Itawis language

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Itawis
Native to Philippines
Region Luzon
Native speakers
130,000  (1990)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 itv
Glottolog itaw1240  (Itawit)[2]
mala1534  (Malaweg)[3]
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Itawis language map according to Ethnologue maps

Itawis (also Itawit or Tawit) is a Northern Philippine language which has close relationships to Ibanag, Ilocano, and other languages of the same order. Unlike the rest of Philippine languages, Itawit and its kin use the consonants z,f,j (spelled like dy but sounds like j) and v. For example, fefeg-fan, madyan-maid, kazzing-goat, and bavi-pig.

Background[edit]

Itawis is spoken by the Itawis people of Northern Luzon who inhabit the province of Cagayan Valley. Their range is from the lower Chico and Matalag rivers. In many towns by these rivers, Itawis are found with Ibanags, and speak Ibanag as well as an example of linguistic adaptation. Speakers of Itawis and Ibanag can easily understand each other because of the close relationship of their languages. The Itawis are linguistically and culturally very closely related to the Ibanag.

The Itawis language is classified as a Malayo-Polynesian language, in the super family of languages called Austronesian. During the pre-Spanish period of the Philippines, words were borrowed from Spanish to stand in place for words that did not exist in the Itawis language. One such word is la mesa which means table, for Ancient Itawis didn't eat on tables which were introduced by the Spanish.

Linguistic Notes[edit]

The Itawit language has a fast, somewhat soft tone. Speakers usually shorten sentences by shortening words, however shortening every word is not possible. For a non-fluent, non-native, or a beginner learner, all words in a sentence should be said fully and complete. In a gesture of respect, Itawits usually use the name or status of a person at the end of a sentence.

For example: Where is the bathroom? (asking an elderly woman) Dyanna yo banyu ko anti/manang?

anti : auntie used in Itawit for an elderly woman or a family friend)

manang : elder sister(used in Itawit as a sign of respect)

When asking a question, Itawits usually start with a person's name or status and then the question itself.

If asking someone familiar, Itawits also usually end it with he, diba, or ko (state persons name or status).

What 

Anna (in some dialects of Itawis, it is Hanna)

Where 

Dyanna (jan+na)

When 

Sonu inya (sometimes, Itawits shorten in to so-inya)

Who 

Inya

Why 

Kaam

How 

Kunnasi

The Itawit sentence structure is similar to English. For example:

Ronald went to get some water from the fridge. :

Y Ronald e numang nga nangalak kang danum kanne ref. :

[stating word] Ronald [] went to get [word that states a place] water from fridge. 

The format is a noun, verb, adjective/place/noun sequence.

If you are talking about a person, nobody will know who you're talking about unless you use the specification word Y. The Tagalog equivalent would be Si, both meaning That person. After saying Y, you say the persons name, but in a gesture of respect, the status and name is given.

EXP 
(describing an older woman) Eleine is so funny. 
Y manang Eleine e sobra y0 appagalak na. 
[Stating word] (elder sister) Eleine [] very [] laugh maker [] article pertaining to Elaine. :

Pronunciation[edit]

Consonants

like 'b' in bed
like 'd' in dead
like 'f' in file
like 'g' in goat
like 'h' in happy
like 'c' in cat
like 'l' in like
like 'm' in moan
like 'n' in none
like 'p' in pocket
like 'qu' in queen
like 'r' in rooster
like 's' in sister
like 't' in tooth
like 'v' in vain
like 'w' in water
like 'y' in yell
like 'z' in zone

Vowels

like 'a' in apple
like 'e' in elephant
like 'ee' in bee
like 'o' in so
like 'oe' in shoe

Diphthongs

ay 
like 'ay' in "say"
ai 
like 'ay' in "say"
au 
like 'awe'
ee 
like 'ee' in "see"
ei 
like 'ay' in "say"
ey 
like 'ay' in "say", like 'ee' in "see"
ie 
like 'ee' in "see"
oi 
like 'oy' in "boy"
oo 
like 'oo' in "food", like 'oo' in "good"
ou 
like 'ow' in "cow", like 'oo' in "food", like 'o' in "cot"
ow 
like 'ow' in "cow"
oy 
like 'oy' in "boy"
ch 
like 'ch' in "touch"
sh 
like 'sh' in "sheep"
th 
like 'th' in "this", like 'th' in "those"
gh 
like 'f' in "fish"
ph 
like 'f' in "fish"

Phrases[edit]

Hello 

Helo

How are you? 

Kunnasi ka?

I am fine 

Napia nak

I am not doing well 

Marik kuru nga napia.

Thank you 

Mabbalat

And you? 

Ey ikau?

Good morning 

Napia nga mataruk

Good afternoon 

Napia nga giram

Good night 

Napia nga gabi

Good night (for sleeping) 

Napia nga akaturug

Good day 

Napia nga algaw

Yes 

Oon (Oh-ohn [also shortened as On])

No 

Awan (or Mari)

Maybe 

Baka

Definitely 

Siguru

I don't know 

Marik ammu

I know 

Ammuk

What is your name? 

Anna yo ngahan mu?

My name is (state your name) 

Yo ngahan ku e (state your name)

His/her name is (state persons name) 

Yo ngahan na e (state persons name)

Nice to meet you 

Napia nga nakilala ta ka

Please 

___[command]pay e. ("if you would")

May I ask you a favor? 

Puede pe nga makifavor? :

Take care 

Magingat ka/Innam mu ikau

How old are you? 

Pia ya dahun mun (the word mun is short for mu ngin [both can be said])/Anni ya dahun mun?

I am (state your age) years old. 

Ya dahun ku e (state your age)

Where are you from? 

Anni nga bansa yo nagafanan mu? (asking what country)/Janna yo nagafanan mu? (lit. Where did you come from?)

Where do you live? 

Dyanna yo padyanan mu?

Where have you been? 

Nagafanan mu kang?/Dyanna ya nagafuanan mu?

Where are you going? 

Dyanna ya anyanan mu?/Anyanan mu kang?

Can you accompany me to_? 

Puedem nga vulunan yakan kang_?

Can you take me to_? 

Puedem nga iyangay yakan kang_?

What is your work? 

Hanna yo trabahum?

What are you doing? 

Hanna yo kukukuan mu?

Where do you go to school? 

Hanna yo eskuelam?/Janna ya pagilamuan mu?

Excuse me (getting attention) 

Excuse me

Excuse me (to pass through, asking permission) 

Pakidalan (I will walk)/Puede nak nga manalan?/Manalan nak/Excuse me ko (persons name)

I can't speak (state language) well. 

Marik kuru maka-ergo kang (state language) nga napia.

I can't speak (state language). 

Marik maka-ergo kang (state language).

I only understand 

Matindyan ku laman

I don't understand 

Marik nga matindyan

I understand 

Matindyan ku

Help 

Paki-ufun/Ufunan mu yakan/Mauag ku ya ufun

Look out 

Magadang ka (lit. save yourself/flee)

Where's the bathroom? 

Dyanna ya banyu?

What time is it? 

Hanna yo orat ngin?

Who is she/he? 

Inya iggina?

What do you mean? 

Hanna yo kayat mu nga kayan?

Please say it again/Pardon 

Puedem nga kayan uli/Paki-ulit mu yo kinahim

Please write it down 

Iturat mu

Let's go 

Anteran (Anteran is short for umang tera ngin/ both can be said)/Tara/Teran/Tsin

Wait 

So abit/Mattaron ka/ Taronan mu yakan

Can I speak to_? 

Puedek kergo y_?

Monkey

Ayong

Pig

Bavi

Cliff

Zizzig

Animal 

Ayam

Snake 

Zariyyang


Comparison to Ibanag

Itawit Ibanag English
isa tadday one
dua dua two
tallu tallu three
appat appa' four
lima lima five
annam annam six
pitu pitu seven
walu walu eight
siam siam nine
mafulu mafulu ten
Yo ngahan ku e Ben. I ngagak ku ay Ben. My name is Ben.
Janna yo nagafuanam mu? Sitau y naggafuanam mu? Where did you come from?
Hanna yo kinnam mu? Anni y kinnam mu? What did you eat?
Hanna yo kanakanam mu? Anni y kanakanam mu? What are you eating?
Nakakan kami zinan nu nallabbet iggina. Nakakak kami nacuan nu limibbe yayya. We would have eaten, had they arrived.
Hanna yo kanam mu sangaw? Anni y kanam mu sangaw? What are you going to eat?
Maddagun kami mangan kustu nallabbet iggina. Maddaguk kami kuman kustu nallabbe yayya. We were eating while he/she arrived home.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Itawis at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Itawit". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Malaweg". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 

External links[edit]