120 –18
Italian Communist Party 9,577,071 30.81 107 –2
Italian Socialist Party 3,539,593 11.39 38 +6
Italian Social Movement 2,283,524 7.35 18 +5
Italian Republican Party 1,452,279 4.67 10 +4
Italian Democratic Socialist Party 1,184,936 3.81 8 –1
Italian Liberal Party 834,771 2.69 6 +4
Radical Party 548,229 1.76 1 –1
National Pensioners' Party 370,756 1.19 0 new
Proletarian Democracy 327,750 1.05 0 new
South Tyrolean People's Party 157,444 0.51 3
PLIPRI 127,504 0.41 1
PLIPRIPSDI 100,218 0.32 1
Liga Veneta 91,171 0.29 1 new
List for Trieste 85,542 0.28 0
Sardinian Action Party 76,797 0.25 1 +1
PLIPSDI 72,298 0.23 0
For the Renewal of Molise 33,525 0.11 0 new
Others 148,399 0.50 1
Invalid/blank votes 2,313,128
Total 33,402,139 100 315 0
Registered voters/turnout 37,603,817 88.83
Source: Ministry of the Interior

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1048 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7