|Italy, Corsica, Croatia|
Italo-Dalmatian can be split into:
- Italian Romance, which includes most Italian languages.
- Dalmatian Romance, which includes Dalmatian and Istriot.
The generally accepted four branches of the Romance languages are Western Romance, Italo-Dalmatian, Sardinian and Eastern Romance. But there are other ways that the languages of Italo-Dalmation can be classified in these branches:
- Italo-Dalmatian is sometimes included in Eastern Romance (which includes Romanian), leading to: Western, Sardinian, and Eastern branches.
- Italo-Dalmatian is sometimes included in Western Romance (which includes the Gallic and Iberian languages) as Italo-Western, leading to: Italo-Western, Sardinian, and Eastern branches.
- Italian Romance is sometimes included in Italo-Western, with Dalmatian Romance included in Eastern Romance, leading to: Italo-Western, Sardinian, and Eastern branches.
- Corsican (from Italo-Dalmation) and Sardinian are sometimes included together as Southern Romance, or Island Romance, leading to: Western, Italo-Dalmatian, Southern, and Eastern branches.
- Dalmatian language, spoken in the Dalmatia region of Croatia. Became extinct in the 19th century.
- Regional varieties of Dalmation: Ragusan, Vegliot, Zara.
- Istriot, spoken on the Istrian peninsula of Croatia, Slovenia, and Italy.
- Tuscan: includes Standard Italian, and various forms of Regional Italian.
- Central Italian, or Latin-Umbrian-Marchegian: includes the varieties of Romanesco and Marchigiano.
- Southern Italian, spoken in central-southern Italy.
- Extreme Southern Italian:
- The Gallo-Italic languages of Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian, Lombard and Piedmontese.
- Venetian language. Should not be included in Gallo-Italic.
- Istriot, see Dalmation Romance.
Italian Dialects or Languages
The Italian Dialects are the different linguistic varieties of Italian spoken in Italy. Although they are labelled as dialects of Italian (It. dialetti), they can also be considered as individual languages, as they can differ widely from Standard Italian. They correspond to the languages classified as being Italian Romance (or Italo-Romance). They do not include the Sardinian language of the Italian island of Sardinia; due to substantial differences, it is usually classified as being seperate from other Romance languages.
The meaning of the “Italian Dialects” is not that of merely cataloguing the different linguistic varieties spoken in Italy, but instead of cataloguing the linguistic varieties spoken in Italy that are considered to be Italian in nature. But there is no absolute judge of which varieties are Italian in nature, as there is no means of creating a clear consensus. But some varieties are not considered to be Italian varieties, but are instead considered as being non-Italian varieties which are traditionally spoken in Italy. This is often the case when languages originate from outside of Italy.
The Gallo-Italic languages, and the Venetian language, are considered to be Northern Italian Dialects. But they are also considered to be Western Romance languages. So it is possible to classify them as being both Western Romance and Italian Romance.
Regional Italian has a different meaning: it is the varieties of Standard Italian, which is based on the Florentine dialect of Tuscan, spoken in different Italian regions, which have had influences from the traditional local Italian dialects. So they are similar to Standard Italian except for some local influences.
There are two major groups of Italian Dialects spoken in Italy: the Northern (Settentrionale) dialects; and the Central-Southern (Centro-Meridionale) dialects. They are divided by the La Spezia–Rimini Line, which is an isogloss, a geographical line that divides the Italian dialects in terms of linguistics. It roughly follows the divide between the Italian regions of Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna. The line can also be thought as dividing the Western Romance from the Central (Italo-Dalmation) Romance, Sardinian Romance and Eastern Romance, the main four groups of Romance languages.
Northern Italian Dialects or Languages
The Northern (Settentrionale) Italian dialects or languages are:
- The Gallo-Italic languages of Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian (Ligure), Lombard (Lombardo) (includes Milanese), and Piedmontese (Piemontese), the regional languages of the Italian regions of Emilia-Romagna, Liguria, Lombardy and Piedmont. These are usually thought of being Western Romance languages, often included in Gallo-Romance. But they are also considered to be dialects of Italian. They have features of both Gallo-Romance languages and other Italo-Dalmation languages.
- The Venetian language (It. Veneto), the regional language of the Venice and the Veneto region of Italy. This language is usually considered as Western Romance, but is also considered to be a dialect of Italian. It is sometimes placed in Gallo-Italic, but is more often thought as being seperate from Gallo-Italic. It has features of the Italo-Dalmation languages Istriot and Tuscan.
- Istriot (It. Istriota), spoken on the Istrian peninsula of Croatia, Slovenia, and Italy. It is usually classified as Italo-Dalmation. It has some similarity to the Venetian language.
Some other Romance languages are spoken in North Italy, but are not included in the Northern Italian Dialects, being seen as Gallic languages:
- The Rhaeto-Romance languages of Northern Italy are: Ladin language varieties, of Trentino, South Tyrol and the province of Belluno; and the Friulian language of Friuli. They are either classified as Gallo-Romance, sometimes as a group called Gallo-Rhaetian; or as a seperate branch of Western Romance. They have a strong Gallic nature.
- The Gallo-Romance languages of French; and also Arpitan, also called Franco-Provençal, as the Valdôtain patois. They are spoken, mainly in the Aosta Valley. Arpitan shares features of both French and the Provençal dialect of Occitan.
- The Provençal dialect of Occitan, as Vivaro-Alpine, is spoken in the Occitan Valleys of Piedmont and Liguria. The Occitan language is a Occitano-Romance language, and is mainly spoken in Southern France.
Central-Southern Italian Dialects or Languages
There are four main groups of Central-Southern (Centro-Meridionale) Italian dialects or languages:
- Tuscan and Corsican (It. Toscano e Corso): group of dialects spoken in the Italian region of Tuscany, and the French island of Corsica.
- Northern Tuscan dialects:
- Southern Tuscan dialects:
- Dialects of: Aretino-Chianaiolo; Senese; Grossetano.
- Corsican, spoken on Corsica, is thought to be descended mainly from Tuscan.
- Central Italian, or Latin-Umbrian-Marchegian Dialects: mainly spoken in the regions of: Lazio (which includes Rome); Umbria; central Marche; a small part of Abruzzo and Tuscany.
- Romanesco: spoken in Rome, Lazio.
- Castelli Romani: spoken in the Castelli Romani, in the Provence of Rome, Lazio.
- Tuscia or Viterbo: spoken in the Province of Viterbo, Lazio.
- Ciociaro: spoken in Ciociaria, in the Province of Frosinone, Lazio.
- Umbrian (It. Umbro): spoken in Umbria.
- Central Marchigiano: spoken in central Marche.
- Sabino: spoken in the city of L'Aquila (Abruzzo) and the Province of Rieti (Lazio).
- Southern Italian, or the Neapolitan language, is spoken in: southern Marche; southern Lazio; Abruzzo; Molise; Campania (including Naples); Basilicata; and the north of both Apulia and Calabria.
- Campano dialects of Neapolitan (It. Napolitano), Irpino, Southern Laziale: spoken in Naples and Campania; and southern Lazio.
- Abruzzese-Southern Marchigiano: spoken in the Abruzzo region and southern Marche region.
- Molisan (It. Molisano): spoken in the Molise region.
- Lucanian (It. Lucano): spoken in the region of Basilicata, also known as Lucania.
- Pugliese, or Apulian: spoken in the northern region of Apulia (It. Puglia).
- Cosentino, also known as or Northern Calabrian (It. Calabrese Settentrionale): spoken in the Province of Cosenza, in northern Calabria.
- Extreme Southern Italian, or the Sicilian language (It. Siciliano), is spoken on the island of Sicily; and in the south of both Calabria and Apulia; and some of Campania.
- Sicilian: dialects spoken on the island of Sicily: Western Sicilian; Central Metafonetica; Southeast Metafonetica; Ennese; Eastern Nonmetafonetica; Messinese.
- Sicillian dialects on other islands: Isole Eolie, on the Aeolian Islands; Pantesco, on the island of Pantelleria.
- Calabro, or Central-Southern Calabrian (It. Calabresi Centrale e Meridionale): dialects are spoken in the central and southern areas of the region of Calabria.
- Salentino: spoken in the Salento region of southern Apulia.
- Cilentan (It. cilentano) (sometimes classified as a Campano dialect): spoken in Cilento, which is southern Province of Salerno, in the Campania region.
In addition, some Gallo-Italic languages are spoken in Central-Southern Italy:
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Italo-Dalmatian". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Hammarström, Harald & Forkel, Robert & Haspelmath, Martin & Nordhoff, Sebastian. 2014. "Italo-Dalmatian" Glottolog 2.3. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- David Dalby, 1999/2000, The Linguasphere register of the world’s languages and speech communities. Observatoire Linguistique, Linguasphere Press. Volume 2. Oxford.
- Carlo Tagliavini, Le origni delle lingue neolatine, Bologna, Pàtron, 19726, p. 396. «Col nome di dialetti settentrionali o alto-italiani intendiamo i dialetti gallo-italici, il Veneto e l'Istriano [lege: Istriot language].»
- Lorenzo Renzi, Nuova introduzione alla filologia romanza, Bologna, Il Mulino, 1994, p. 176 «I dialetti settentrionali formano un blocco abbastanza compatto con molti tratti comuni che li accostano, oltre che tra loro, qualche volta anche alla parlate cosiddette ladine e alle lingue galloromanze [...] Alcuni fenomeni morfologici innovativi sono pure abbastanza largamente comuni, come la doppia serie pronominale soggetto (non sempre in tutte le persone)[...] Ma più spesso il veneto si distacca dal gruppo, lasciando così da una parte tutti gli altri dialetti, detti gallo-italici.»
- Harris, Martin; Vincent, Nigel (1997). Romance Languages. London: Routlegde. ISBN 0-415-16417-6.
- Calabrian in Italian: Calabrese (pl. Calebresi). Synonyms: Calabro, Calabra, Calabri, calabre (m., f., m.pl., f.pl.). Sicilian: calabbrìsi, calavrìsi. See: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/calabrese https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/calabro