Italian general election, 2001

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Italian general election, 2001
Italy
1996 ←
13 May 2001 → 2006

All 630 seats in the Italian Chamber of Deputies
315 seats in the Italian Senate
Turnout 81.4%
  First party Second party Third party
  Berlusconi-2010-1.jpg Francesco Rutelli-cropped.JPG Fausto Bertinotti.jpg
Leader Silvio Berlusconi Francesco Rutelli Fausto Bertinotti
Party Forza Italia The Daisy Communist Refoundation Party
Alliance House of Freedoms The Olive Tree
Leader's seat Milan Centre Rome Praenestine Turin Centre
Last election 305 & 143 seats, 43.2% 300 & 157 seats, 45.4% 35 & 10 seats, 8.6%
Seats won 368 (H)
176 (S)
241 (H)
128 (S)
11 (H)
4 (S)
Seat change Increase 96 Decrease 82 Decrease 30
Popular vote 16,915,513 16,209,944 1,868,659
Percentage 45.4% 43.5% 5.0%
Swing Increase 2.2% Decrease 1.9% Decrease 3.6%

Italian Election 2001 Province.png

Most voted party in each Province

Prime Minister before election

Giuliano Amato
The Olive Tree

Prime Minister-designate

Silvio Berlusconi
House of Freedoms

A national general election was held in Italy on May 13, 2001 to elect members of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate of the Republic. The 14th Parliament of the Italian republic was chosen.

Leader of the right-wing House of Freedoms Silvio Berlusconi won the election, defeating Francesco Rutelli, former Mayor of Rome, and premieral candidate of the leftist Olive Tree coalition, and rising back to power after his first victory, in 1994.

Electoral system[edit]

The intricate electoral system, called scorporo, provided 75% of the seats on the Chamber of Deputies (the Lower House) as elected by first-past-the-post system, whereas the remaining 25% was assigned on a proportional way with a minimum threshold of 4%.

The method used for the Senate was even more complicated: 75% of seats by uninominal method, and 25% by a special proportional method that actually assigned the remaining seats to minority parties.

Formally these were examples of additional member systems.

General election[edit]

Campaign[edit]

For this election Berlusconi again ran as leader of the centre-right coalition House of Freedoms (Italian: La Casa delle Libertà), which included the Union of Christian and Centre Democrats, the Lega Nord, the National Alliance and other parties.

On the television interviews programme Porta a Porta, during the last days of the electoral campaign, Berlusconi created a powerful impression on the public by undertaking to sign a so-called Contratto con gli Italiani (English: Contract with the Italians), an idea copied outright by his advisor Luigi Crespi from the Newt Gingrich's Contract with America introduced six weeks before the 1994 US Congressional election,[1] which was widely considered to be a creative masterstroke in his 2001 campaign bid for prime ministership. In this solemn agreement, Berlusconi claimed his commitment on improving several aspects of the Italian economy and life. Firstly, he undertook to simplify the complex tax system by introducing just two tax rates (33% for those earning over 100,000 euros, and 23% for anyone earning less than that figure: anyone earning less than 11,000 euros a year would not be taxed); secondly, he promised to halve the unemployment rate; thirdly, he undertook to finance and develop a massive new public works programme. Fourthly, he promised to raise the minimum monthly pension rate to 516 euros; and fifthly, he would suppress the crime wave by introducing police officers to patrol all local zones and areas in Italy's major cities.[2] Berlusconi undertook to refrain from putting himself up for re-election in 2006 if he failed to honour at least four of these five promises.

Parties and leaders[edit]

Party Ideology Leader
Forza Italia (FI) Liberal conservatism, Christian democracy Silvio Berlusconi
Democrats of the Left (DS) Democratic socialism, Social democracy Walter Veltroni
The Daisy (DL) Christian left, Centrism Francesco Rutelli
National Alliance (AN) National conservatism, Post-Fascism Gianfranco Fini
Communist Refoundation Party (PRC) Communism, Eurocommunism Fausto Bertinotti
Lega Nord (LN) Regionalism, Right-wing populism Umberto Bossi
Italy of Values (IdV) Populism, Anti-corruption Antonio Di Pietro
Whiteflower (CCD-CDU) Christian democracy, Social conservatism Pier Ferdinando Casini
European Democracy (DE) Christian democracy, Centrism Sergio D'Antoni
Bonino List (LB) Social liberalism, Radicalism Emma Bonino
The Sunflower (FdV-SDI) Green politics, Democratic socialism Enrico Boselli
Party of Italian Communists (PdCI) Communism, Eurocommunism Oliviero Diliberto

Results[edit]

Chamber of Deputies[edit]

Proportional[edit]

Party % Votes Seats
Forza Italia 29.43 10,923,431 62
Democrats of the Left 16.57 6,151,154 31
Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy 14.52 5,391,827 27
National Alliance 12.02 4,463,205 24
Communist Refoundation Party 5.03 1,868,659 11
Lega Nord 3.94 1,464,301 0
Italy of Values 3.89 1,443,725 0
Whiteflower (CCDCDU) 3.22 1,194,040 0
European Democracy 2.39 888,269 0
Bonino List 2.24 832,213 0
The Sunflower (FdVSDI) 2.17 805,340 0
Party of Italian Communists 1.67 620,859 0
Socialist Party – New PSI 0.95 353,269 0
South Tyrolean People's Party 0.54 200,059 0
Tricolour Flame 0.39 143,963 0
Veneto Front League 0.20 74,353 0
Pensioners' Party 0.18 68,349 0
Sardinian Action PartySardinia Nation 0.09 34,412 0
New Country 0.09 34,193 0
Abolizione Scorporo 0.07 26,917 0
Southern Action League 0.06 23,779 0
National Social Front 0.06 22,985 0
Greens Greens 0.05 18,262 0
New Force 0.04 13,622 0
Amadu List 0.03 11,517 0
European Republicans 0.02 7,997 0
We Sicilians 0.02 7,637 0
Movement of Freedoms 0.02 6,754 0
Free and Strong 0.02 6,722 0
Autonomist Socialists 0.02 6,492 0
Stop! 0.02 6,332 0
Communism 0.01 5,244 0
Third Pole for Autonomy 0.01 2,915 0
Total 100.00 37,122,776 155

First-past-the-post[edit]

Parties and coalitions % Votes Seats
House of Freedoms 45.57 16,915,513 282
The Olive Tree 43.15 16,019,388 183
Italy of Values 4.01 1,487,287 0
European Democracy 3.53 1,310,119 0
Bonino List 1.23 457,117 0
South Tyrolean People's PartyThe Olive Tree 0.51 190,556 5
South Tyrolean People's Party 0.47 173,735 3
Veneto Front League 0.47 173,618 0
Tricolour Flame 0.33 121,527 0
With Illy for Trieste 0.21 78,284 1
Sardinian Action PartySardinia Nation 0.11 40,692 0
Others 0.79 266,292 1
Total 100.00 37,259,705 475
Chamber of Deputies after the election.
Popular vote (Party)
FI
  
29.43%
DS
  
16.57%
DL
  
14.52%
AN
  
12.02%
PRC
  
5.03%
LN
  
3.94%
IdV
  
3.89%
CCD-CDU
  
3.22%
DE
  
2.39%
Bonino
  
2.24%
FdV-SDI
  
2.17%
PdCI
  
1.67%
Others
  
2.90%
Popular vote (Group)
CdL
  
45.44%
Ulivo
  
43.72%
IdV
  
3.99%
DE
  
3.52%
Bonino
  
1.23%
Others
  
2.11%

Senate of the Republic[edit]

Senate of the Republic after the election.
Parties and coalitions % Votes Seats
House of Freedoms 42.53 14,406,519 176
The Olive Tree 38.70 13,106,860 125
Communist Refoundation Party 5.04 1,708,707 4
Italy of Values 3.37 1,140,489 1
European Democracy 3.15 1,066,908 2
Bonino List 2.00 677,725 0
Tricolour Flame 1.00 340,221 0
League for Autonomy–Lombard Alliance–Pensioners League 0.91 308,559 1
South Tyrolean People's PartyThe Olive Tree 0.52 175,635 3
Veneto Front League 0.41 138,134 0
South Tyrolean People's Party 0.37 126,177 2
Va' pensiero Padania 0.35 119,058 0
National Social Front 0.29 98,132 0
European Democracy–Autonomist Socialists 0.23 79,002 0
Pensioners' Party 0.23 78,572 0
New Force 0.12 39,545 0
Greens Greens 0.11 35,743 0
Sardinian Action PartySardinia Nation 0.10 32,822 0
Aosta Valley 0.10 32,429 0
Others 0.46 160,025 0
Total 100.00 33,871,262 315


References[edit]

  1. ^ Gingrich, Newt; Armey, Dick (1994). Contract With America: The Bold Plan. 
  2. ^ Ricolfi, Luca (2005). Dossier Italia: a che punto è il 'contratto con gli italiani. Il mulino. 

External links[edit]