Italian general election, 2013

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Italian general election, 2013
Italy
2008 ←
24–25 February 2013
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All 630 seats to the Chamber of Deputies
and 315 (out of the 319) seats to the Senate of the Republic
Turnout 75.19%[1]
  First party Second party
  Bersani.JPG Berlusconi-2010-1.jpg
Leader Pier Luigi Bersani Silvio Berlusconi
Party Democratic Party The People of Freedom
Alliance Italy. Common Good Centre-right coalition
Leader since 25 October 2009 18 January 1994
Seats won 345 (C)
123 (S)
125 (C)
117 (S)
Popular vote 10,047,507 (coalition) 9,923,100 (coalition)
Percentage 29.5% (coalition) 29.1% (coalition)

  Third party Fourth party
  Beppe Grillo - Trento 2012 01.JPG Mario Monti - Terre alte 2013.JPG
Leader Beppe Grillo Mario Monti
Party Five Star Movement Civic Choice
Alliance none With Monti for Italy
Leader since 4 October 2009 28 December 2012
Seats won 109 (C)
54 (S)
47 (C)
19 (S)
Popular vote 8,688,545 (party) 3,591,560 (coalition)
Percentage 25.5% (party) 10.5% (coalition)

Province of Italy, election 2013.png

Most voted party in each Province for the Chamber of Deputies.

Prime Minister before election

Mario Monti
Civic Choice

Elected Prime Minister

Enrico Letta
Democratic Party

A general election took place on 24–25 February 2013 to determine the 630 members of the Chamber of Deputies and the 315 elective members of the Senate of the Republic for the 17th Parliament of the Italian Republic.[2][3] The centre-left alliance Italy Common Good led by the Democratic Party obtained a clear majority of seats in the Chamber of Deputies, thanks to a majority bonus that has effectively trebled the number of seats assigned to the winning force, while in the popular vote it narrowly defeated the centre-right alliance of former Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi. Close behind, the new anti-establishment Five Star Movement of comedian Beppe Grillo became the third force, clearly ahead of the centrist coalition of outgoing Prime Minister Mario Monti. In the Senate, no political group or party won an outright majority, resulting in a hung parliament.[4][5] Eventually a coalition between the centre-left, centre and centre-right was formed.[6]

Background[edit]

Following the European sovereign debt crisis, Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi resigned from his position in November 2011. He was replaced as Prime Minister by technocratic Senator for Life Mario Monti.

In December 2012, Berlusconi announced his intention to run for Prime Minister for a sixth time. Shortly after, his party, People of Freedom (PdL), withdrew endorsement for Monti's Cabinet and Monti announced he would resign[7] after sending the annual budget to parliament, which was expected by Christmas. The Constitution of Italy then requires an election to be held within 70 days of the dissolution of parliament by President Giorgio Napolitano. Monti's resignation came after he said that, following the PdL's withdrawal, he "matured [to] the conviction that we could not continue like this any longer,"[8] and that he could not govern with a loss of support for his platform.[9]

During Monti's tenure, Italy had faced tax increases and state spending cuts, as well as reforms intended to improve the competitiveness of the Italian economy.[10] On the other hand, PdL parliamentary party leader Angelino Alfano told parliament on 7 December that Italy's debt, unemployment, and tax rates had risen in contrast to the economy since Monti became prime minister.[8][11] In the approximately one year since Monti took office, unemployment rose by almost two percent.[11] Previously Monti had controversially told the rising tide of youth unemployment to forget about a steady job for life, saying such is "monotonous [anyway and] it's nice to change and take on challenges." He also called for changes to Article 18 of the 1970 Workers Statute that forbids companies with over 15 employees from sacking an employee without "just cause", saying that it "can be pernicious for Italy's growth."[12]

The same reforms and austerity-focused policies which upset many Italians are perceived to have improved international confidence in Italy.[13] Monti was supported by other Eurozone leaders, such as Germany's Angela Merkel and former French President Nicolas Sarkozy.[14] Merkel's spokesman, Georg Streiter, said that she had "always worked well" with Monti and "had a relationship of esteem"; however, when asked about Berlusconi, he said it was not up to him to decide domestic politics of other countries.[15] German Finance Minister Wolfgang Schäuble added that he did not foresee "any destabilisation in the eurozone [but] expect[ed] Italy to keep going forward by respecting its European commitments."[16] In reaction, financial markets fell on speculation of further instability;[17][18] while, specifically, Italian 10-year bond yields rose by 0.4% to reach 4.87% and the Italian stock exchange's flagship index dropped by over 3.5%.[19]

Campaign[edit]

From the summer of 2012, a number of parties and movements from the so-called "Third Pole" of the political spectrum, including Pier Ferdinando Casini's Union of the Centre (UdC), Gianfranco Fini's Future and Freedom (FLI), Luca Cordero di Montezemolo's Toward the Third Republic (VTR), as well as a number of other politicians from both PD and PdL, pushed for direct involvement of Mario Monti in an election. Monti's statement that he would resign after the budget was passed, was suggested by Reuters to be indicative of him seeking to run for office.

Monti also told a press conference in France that "populism" was dangerous, and he further said that a failure to pass the budget "would render more serious the government crisis, also at a European level" and that his resignation would then be "irrevocable." The two largest parties in parliament, the PdL and the Democratic Party (PD) said they would be willing to work together to expedite passage of the budget. PD Secretary Pier Luigi Bersani said: "Faced with the irresponsibility of the right that betrayed a commitment it made a year ago before the whole country...Monti responded with an act of dignity that we profoundly respect." PD Deputy Secretary Enrico Letta said of the PdL's withdrawal from the government that "the financial markets will judge this latest outburst by Berlusconi and they certainly will not judge it positively." Bersani had won the centre-left primary election shortly before the PdL withdrew from the government.[14] Following a defeat in the primary, Mayor of Florence Matteo Renzi ruled out an approach, in writing, from Berlusconi's PdL to join the party during the election. In the following weeks, both PD and Left Ecology Freedom (SEL) announced their intention to hold primary elections for MP candidates on 29 and 30 December.

The possibility of Monti directly involving himself in the election was seen as increasingly likely after the government crisis in December later that year, as Monti was invited to a European People's Party meeting at which Berlusconi was present too. A few days later, Monti published a political agenda for Italy, dubbed the "Monti agenda", and offered it to all political parties. After the Third Pole promptly agreed to use it as their own platform for the upcoming elections, talks started regarding a direct involvement of Monti as premiership candidate. On 28 December 2012, following a 4-hour meeting and after being publicly backed by the Vatican regarding a potential bid, Monti publicly announced his candidacy as head of the Third Pole, which ran in the Senate as a unique component provisionally named "Monti's Agenda for Italy", and in the Lower House as a coalition of several components.[20]

Berlusconi said the platform his party would run on includes opposition to Monti's economic performance, which he said put Italy into a "recessive spiral without end." He also told the media, on the sidelines of AC Milan's practice session (the football club he owns along with Mediaset, the largest media outlet in the country): ""I race to win. To win, everyone said there had to be a tested leader. It's not that we did not look for one. We did, and how! But there isn't one...I'm doing it out of a sense of responsibility." Berlusconi and Five Star Movement (M5S) leader Beppe Grillo criticised the eurozone and Germany's influence on European policy. Grillo wrote that the average Italian "is literally terrified about the prospects of five more years of Monti-like rule."[21]

On 8 December 2012, a new political party formed around a think tank named "Fermare il Declino" (Stop the Decline), on an initiative by the economic journalist Oscar Giannino and supported by various economists. On 19 December 2012, the name "FARE per Fermare il Declino" ("ACT to Stop The Decline") was chosen, and a list was presented with Oscar Giannino as PM candidate. The party's programme[22] was also introduced, roughly inspiring to reduce the role of the State in the economy, reduce the national debt through disposing redundant assets, and to propose market liberalizations and privatizations.

On 29 December 2012, a new coalition, Civil Revolution (RC), was formed with the support of Italy of Values (IdV), Orange Movement (MA), Communist Refoundation Party (PRC), Party of Italian Communists (PdCI) and Federation of the Greens (FdV). It is led by celebrity magistrate Antonio Ingroia and Mayor of Naples Luigi de Magistris. FdS co-leader Paolo Ferrero said it would be a "Fourth Pole" that would bring new hope for the left.[23] Civil Revolution attempted to solicit M5S to join them, saying "the door is open." Grillo, however, turned them down, writing on his blog "... the door is open for M5S? Well, thank you, but close the door again, please."[24]

On 7 January 2013, Berlusconi announced he had penned a coalition agreement with Lega Nord (LN); as part of it, PdL will support Roberto Maroni's bid for the presidency of Lombardy, and he will run as "leader of the coalition", but suggested he could accept a role as Minister of Economy under a cabinet headed by another People of Freedom member, such as Angelino Alfano.[25] Later that day, LN leader Maroni confirmed his party will not support a new candidacy of Berlusconi as Prime Minister in the case of an electoral win.[26]

Electoral system[edit]

The current election system is a form of party-list proportional representation with a series of thresholds to encourage parties to form coalitions. Italy is divided into 26 districts for the Chamber of Deputies and 20 regions for the Senate. Each district is assigned a number of seats in proportion to its share of the population. To guarantee a working majority, the coalition or party that obtains a plurality of the vote, but fewer than 340 seats, is assigned additional seats to reach that number, which roughly is about 54 percent of all seats. Inside each coalition, seats are divided between parties by the largest remainder method.[27]

The coalition or party that wins a plurality in a region is guaranteed 55 percent of the region's Senate seats. As this mechanism is region-based, opposing parties or coalitions may benefit from it in different regions. It therefore does not guarantee any party or coalition a majority in the Senate.[27]

At the end of 2013, Italy's Constitutional Court declared that this electoral law failed to meet a number of Constitutional requirements.[28][29]

Coalitions and electoral lists[edit]

The coalitions and main electoral lists are:

Coalitions consisting of several lists
Unitary electoral lists
Political force or alliance Constituent lists Leader
 
Italy. Common Good
(Italia. Bene Comune)
Democratic Party (Partito Democratico)
Pier Luigi Bersani
Left Ecology Freedom (Sinistra Ecologia Libertà)
Democratic Centre (Centro Democratico)
Italian Socialist Party (Partito Socialista Italiano) – only for Senate in: Lazio, Campania and Calabria[39]
South Tyrolean People's Party (Südtiroler Volkspartei: SVP)[40][41] – only in: Trentino-Alto Adige
Trentino Tyrolean Autonomist Party (Partito Autonomista Trentino Tirolese: PATT)[40][41] – only for Senate in: Trentino-Alto Adige
Union for Trentino (Unione Per il Trentino: UPT)[42] – only for Senate in: Trentino-Alto Adige
(Please note that the party instead opted to be part of the Monti-coalition in the "Chamber of Deputies election")[43][44]
Moderates (Moderati) – only for Senate in: Sicily and Lombardia
The Megaphone – Crocetta List (Il Megafono - Lista Crocetta) – only for Senate in Sicily[45]
 
Centre-right Coalition
The People of Freedom (Il Popolo della Libertà)
Silvio Berlusconi
North League (Lega Nord) incl. Labour and Freedom List (Lista Lavoro e Libertà)
The Right (La Destra)
Brothers of Italy (Fratelli d'Italia)
Great South-MpA (Grande Sud–MpA)
Moderates in Revolution (Moderati in Rivoluzione)
Popular Agreement (Intesa Popolare)
Pensioners' Party (Partito Pensionati)
 
Five Star Movement
(Movimento 5 Stelle)
Five Star Movement (Movimento 5 Stelle)
Beppe Grillo
(not candidate)
 
With Monti for Italy
(Con Monti per l'Italia)
Civic Choice (Scelta Civica)
Mario Monti
(not candidate)
Union of the Centre (Unione di Centro)
Future and Freedom (Futuro e Libertà)
Union for Trentino (Unione Per il Trentino: UPT) – only for Chamber of Deputies in: Trentino-Alto Adige
(Please note that the party leader Lorenzo Dellai – who became elected to the Chambers of Deputies – did not run the election with his own party list but was elected through the Civic Choice list,[43][44] and that the UPT party was part of the Bersani-coalition in the election for the Senate)[42]
 
Civil Revolution
(Rivoluzione Civile)
Unitary list of Italy of Values, Communist Refoundation Party, Party of Italian Communists, Orange Movement and Federation of the Greens
Antonio Ingroia
 
Act to Stop the Decline
(Fare per Fermare il Declino)
Act to Stop the Decline (Fare per Fermare il Declino)
Oscar Giannino

Opinion polls[edit]

Results for Chamber of Deputies[edit]

Italy (19 regions out of 20)[edit]

Coalition Party Votes % Seats
Italy. Common Good Democratic Party 8,644,187 25.42 292
Left Ecology Freedom 1,089,442 3.20 37
Democratic Centre 167,170 0.49 6
South Tyrolean People's Party 146,804 0.43 5
Total 10,047,603 29.54 340
Centre-right Coalition The People of Freedom 7,332,667 21.56 97
North League 1,390,156 4.08 18
Brothers of Italy 666,035 1.95 9
The Right 219,816 0.64 0
Great South - MPA 148,534 0.43 0
Moderates in Revolution 81,982 0.24 0
Pensioners' Party 55,050 0.16 0
Popular Agreement 25,631 0.07 0
Free for a Fair Italy 3,238 0.00 0
Total 9,923,109 29.18 124
Five Star Movement 8,689,168 25.55 108
With Monti for Italy Civic Choice 2,824,001 8.30 37[a]
Union of the Centre 608,199 1.78 8
Future and Freedom 159,429 0.46 0
Total 3,591,629 10.56 45
Civil Revolution 765,172 2.25 0
Act to Stop the Decline 380,937 1.12 0
Workers' Communist Party 89,995 0.26 0
New Force 89,826 0.26 0
Amnesty Justice Freedom List 64,732 0.19 0
Die Freiheitlichen 48,317 0.14 0
CasaPound 47,691 0.14 0
Tricolour Flame 44,753 0.13 0
I Love Italy 42,529 0.12 0
Venetian Independence 33,274 0.09 0
Liberals for Italy 28,026 0.08 0
Sardinian Action Party 18,585 0.05 0
Venetian Republic League 15,838 0.04 0
Vote of Protest 12,744 0.03 0
Veneto State 11,378 0.03 0
Italian Reformists 8,223 0.02 0
Independence for Sardinia 7,598 0.02 0
Italian Republican Party 7,143 0.02 0
MERIS 5,901 0.01 0
Communist Alternative Party 5,159 0.01 0
The Pirates 4,557 0.01 0
Project Italy Movement 3,967 0.01 0
Italian Missinian Refoundation 3,178 0.00 0
United Populars 2,992 0.00 0
National Project 2,865 0.00 0
Action Thought Party 1,526 0.00 0
Popular Union 1,515 0.00 0
All Together for Italy 1,452 0,00 0
Stems of Italy 585 0,00 0
Atheist Democracy 556 0,00 0
Invalid/blank/unassigned votes 1,269,018
Total 35,271,540 100.00 617
Registered voters/turnout 46,906,343 75.19
Source: Ministry of the Interior
Notes
  1. ^ Incl. the Union for Trentino (UPT) party leader Lorenzo Dellai, who decided not to submit his own party list for the Monti-coalition, but opted to be a direct part of the Civic Choice list.[43][44]

Aosta Valley[edit]

The semi-autonomous region of Aosta Valley, in northwestern Italy, elects one member to the Chamber of Deputies through a direct first-past-the-post election. Some parties that formed electoral coalitions in Italy, might have opted to run against one another (or form different coalitions) in this particular region.

Candidate[46] Party (or a unified coalition list) Total votes  % Seats
Rudi Marguerettaz (SA) Aosta Valley (UV-SA-FA) 18,376 25.36 1
Laurent Viérin Progressive Valdotanian Union 18,191 25.11 0
Jean Pierre Guichardaz Autonomy Liberty Democracy 14,340 19.79 0
Roberto Ugo Massimo Cognetta Five Star Movement 13,403 18.50 0
Giorgia Meloni Brothers of Italy 3,051 4.21 0
Nicoletta Spelgatti North League 2,384 3.29 0
Lucia Bringhen Union of the Centre 1,355 1.87 0
Fabrizio Buillet Act to Stop the Decline 748 1.03 0
Andrea Ladu CasaPound 443 0.61 0
Eros Campion Nation Val d'Outa 145 0.20 0
Total valid votes 72,436
Blank/void/unassigned votes 4,733
Total votes 77,169 100.00 1
Registered voters/turnout 100,277 76.95
Source: Ministry of the Interior

Italians abroad[edit]

Twelve members of the Chamber of Deputies are elected by Italians abroad. Two members are elected for North America and Central America (including most of the Caribbean), four members for South America (including Trinidad and Tobago), five members for Europe, and one member for the rest of the world (Africa, Asia, Oceania, and Antarctica). Voters in these regions select candidate lists and may also cast a preference vote for individual candidates. The seats are allocated by proportional representation.

The election law allow for parties to form other electoral coalitions on the lists abroad, compared to the lists in Italy. In the 2013 election, this freedom was used by Left Ecology Freedom to provide a list as an independent party, instead of making themselve available as part of the mainlands coalition with Democratic Party.

Party (or a unified coalition list) Votes % Seats
Democratic Party 288,092 29.32 5[a]
With Monti for Italy 180,674 18.39 2[b]
The People of Freedom 145,824 14.84 1[c]
Associative Movement Italians Abroad (MAIE) 140,473 14.30 2[d]
Five Star Movement 95,041 9.67 1[e]
South American Union Italian Emigrants (USEI) 44,024 4.48 1[f]
Italians for Freedom 22,321 2.27 0
Left Ecology Freedom 17,375 1.76 0
Civil Revolution 15,910 1.61 0
Union of Italians for South America 11,470 1.16 0
Act to Stop the Decline 10,160 1.03 0
Communist Party 7,073 0.72 0
Together for the Italians 3,890 0.39 0
Invalid/blank/unassigned votes 115,145
Total 1,039,725 100.00 12
Registered voters/turnout 3,494,687 29.75
Source: Ministry of the Interior
Notes
  1. ^ The 5 deputies from Democratic Party were elected by the following regions: Europe (2), North- and Central America (1), South America (1), remaining world (1).[47]
  2. ^ The 2 deputies from the Monti-coalition were elected by the following regions: Europe (1), North- and Central America (1).[47]
  3. ^ The deputy from the Berlusconi-coalition was elected by the following region: Europe (1).[47]
  4. ^ The 2 deputies from MAIE were elected by the following region: South America (2).[47]
  5. ^ The deputy from the Five Star Movement was elected by the following region: Europe (1).[47]
  6. ^ The deputy from USEI was elected by the following region: South America (1).[47]

Seat totals[edit]

Coalition Party Seats
Pier Luigi Bersani:
Italy. Common Good
Democratic Party (PD) 297
Left Ecology Freedom (SEL) 37
Democratic Centre (CD) 6
South Tyrolean People's Party (SVP) 5
Total 345
Silvio Berlusconi:
Centre-right Coalition
The People of Freedom (PdL) 98
North League (LN) 18
Brothers of Italy (FdI) 9
Total 125
Beppe Grillo: Five Star Movement (M5S) 109
Mario Monti:
With Monti for Italy
Civic Choice (SC) 37[a]
Union of the Centre (UDC) 8
With Monti for Italy (SC abroad) 2
Total 47
Associative Movement Italians Abroad (MAIE) 2
South American Union Italian Emigrants (USEI) 1
Aosta Valley (VA) Edelweiss (SA) 1
Total 630
Notes
  1. ^ Incl. the Union for Trentino (UPT) party leader Lorenzo Dellai, who decided not to submit his own party list for the Monti-coalition, but opted to be a direct part of the Civic Choice list.[43][44]

Overall result[edit]

Popular vote and parliamentary seats in the Chamber of deputies.

Composition of the elected Chamber of deputies. The Bersani-led coalition (illustrated by dark red, red, orange and black) won the plurality in the nationwide election with a 0.4% lead over the nearest coalition, and thus – as defined by the Italian election law – was granted a majority bonus equal to an automatic 55% of the seats in the Chamber of deputies.
Popular vote (C)
PD
  
25.52%
M5S
  
25.14%
PdL
  
21.37%
SC
  
8.58%
LN
  
3.98%
SEL
  
3.16%
RC
  
2.19%
FdI
  
1.91%
UdC
  
1.74%
FiD
  
1.09%
Others
  
5.31%
Popular vote for coalitions (C)
Italy. Common Good
  
29.19%
Centre-right Coalition
  
28.64%
Five Stars Movement
  
25.14%
With Monti for Italy
  
10.78%
Civil Revolution
  
2.19%
Act to Stop the Decline
  
1.09%
Others
  
2.96%
Distribution of the 630 parliamentary seats (C)
IBC
  
54.8%
CDX
  
19.8%
M5S
  
17.3%
Monti
  
7.5%
Others
  
0.6%

Results for the Senate of the Republic[edit]

Italy (18 regions out of 20)[edit]

Coalition Party Votes % Seats
Italy. Common Good Democratic Party 8,400,255 27.43 105
Left Ecology Freedom 912,374 2.97 7
Democratic Centre 163,427 0.53 0
The Megaphone – Crocetta List 138,581 0.45 1
Italian Socialist Party 57,688 0.18 0
Moderates 14,358 0.04 0
Total 9,686,683 31.63 113
Centre-right Coalition The People of Freedom 6,829,373 22.30 98
North League 1,328,555 4.33 17
Brothers of Italy 590,083 1.92 0
The Right 221,112 0.72 0
Pensioners' Party 123,458 0.40 0
Great South 122,100 0.39 1
Moderates in Revolution 69,649 0.22 0
Party of Sicilians-MPA 48,618 0.15 0
Popular Agreement 24,979 0.08 0
Popular Construction 21,685 0.07 0
Stop Taxes 19,298 0.06 0
Free for a Fair Italy 6,769 0.02 0
Total 9,405,679 30.71 116
Five Star Movement 7,285,850 23.79 54
With Monti for Italy 2,797,486 9.13 18
Civil Revolution 549,987 1.79 0
Act to Stop the Decline 278,396 0.90 0
Workers' Communist Party 113,935 0.37 0
New Force 81,519 0.26 0
Amnesty Justice Freedom List 63,149 0.20 0
Tricolour Flame 52,106 0.17 0
I Love Italy 40,781 0.13 0
CasaPound 40,540 0.13 0
Venetian Independence 29,696 0.09 0
Venetian Republic League 20,381 0.06 0
Ottavio Pasqualucci's
coalition
Halve the pay of politicians 7,968 0.02 0
No to closing of hospitals 7,547 0.02 0
Viva l'Italia 4,759 0.01 0
Total 20,274 0.06 0
Sardinian Action Party 18,602 0.06 0
Rural Civility Development 13,945 0.04 0
Stand Up Abruzzo! 11,817 0.03 0
Marxist–Leninist Italian Communist Party 9,604 0.03 0
Veneto State 8,950 0.02 0
Italian Republican Party 8,476 0.02 0
Women for Italy 7,610 0.02 0
Independence for Sardinia 7,494 0.02 0
Padanian Union 7,324 0.02 0
United Populars 6,583 0.02 0
The Pirates 6,265 0.02 0
Italian Reformists 5,952 0.01 0
MERIS 5,580 0.01 0
Communist Alternative Party 5,176 0.01 0
Action Party for Development 4,522 0.01 0
National Project 3,822 0.01 0
The Base Sardinia 3,386 0.01 0
All Together for Italy 3,155 0.01 0
Italian Missinian Refoundation 2,717 0.00 0
EuWoman Movement 2,689 0.00 0
To Build Democracy 2,635 0.00 0
Project Italy Movement - Disabilities Italian Movement 1,451 0.00 0
Party of the South 1,276 0.00 0
Italian Naturalist Movement 1,170 0.00 0
Lucanian Community 882 0.00 0
Invalid/blank votes 1,133,805
Total 31,751,350 100.00 301
Registered voters/turnout 42,271,967 75.11
Source: Ministry of the Interior

Trentino-Alto Adige/South Tyrol[edit]

The semi-autonomous region of Trentino-Alto Adige in north Italy, including South Tyrol, elects seven members to the Italian Senate through its six constituencies. Each constituency elects one senator by first-past-the post, except for the Pergine Valsugana constituency in which two senate seats are filled proportionally. Some parties that formed electoral coalitions in Italy, might have opted to run against one another (or form different coalitions) in this particular region.

Party (or a unified coalition list) Total votes  % Seats
SVPPATTPDUPT (only Trentino) 127,656 23.43 3[48]
SVP (only Brixen and Merano constituencies) 97,141 17.82 2[49]
The People of FreedomNorth League 85,298 15.65 1[50]
Five Star Movement 82,499 15.14 0
PDSVP (only Bolzano constituency) 47,623 8.74 1[51]
Die Freiheitlichen (only South Tyrol) 42,094 7.72 0
Greens (only Brixen and Merano constituencies) 12,808 2.34 0
Civil Revolution 11,262 2.06 0
Democratic Party (only Brixen and Merano constituencies) 8,797 1.61 0
Act to Stop the Decline (only Bolzano constituency and Trentino) 8,796 1.61 0
With Monti for Italy (only Brixen and Merano constituencies) 6,646 1.39 0
Alto Adige in the Heart 4,672 0.85 0
Moderates in Revolution (only Trentino) 3,414 0.62 0
Brothers of Italy (only Bolzano constituency) 3,414 0.62 0
The Right (only South Tyrol) 1,181 0.21 0
CasaPound (only Bolzano constituency) 1,160 0.21 0
Party for All (only Bolzano constituency) 426 0.07 0
Total valid votes 544,838
Blank/void/unassigned votes 30,437
Total votes 575,275 100.00 7
Registered voters/turnout 707,666 81.29
Source: Ministry of the Interior

Aosta Valley[edit]

The semi-autonomous region of Aosta Valley, in northwestern Italy, elects one member to the Senate through a direct first-past-the-post election. Some parties that formed electoral coalitions in Italy, might have opted to run against one another (or form different coalitions) in this particular region.

Candidate[52] Party (or a unified coalition list) Total votes  % Seats
Albert Lanièce (UV) Aosta Valley (UV-SA-FA) 24,609 37.03 1
Patrizia Morelli Autonomy Liberty Democracy 20,430 30.75 0
Stefano Ferrero Five Star Movement 13,760 20.71 0
Sandra Maria Cane North League 2,608 3.92 0
Paolo Dalbard The Right 2,014 3.03 0
Luigi Bracci Union of the Centre 1,594 2.39 0
Enrico Martial Act to Stop the Decline 814 1.22 0
Vilma Margaria CasaPound 424 0.63 0
Giovanni Battista Mascia Nation Val d'Outa 186 0.27 0
Total valid votes 66,439
Blank/void/unassigned votes 5,280
Total votes 71,719 100.00 1
Registered voters/turnout 93,040 77.08
Source: Ministry of the Interior

Italians abroad[edit]

Six members of the Senate are elected by Italians abroad. One member is elected for North America and Central America (including most of the Caribbean), two members for South America (including Trinidad and Tobago), two members for Europe, and one member for the rest of the world (Africa, Asia, Oceania, and Antarctica). Voters in these regions select candidate lists and may also cast a preference vote for individual candidates. The seats are allocated by proportional representation.

The election law allow for parties to form other electoral coalitions on the lists abroad, compared to the lists in Italy. In the 2013 electional list for the Senate all parties were listed independently without any coalitions formed. None of the parties were neither in internal coalitions at the mainland; so in 2013 the electoral situation abroad actually was not different compared to the electoral situation at the mainland.

Party (or a unified coalition list) Votes % Seats
Democratic Party 274,732 30.7 4[a]
With Monti for Italy (FLI) 177,402 19.8 1[b]
The People of Freedom 136,052 15.2 0
Associative Movement Italians Abroad (MAIE) 120,290 13.4 1[c]
Five Star Movement 89,562 10.0 0
South American Union Italian Emigrants (USEI) 38,223 4.3 0
Italians for the Freedom 15,260 1.7 0
Civil Revolution 14,134 1.6 0
Union of Italians for South America 10,881 1.2 0
Act to Stop the Decline 7,892 0.9 0
Communist Party 7,578 0.8 0
Together for the Italians 3,223 0.4 0
Invalid/blank/unassigned votes 108,150
Total 948,067 100.00 6
Registered voters/turnout 3,149,501 30.1
Source: Ministry of the Interior
Notes
  1. ^ The 4 senators from Democratic Party were elected by the following regions: Europe (1), North- and Central America (1), South America (1), remaining world (1).[53]
  2. ^ Aldo Di Biagio, The senator from the Monti-coalition (FLI) was elected by the following region: Europe (1).[53]
  3. ^ The senator from MAIE was elected by the following region: South America (1).[53]

Seat totals[edit]

Coalition Party Seats
Pier Luigi Bersani:
Italy. Common Good
Democratic Party (PD) 111
Left Ecology Freedom (SEL) 7
South Tyrolean People's Party (SVP) 2
Trentino Tyrolean Autonomist Party (PATT) 1
Union for Trentino (UPT) 1
The Megaphone – Crocetta List (IM-LC) 1
Total 123
Silvio Berlusconi:
Centre-right Coalition
The People of Freedom (PdL) 98
North League (LN) 18
Great South (GS) 1
Total 117
Beppe Grillo: Five Star Movement (M5S) 54
Mario Monti: With Monti for Italy 19
Associative Movement Italians Abroad (MAIE) 1
Aosta Valley (VdA) Valdostan Union (UV) 1
Total 315

Overall result[edit]

Popular vote and parliamentary seats in the Senate of the Republic.

Composition of the elected Senate of the Republic. The Bersani-led coalition (illustrated by 7 dark red, 111 red, 4 black and 1 lightblue seats) won the plurality in the nationwide election with a 0.9% lead over the nearest coalition. For the Senate, no automatic majority bonus is however granted for the coalition winning the plurality, and thus the Bersani-led coalition only won 39.1% of seats in the Senate.
Popular vote (C)
PD
  
27.4%
M5S
  
23.7%
PdL
  
22.3%
SC
  
9.1%
LN
  
4.3%
SEL
  
2.9%
FdI
  
1.9%
RC
  
1.8%
Others
  
6.6%
Popular vote (S)
IBC
  
31.6%
CDX
  
30.7%
M5S
  
23.8%
Monti
  
9.1%
Others
  
5.4%
Distribution of the 315 parliamentary seats (S)
IBC
  
39.1%
CDX
  
37.1%
M5S
  
17.1%
Monti
  
6.0%
Others
  
0.6%

By region[edit]

Vote result for the Senate in each Italian region.

Province Total
seats
Coalition results List apportionment
Coalition seats Percentage Party seats
IBC CD Monti M5S Other IBC CD Monti M5S Other IBC CD Monti M5S Other
Piedmont 22 13 4 2 3 0 29.8 29.3 11.6 25.7 3.5 PD 13 PdL 3 LN 1 Monti 2 M5S 3 0
Aosta Valley 1 0 0 0 0 VdA 1 7.0 2.4 20.7 69.9 0 0 0 0 UV 1
Lombardy 49 11 27 4 7 0 29.7 37.6 10.7 17.4 4.4 PD 11 PdL 16 LN 11 Monti 4 M5S 7 0
Trentino-Alto Adige 7 6 1 0 0 0 50.6 16.3 1.4 15.1 13.7 PD 2 SVP 2
PATT 1 UPT 1
LN 1 0 0 0
Veneto 24 4 14 2 4 0 25.0 32.9 11.0 24.6 6.2 PD 4 PdL 9 LN 5 Monti 2 M5S 4 0
Friuli-Venezia Giulia 7 4 1 1 1 0 29.3 28.8 12.3 25.5 4.2 PD 4 PdL 1 Monti 1 M5S 1 0
Liguria 8 5 1 1 1 0 33.0 24.1 9.4 30.3 3.1 PD 5 PdL 1 Monti 1 M5S 1 0
Emilia-Romagna 22 13 4 1 4 0 42.1 21.3 8.9 23.1 4.5 PD 13 PdL 4 Monti 1 M5S 4 0
Tuscany 18 10 3 1 4 0 43.5 21.3 8.1 22.7 4.4 PD 9 SEL 1 PdL 3 Monti 1 M5S 4 0
Umbria 7 4 1 1 1 0 37.6 25.2 8.3 25.3 3.4 PD 4 PdL 1 Monti 1 M5S 1 0
Marche 8 5 1 1 1 0 33.2 22.2 10.0 30.3 4.2 PD 5 PdL 1 Monti 1 M5S 1 0
Lazio 28 16 6 0 6 0 32.3 28.9 7.5 25.9 5.4 PD 14 SEL 2 PdL 6 0 M5S 6 0
Abruzzo 7 1 4 0 2 0 28.1 29.6 7.5 28.4 6.4 PD 1 PdL 4 0 M5S 2 0
Molise 2 1 1 0 0 0 30.3 30.1 8.4 26.6 4.6 PD 1 PdL 1 0 0 0
Campania 29 6 16 2 5 0 29.0 38.4 8.2 20.7 4.6 PD 5 SEL 1 PdL 16 Monti 2 M5S 5 0
Apulia 20 4 11 1 4 0 28.5 34.4 9.1 24.1 3.9 PD 3 SEL 1 PdL 11 Monti 1 M5S 4 0
Basilicata 7 4 1 1 1 0 36.7 25.3 8.4 22.9 6.8 PD 3 SEL 1 PdL 1 Monti 1 M5S 1 0
Calabria 10 2 6 0 2 0 31.7 33.3 7.6 22.2 5.2 PD 2 PdL 5 GS 1 0 M5S 2 -
Sicily 25 5 14 0 6 0 27.3 33.4 5.9 29.5 3.9 PD 4 IM-LC 1 PdL 14 0 M5S 6 0
Sardinia 8 5 1 0 2 0 31.7 25.5 6.6 28.7 7.5 PD 4 SEL 1 PdL 1 0 M5S 2 0
Expats 6 4 0 1 0 MAIE 1 30.69 15.2 19.8 10.0 26.0 PD 4 0 Monti 1 0 MAIE 1
Total 315 123 117 19 54 2 PD 111, SEL 7
SVP 2, PATT 1
UPT 1, IM-LC 1
PdL 98,
LN 18, GS 1
Monti 19 M5S 54 UV 1
MAIE 1

Source: Ministry of Interior[54]

Reactions[edit]

States

U.S. President Barack Obama congratulated Letta.[55]

Media

Media analysis of the result was one of political stalemate. Although Italy Common Good has a solid majority in the Chamber of Deputies, in Italy a party or coalition must have a majority in the Senate as well in order to pass legislation, as the upper and lower house hold equal power. Bersani said that Italy was in a "dramatic situation". Italian and global shares fell as the result became clear, with the value of the euro also dropping.[56] Strong results for anti-austerity parties were interpreted as showing popular opposition to the austerity measures of the Monti government,[57] with the populist Five Star Movement considered to have had a strong election.[58] Analysts were uncertain as to how this new party would behave in the legislature.[58]

On 26 February La Repubblica ran the headline "Boost for Grillo: Italy ungovernable",[59] whilst Il Giornale described Berlusconi's result as a "miracle".[60] Il Messaggero declared that "The winner is ungovernability".[60]

Government formation[edit]

Main article: Letta Cabinet
Enrico Letta in 2013.

Formal talks to form a new government were expected to start on 10 March with the official confirmation of the results and the convening of parliament.[58] The formation task immediately turned out to be tough due to the absence of a clear majority in the Senate, with Giorgio Napolitano being unable to dissolve the Parliament due to constitutional constraints forbidding a president from doing so during the last six months of his term.

On 22 March, after the election of house speakers Laura Boldrini and Piero Grasso, and after two days of consultations with all the parliamentary groups, Napolitano designated Pier Luigi Bersani with the task of forming a new government. Bersani immediately ruled out the possibility of a grand coalition with Berlusconi's right-wing coalition, and instead tried to form a minority government supported by the Five Star Movement. On 28 March, after formal talks with Napolitano, Bersani admitted there was no chance to form such a government. Given the troubles in forming a majority coalition, Napolitano then decided to directly form two informal bipartisan commissions with the task of agreeing on a number of shared reforms.[citation needed]

At the same time, a new presidential election was called for 18 April. However, the lack of a clear majority turned out to be problematic also in this scenario, as the first five ballots failed to elect a candidate. The Democratic Party split into several factions due to internal conflicts involving the support of party candidates Franco Marini and Romano Prodi, leading to Bersani's resignation as party leader. On the sixth ballot, in an unprecedented move, Napolitano was elected for a second term as Italian president.[citation needed]

Successively, Napolitano started talks again and on 24 April appointed the Democratic Party's deputy secretary Enrico Letta as designated prime minister[61] on 28 April, he announced that he had managed to form a grand coalition of his Democratic Party, the People of Freedom, Civic Choice, the Union of the Centre and the Radicals that would take office and seek a vote of confidence the next day.[6] The same day as the swearing-in a gunman opened fire at the prime minister's office, Palazzo Chigi, injuring two police officers.[62] Letta told parliament in his inaugural speech "Italy is dying from austerity alone. Growth policies cannot wait." He added that there would not be a property tax imposed and that a "fairer" system for the less affluent was being worked.[63] He also won the vote of confidence by 453 votes to 153.[64]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]