|Italy, Corsica, Croatia|
Italo-Dalmatian can be split into:
- Italian Romance, which includes most Italian languages;
- Dalmatian Romance, which includes Dalmatian and Istriot.
Italo-Dalmatian is sometimes included in Eastern Romance (which includes Romanian). Italo-Dalmatian is also sometimes included in Western Romance (which includes the Gallo-Romance and Iberian Romance languages) as Italo-Western. Also, Italian Romance is sometimes included in Italo-Western, with Dalmatian Romance included in Eastern Romance.
- Dalmatian language, spoken in the Dalmatia region of Croatia. Became extinct in the 19th century.
- Regional varieties of Dalmation: Ragusan, Vegliot, Zara.
- Istriot, spoken on the Istrian peninsula of Croatia, Slovenia, and Italy.
- Tuscan, including Standard Italian, and various forms of Regional Italian.
- Central Italian, including the varieties of Romanesco and Marchigiano.
- Southern Italian, in central-southern Italy.
- Extreme Southern Italian
- The Gallo-Italic languages of Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian, Lombard and Piedmontese.
- Venetian language. Should not be included in Gallo-Italic.
- Istriot, see Dalmation Romance.
Italian Dialects or Languages
The Italian Dialects are the forms of Regional Italian spoken in Italy, which are thought to be similar to the Italian language. Although they are labelled by Italians as dialects of Italian (dialetti), they can also be considered as individual languages.
There are two major groups of Italian dialects spoken in Italy: the Northern (Settentrionale) dialects; and the Central-Southern (Centro-Meridionale) dialects. They are divided by the La Spezia–Rimini Line, which is an isogloss, a geographical line that divides the Italian dialects in terms of linguistics. It roughly follows the divide between the Italian regions of Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna. The line can also be thought as dividing the Western Romance from the Central (Italo-Dalmation) Romance, Sardinian Romance and Eastern Romance, the main four groups of Romance languages.
Northen (Settentrionale) Italian Dialects or Languages
The Italian dialects or languages of the north are:
- The Gallo-Italic languages of Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian, Lombard and Piedmontese, the regional languages of the Italian regions of Emilia-Romagna, Liguria, Lombardy and Piedmont. These are usually thought of being Western Romance languages, often included in Gallo-Romance. But they are also considered to be dialects of Italian. They have features of both Gallo-Romance and Italo-Dalmation.
- Venetian language, the regional language of the Veneto region of Italy. This language is usually considered as Western Romance, and is sometimes placed in Gallo-Italic, but is more often thought as being seperate from Gallo-Italic. It has features of the Italo-Dalmation languages Istriot and Tuscan, and is also considered to be a dialect of Italian.
- Istriot, spoken on the Istrian peninsula of Croatia, Slovenia, and Italy. It is usually classified as Italo-Dalmation. Has some similarity to the Venetian language.
Some other Romance languages are spoken in North Italy, but are not included in the Northern Italian dialects, being seen as too different to the Italian language.
- The Rhaeto-Romance languages of Northern Italy are the Ladin language of the Dolomites area of South Tyrol, and the Friulian language of Friuli. They are either classified as Gallo-Romance, or as a branch of Western Romance.
- The Gallo-Romance language of Arpitan, or Franco-Provençal. This is mainly spoken in the Aosta Valley region of Italy.
- The Provençal dialect of Occitan, spoken mainly in the extreme western area of Piedmont. The Occitan language is a Occitano-Romance language.
Central-Southern (Centro-Meridionale) Italian Dialects or Languages
There are four main groups of Central-Southern Italian dialects:
- The Tuscan group of dialects are spoken mainly in the Italian region of Tuscany. Tuscany includes the city of Florence, and the Florence dialect was the basis for Standard Italian.
- The Latin-Umbrian-Marchegian dialects, or Central Italian, is mainly spoken in the Lazio (which includes Rome), Umbria and Marche regions of Italy. In Rome the Romanesco dialect is spoken; in Umbria, the Umbrian dialect; in Marche, the Marchigiano dialect.
- Southern Italian, or the Intermediate Southern dialects, are spoken in the regions of southern Lazio, Abruzzo, Molise, Campania (including Naples), Basilicata; and the north of both Apulia and Calabria. Neapolitan is the dialect spoken in Naples; Abruzzese is the dialect spoken in Abruzzo; Basilicatan is the dialect spoken in Basilicata; Apulian is the dialect spoken in Apulia.
- Extreme Southern Italian, or Sicilian, is spoken in the south of both Calabria and Apulia, and the island of Sicily. In Calabria it is known as Southern Calabro. In Apulia it is called Salentino, after the Salento region of southern Apulia. In Campania it is also spoken, where it is called Cilentano.
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Italo-Dalmatian". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Hammarström, Harald & Forkel, Robert & Haspelmath, Martin & Nordhoff, Sebastian. 2014. "Italo-Dalmatian" Glottolog 2.3. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- David Dalby, 1999/2000, The Linguasphere register of the world’s languages and speech communities. Observatoire Linguistique, Linguasphere Press. Volume 2. Oxford.
- Carlo Tagliavini, Le origni delle lingue neolatine, Bologna, Pàtron, 19726, p. 396. «Col nome di dialetti settentrionali o alto-italiani intendiamo i dialetti gallo-italici, il Veneto e l'Istriano [lege: Istriot language].»
- Lorenzo Renzi, Nuova introduzione alla filologia romanza, Bologna, Il Mulino, 1994, p. 176 «I dialetti settentrionali formano un blocco abbastanza compatto con molti tratti comuni che li accostano, oltre che tra loro, qualche volta anche alla parlate cosiddette ladine e alle lingue galloromanze [...] Alcuni fenomeni morfologici innovativi sono pure abbastanza largamente comuni, come la doppia serie pronominale soggetto (non sempre in tutte le persone)[...] Ma più spesso il veneto si distacca dal gruppo, lasciando così da una parte tutti gli altri dialetti, detti gallo-italici.»
- Harris, Martin; Vincent, Nigel (1997). Romance Languages. London: Routlegde. ISBN 0-415-16417-6.
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