Italo-Dalmatian languages

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Italo-Dalmatian
Geographic
distribution:
Italy, Corsica, Croatia
Linguistic classification: Indo-European
Glottolog: ital1286[1]

The Italo-Dalmatian languages, or Central Romance languages, are a group of Romance languages of Italy, Corsica, and, formerly, the Dalmatian Coast of Croatia.

Italo-Dalmatian can be split into:[2]

  • Italian Romance, which includes most Italian languages.
  • Dalmatian Romance, which includes Dalmatian and Istriot.

The generally accepted four branches of the Romance languages are Western Romance, Italo-Dalmatian, Sardinian and Eastern Romance. But there are other ways that the languages of Italo-Dalmation can be classified in these branches:

  • Italo-Dalmatian is sometimes included in Eastern Romance (which includes Romanian), leading to: Western, Sardinian, and Eastern branches.
  • Italo-Dalmatian is sometimes included in Western Romance (which includes the Gallic and Iberian languages) as Italo-Western, leading to: Italo-Western, Sardinian, and Eastern branches.
  • Italian Romance is sometimes included in Italo-Western, with Dalmatian Romance included in Eastern Romance, leading to: Italo-Western, Sardinian, and Eastern branches.
  • Corsican (from Italo-Dalmation) and Sardinian are sometimes included together as Southern Romance, or Island Romance, leading to: Western, Italo-Dalmatian, Southern, and Eastern branches.

Language Summary[edit]

Based on mutual intelligibility, Dalby lists four languages: Corsican, Italian (Tuscan–Central), NeapolitanSicilian, and Dalmatian.[3] A more detailed account of the languages and dialects includes:

Dalmation Romance[edit]

Central-Southern Italian[edit]

Judeo-Italian[edit]

Judeo-Italian languages are varieties of Italian used by Jewish communities, between the 10th and the 20th centuries, in Italy, Corfu and Zante.

Northern Italian[edit]

The Gallo-Italic languages and the Venetian language are considered to be Northern dialects of the Italian language,[4] but they are also considered to be Western Romance languages.

Italian Dialects or Languages[edit]

The Italian Dialects are the different linguistic varieties of Italian spoken in Italy. Although they are labelled as dialects of Italian (It. dialetti), they can also be considered as individual languages, as they can differ widely from Standard Italian.[2] They correspond to the languages classified as being Italian Romance (or Italo-Romance). They do not include the Sardinian language of the Italian island of Sardinia; due to substantial differences, it is usually classified as being seperate from other Romance languages.

The meaning of the “Italian Dialects” is not that of merely cataloguing the different linguistic varieties spoken in Italy, but instead of cataloguing the linguistic varieties spoken in Italy that are considered to be Italian in nature. But there is no absolute judge of which varieties are Italian in nature, as there is no means of creating a clear consensus. But some varieties are not considered to be Italian varieties, but are instead considered as being non-Italian varieties which are traditionally spoken in Italy. This is often the case when languages originate from outside of Italy.

The Gallo-Italic languages, and the Venetian language, are considered to be Northern Italian Dialects.[4] But they are also considered to be Western Romance languages. So it is possible to classify them as being both Western Romance and Italian Romance.

Regional Italian has a different meaning: it is the varieties of Standard Italian, which is based on the Florentine dialect of Tuscan, spoken in different Italian regions, which have had influences from the traditional local Italian dialects. So they are similar to Standard Italian except for some local influences.

There are two major groups of Italian Dialects spoken in Italy: the Northern (Settentrionale) dialects; and the Central-Southern (Centro-Meridionale) dialects. They are divided by the La Spezia–Rimini Line, which is an isogloss, a geographical line that divides the Italian dialects in terms of linguistics. It roughly follows the divide between the Italian regions of Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna. The line can also be thought as dividing the Western Romance from the Central (Italo-Dalmation) Romance, Sardinian Romance and Eastern Romance, the main four groups of Romance languages.

Northern Italian Dialects or Languages[edit]

The Northern (Settentrionale) Italian dialects or languages are:[4]

Some other Romance languages are spoken in North Italy, but are not included in the Northern Italian Dialects, being seen as too different to the Italian language:[4]

Some Non-Romance languages, such as High German and Slovene varieties, are also spoken in Northern Italy. See the languages of Italy for a fuller discussion.

Central-Southern Italian Dialects or Languages[edit]

There are four main groups of Central-Southern (Centro-Meridionale) Italian dialects or languages:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Italo-Dalmatian". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ a b c Hammarström, Harald & Forkel, Robert & Haspelmath, Martin & Nordhoff, Sebastian. 2014. "Italo-Dalmatian" Glottolog 2.3. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
  3. ^ David Dalby, 1999/2000, The Linguasphere register of the world’s languages and speech communities. Observatoire Linguistique, Linguasphere Press. Volume 2. Oxford.[1]
  4. ^ a b c d e Carlo Tagliavini, Le origni delle lingue neolatine, Bologna, Pàtron, 19726, p. 396. «Col nome di dialetti settentrionali o alto-italiani intendiamo i dialetti gallo-italici, il Veneto e l'Istriano [lege: Istriot language].»
  5. ^ a b c Lorenzo Renzi, Nuova introduzione alla filologia romanza, Bologna, Il Mulino, 1994, p. 176 «I dialetti settentrionali formano un blocco abbastanza compatto con molti tratti comuni che li accostano, oltre che tra loro, qualche volta anche alla parlate cosiddette ladine e alle lingue galloromanze [...] Alcuni fenomeni morfologici innovativi sono pure abbastanza largamente comuni, come la doppia serie pronominale soggetto (non sempre in tutte le persone)[...] Ma più spesso il veneto si distacca dal gruppo, lasciando così da una parte tutti gli altri dialetti, detti gallo-italici.»
  6. ^ Harris, Martin; Vincent, Nigel (1997). Romance Languages. London: Routlegde. ISBN 0-415-16417-6.
  7. ^ a b c Calabrian in Italian: Calabrese (pl. Calebresi). Synonyms: Calabro, Calabra, Calabri, calabre (m., f., m.pl., f.pl.). Sicilian: calabbrìsi, calavrìsi. See: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/calabrese https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/calabro