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|Italy, Corsica, Croatia|
Italo-Dalmatian can be split into:
- Italo-Romance, which includes most Italian languages.
- Dalmatian Romance, which includes Dalmatian and Istriot.
The generally accepted four branches of the Romance languages are Western Romance, Italo-Dalmatian, Sardinian and Eastern Romance. But there are other ways that the languages of Italo-Dalmatian can be classified in these branches:
- Italo-Dalmatian is sometimes included in Eastern Romance (which includes Romanian), leading to: Western, Sardinian, and Eastern branches.
- Italo-Dalmatian is sometimes included in Western Romance (which includes the Gallic and Iberian languages) as Italo-Western, leading to: Italo-Western, Sardinian, and Eastern branches.
- Italo-Romance is sometimes included in Italo-Western, with Dalmatian Romance included in Eastern Romance, leading to: Italo-Western, Sardinian, and Eastern branches.
- Corsican (from Italo-Dalmatian) and Sardinian are sometimes included together as Southern Romance, or Island Romance, leading to: Western, Italo-Dalmatian, Southern, and Eastern branches.
Based on mutual intelligibility, Dalby lists four languages: Corsican, Italian (Tuscan–Central), Neapolitan–Sicilian, and Dalmatian.[not specific enough to verify] A more detailed account of the languages and dialects includes:
- Dalmatian language, spoken in the Dalmatia region of Croatia. Became extinct in the 19th century
- Regional varieties of Dalmatian: Ragusan, Vegliot, Zara
- Istriot, spoken on the Istrian peninsula of Croatia, Slovenia, and Italy. Istriot is sometimes considered not to belong to Italo-Dalmatian.
- Tuscan: includes Standard Italian, and various forms of Regional Italian
- Central Italian, or Latin–Umbrian–Marchegian: includes the varieties of Romanesco and Marchigiano
- Southern Italian, spoken in central–southern Italy
- Extreme Southern Italian:
- Some Italian linguists group the Gallo-Italic languages with Italo-Romance.
Italo-Romance languages and dialects
There are four main groups of Central-Southern (Centro-Meridionale) Italian dialects or languages:
- Tuscan and Corsican (It. Toscano e Corso): group of dialects spoken in the Italian region of Tuscany, and the French island of Corsica.
- Northern Tuscan dialects:
- Southern Tuscan dialects:
- Dialects of Aretino-Chianaiolo, Senese, Grossetano.
- Corsican, spoken on Corsica, is thought to be descended mainly from Tuscan.
- Central Italian, or Latin-Umbrian-Marchegian dialects: mainly spoken in the regions of: Lazio (which includes Rome); Umbria; central Marche; a small part of Abruzzo and Tuscany.
- Romanesco, spoken in Rome and Lazio.
- Castelli Romani: spoken in the Castelli Romani, in the Provence of Rome, Lazio.
- Tuscia or Viterbo: spoken in the Province of Viterbo, Lazio.
- Ciociaro: spoken in Ciociaria, in the Province of Frosinone, Lazio.
- Umbrian (It. Umbro): spoken in Umbria.
- Central Marchigiano: spoken in central Marche.
- Sabino: spoken in the city of L'Aquila (Abruzzo) and the Province of Rieti (Lazio).
- Southern Italian, or the Neapolitan language, is spoken in: southern Marche; southern Lazio; Abruzzo; Molise; Campania (including Naples); Basilicata; and the north of both Apulia and Calabria.
- Campano dialects of Neapolitan (It. Napolitano), Irpino, Southern Laziale: spoken in Naples and Campania; and southern Lazio.
- Abruzzese-Southern Marchigiano: spoken in the Abruzzo region and southern Marche region.
- Molisan (It. Molisano): spoken in the Molise region.
- Lucanian (It. Lucano): spoken in the region of Basilicata, also known as Lucania.
- Pugliese, or Apulian: spoken in the northern region of Apulia (It. Puglia).
- Cosentino, also known as or Northern Calabrian (It. Calabrese Settentrionale): spoken in the Province of Cosenza, in northern Calabria.
- Extreme Southern Italian, or the Sicilian language (It. Siciliano), is spoken on the island of Sicily; and in the south of both Calabria and Apulia; and some of Campania.
- Sicilian, spoken on the island of Sicily: Western Sicilian; Central Metafonetica; Southeast Metafonetica; Ennese; Eastern Nonmetafonetica; Messinese.
- Sicilian dialects on other islands: Isole Eolie, on the Aeolian Islands; Pantesco, on the island of Pantelleria.
- Calabro, or Central-Southern Calabrian (It. Calabresi Centrale e Meridionale): dialects are spoken in the central and southern areas of the region of Calabria.
- Salentino, spoken in the Salento region of southern Apulia.
- Cilentan (It. cilentano) (sometimes classified as a Campano dialect): spoken in Cilento, which is southern Province of Salerno, in the Campania region.
In addition, some Gallo-Italic languages are spoken in Central-Southern Italy.
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Italo-Dalmatian". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Hammarström, Harald & Forkel, Robert & Haspelmath, Martin & Nordhoff, Sebastian. 2014. "Italo-Dalmatian" Glottolog 2.3. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- David Dalby, 1999/2000, The Linguasphere register of the world's languages and speech communities. Observatoire Linguistique, Linguasphere Press. Volume 2. Oxford.
- For example, Giovan Battista Pellegrini, Tullio De Mauro, Maurizio Dardano, Tullio Telmon (see Enrico Allasino et al. Le lingue del Piemonte, IRES – Istituto di Ricerche Economico Sociali del Piemonte, Torino, 2007, p. 9) and Vincenzo Orioles (see Classificazione dei dialetti parlati in Italia).
- Harris, Martin; Vincent, Nigel (1997). Romance Languages. London: Routlegde. ISBN 0-415-16417-6.
- Calabrian in Italian: Calabrese (pl. Calebresi). Synonyms: Calabro, Calabra, Calabri, calabre (m., f., m.pl., f.pl.). Sicilian: calabbrìsi, calavrìsi. See: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/calabrese https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/calabro