Italian general election, 1963

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Italian general election, 1963
Italy
1958 ←
April 28, 1963
→ 1968

All 630 seats to the Italian Chamber of Deputies
and 315 (of the 321) seats to the Italian Senate
Turnout 92.9%
  Majority party Minority party Third party
  Aldo Moro headshot.jpg Palmiro Togliatti Official.jpg Pietro Nenni speech.jpg
Leader Aldo Moro Palmiro Togliatti Pietro Nenni
Party Christian Democracy Communist Party Socialist Party
Leader since 1959 1938 1931
Leader's seat XXV - North Apulia XX - Latium XXX - Western Sicily
Last election 273 & 123 seats, 42.4% 140 & 60 seats, 22.7% 84 & 36 seats, 14.2%
Seats won 260 (H)
132 (S)
166 (H)
85 (S)
87 (H)
44 (S)
Seat change Decrease4 Increase51 Increase11
Popular vote 11,773,182 7,767,601 4,255,836
Percentage 38.3% 25.3% 13.8%
Swing Decrease4.1% Increase2.6% Decrease0.4%

Italian Election 1963 Province.png

Legislative election results map. Light Blue denotes provinces with a Christian Democratic plurality, Red denotes those with a Communist plurality, Gray denotes those with an Autonomist plurality.

Prime Minister before election

Amintore Fanfani
DC

New Prime Minister

Giovanni Leone
DC

General elections were held in Italy on April 28, 1963, to select the Fourth Republican Parliament.[1] It was the first election with a fixed number of MPs to be elected, as decided by the second Constitutional Reform in February 1963.[2] It was also the first election which saw the Secretary of Christian Democracy to refuse the office of Prime Minister after the vote, at least for six months, preferring to provisionally maintain his more influent post at the head of the party: this fact confirmed the transformation of Italian political system into a particracy, the secretaries of the parties having become more powerful than the Parliament and the Government.[3]

Electoral system[edit]

Regional pluralities in Senate

The pure party-list proportional representation had traditionally become the electoral system for the Chamber of Deputies. Italian provinces were united in 32 constituencies, each electing a group of candidates. At constituency level, seats were divided between open lists using the largest remainder method with Imperiali quota. Remaining votes and seats were transferred at national level, where they was divided using the Hare quota, and automatically distributed to best losers into the local lists.

For the Senate, 237 single-seat constituencies were established, even if the assembly had risen to 315 members. The candidates needed a landslide victory of two thirds of votes to be elected, a goal which could be reached only by the German minorities in South Tirol. All remained votes and seats were grouped in party lists and regional constituencies, where a D'Hondt method was used: inside the lists, candidates with the best percentages were elected.

Parties and leaders[edit]

Party Ideology Leader
Christian Democracy (DC) Christian democracy, Popularism Aldo Moro
Italian Communist Party (PCI) Communism, Marxism-Leninism Palmiro Togliatti
Italian Socialist Party (PSI) Socialism, Anti-capitalism Pietro Nenni
Italian Liberal Party (PLI) Liberalism, Conservatism Giovanni Malagodi
Italian Democratic Socialist Party (PSDI) Social democracy, Centrism Giuseppe Saragat
Italian Social Movement (MSI) Neo-Fascism, Italian nationalism Arturo Michelini
Democratic Party of Monarchist Unity (PDIUM) Monarchism, Conservatism Alfredo Covelli
Italian Republican Party (PRI) Republicanism, Centrism Oronzo Reale

Results[edit]

The election fell after the launch of the centre-left formula by the Christian Democracy, a coalition based upon the alliance with the Socialist Party which had left its alignment with the Soviet Union. Some rightist electors abandoned the DC for the Liberal Party, which was asking for a centre-right government and received votes also from the quarrelsome monarchist area. The majority party so decided to replace incumbent Premier Amintore Fanfani with a provisional administration led by impartial Speaker of the House, Giovanni Leone; however, when the congress of the PSI in autumn authorized a full engagement of the party into the government, Leone resigned and Aldo Moro, secretary of the DC and leader of the more leftist wing of the party, became the new Prime Minister and ruled Italy for more than four years, ever passing through two resolved political crisis caused even by the detachment of the left wing of the PSI, which created the PSIUP and returned to the alliance with the Communists, and by disagreements into the governmental coalition.

Chamber of Deputies[edit]

Composition of the Chamber of Deputies after the election.
Party Votes % Seats +/–
Christian Democracy 11,773,182 38.28 260 –13
Italian Communist Party 7,767,601 25.26 166 +16
Italian Socialist Party 4,255,836 13.84 87 +3
Italian Liberal Party 2,144,270 6.97 39 +22
Italian Democratic Socialist Party 1,876,271 6.10 33 +11
Italian Social Movement 1,570,282 5.11 27 +3
Italian Democratic Party of Monarchist Unity 536,948 1.75 8 –17
Italian Republican Party 420,213 1.37 6
South Tyrolean People's Party 135,457 0.44 3
Concentration Rural Unity 92,209 0.30 0
Autonomous Party of Pensioners of Italy 87,655 0.29 0 New
Valdostan Union 31,844 0.10 1
Others 61,103 0.19 0
Invalid/blank votes 1,013,138
Total 31,766,009 100 630 +34
Registered voters/turnout 34,199,184 92.89
Source: Ministry of the Interior
Popular vote
DC
  
38.28%
PCI
  
25.26%
PSI
  
13.84%
PLI
  
6.97%
PSDI
  
6.10%
MSI
  
5.11%
PDIUM
  
1.75%
PRI
  
1.37%
Others
  
1.33%

Senate of the Republic[edit]

Composition of the Senate after the election.
Party Votes % Seats +/–
Christian Democracy 10,017,975 36.47 129 +6
Italian Communist Party 6,933,310 25.24 84 +25
Italian Socialist Party 3,849,495 14.01 44 +9
Italian Liberal Party 2,043,323 7.44 18 +14
Italian Democratic Socialist Party 1,743,870 6.35 14 +9
Italian Social Movement 1,458,917 5.31 14 +6
Italian Democratic Party of Monarchist Unity 429,412 1.56 2 –5
Italian Republican Party 223,350 0.81 0
MSI-PDIUM 212,381 0.77 1 +1
DC-PRI 199,805 0.73 4 -
South Tyrolean People's Party 112,023 0.41 2
Concentration Rural Unity 58,064 0.21 0 New
Social Christian Autonomist Party 43,355 0.16 1 New
Sardinian Action Party 34,954 0.13 0
Valdostan Union 29,510 0.11 1 +1
Others 79,558 0.29 1 +1
Invalid/blank votes 2,273,406
Total 28,872,052 100 315 +69
Registered voters/turnout 31,019,233 93.0
Source: Ministry of the Interior

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1048 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
  2. ^ Constitutional Reform number 2 decided a fixed number of 630 member for the House, under the example of the British House of Commons during that period, and of 315 for the Senate, with a minimum of seven senators for each region excluding Aosta Valley and, later, Molise. This reform is still in force.
  3. ^ Italian electors effectively lost any chance to decide their Prime Minister until the majoritarian reform of 1993.

External links[edit]