|Cultural origins||Bollywood songs|
|Hindi, Kannada, Tamil and Telugu cinema|
|List of item numbers in Indian cinema|
An item number or an item song, in Indian cinema, is a musical performance that has little to do with the film in which it appears, but is presented to showcase beautiful dancing women in revealing clothes, to lend support to the marketability of the film. The term is commonly used in connection with Hindi, Kannada, Tamil and Telugu cinema, to describe a catchy, upbeat, often sexually provocative dance sequence for a song in a movie. However, the term as understood in Bollywood parlance has entered the Kathmandu entertainment industry scenario as well. Item numbers are usually added to Indian movies in order to generate publicity by featuring them in the trailers. Item numbers are favoured by filmmakers for the reason that since they do not add to the plot, they afford the filmmakers with the opportunity to pick potential hit songs from the stocks. It is thus a vehicle for commercial success which ensures repeat viewing.
A female actor, singer or dancer, especially someone who is poised to become a star, who appears in an item number is known as an item girl. There are item boys as well. However, second generation South Asian females are more commonly featured in item numbers than males. Item numbers usually feature one or more persons other than the lead actors. Sometimes established female and male actors will lend a "special appearance" to an item number.
Although, the origin of the term "item number" is obscure, it is likely that it derives its meaning from objectification of sexually attractive women. This is because item in filmy Mumbai slang is a sexy woman. The classic meaning of "item number" refers to highly sexualized songs with racy imagery and suggestive lyrics. The "item number" would feature an "item girl" who appeared in the film as a dancer, usually in a bar or nightclub, and was only in the film for the length of that song. It was often frowned upon at that point in time.[when?]
Up to the 1970s, Bollywood often relied on the figure of the vamp, usually a cabaret dancer, or a tawaif (prostitute or a courtesan) or a gangster's moll, to provide sexually explicit musical entertainment. While the heroine too did sing and dance, it was the vamp who wore more revealing clothes, smoked, drank and sang in bold terms of sexual desire. She was portrayed not as being wicked but as the naughty, sexually alluring, immodest woman, erotic in her dance performances. The trend was started by Cuckoo in films like Awaara (1951), Aan (1952) and Shabistan (1951).
Item numbers had been featured in Bollywood from as early as the 30s. Azoorie in the 1930s often performed item numbers; Cuckoo was the next popular item dancer in the late 40s. Her banner year was 1949 when she was featured in over 17 films performing dances.
In the early 50s, Cuckoo introduced the Burmese-Anglo Helen as a chorus girl. In time Helen would come to be the most popular vamp of the late-50s, 60s and 70s, having had performed in scores of item numbers including such popular songs as "Mera Naam Chin-Chin Choo" from the film Howrah Bridge (1958), "Piya Tu Ab To Aaja" from Caravan (1971), "Mehbooba Mehbooba" from Sholay (1975) and "Yeh Mera Dil" from Don (1978)The song's tune was also used in Dont Phunk With My Heart, "O Haseena Zulfon Wali" from Teesri Manzil and "Aa Jaane Jaan". In films like Gunga Jumna and Zindagi the actor performed semi-classical Indian dances in songs like "Tora man bada paapi" and "Ghungarwa mora chham chham baaje". A desi bar number, "Mungra Mungra" from Inkaar was also immensely popular. In addition to her skillful dancing, her anglicised looks too helped further the vamp image. Helen's dominance pushed other vying item number dancers like Madhumati, Bela Bose, Laxmi Chhaya, Jeevankala, Aruna, Sheela R. and Sujata Bakshi into the background and less prestigious and low budget b-movies.
In the early part of the 1970s actresses Jayshree T., Bindu, Aruna Irani and Padma Khanna entered into what was Helen's monopoly. Another noted feature of this era was the "tribal and banjara" item numbers such as the one in the Dharmendra, Zeenat Aman and Rex Harrison starer Shalimar. Such songs provided the necessary settings for the lead couple's love to bloom.
Around the 1980s the vamp and the heroine merged into one figure and the lead actress had begun to perform the bolder numbers, like Pyar ka Tohfa tera picturised on Jaya Prada in hit film, Tohfa (1984). The vampy item girls were thus outpaced by the heroines performing item numbers. This eventual demise of the vamp marked the increasing social acceptance of sexually explicit dancing for the morally respected heroine.
The craze for "tribal and banjara" item numbers were soon gave way to slick choreography. In the late 1990s, with the proliferation of film songs based television shows, film producers had come to realise that an exceptional way to entice audiences into theaters was by spending excessively on the visualization of songs. Hence regardless of the theme and plot, an elaborate song and dance routine involving spectacularly lavish sets, costumes, special effects, extras and dancers would invariably be featured in a film. It was asserted that this contributed highly to the film's "repeat value".
Madhuri Dixit is often considered to be the pioneer of the modern trend. In the late 1980s, the song "Ek Do Teen" was added to the movie Tezaab as an afterthought, but it transformed Dixit and made her a superstar. Her partnership with choreographer Saroj Khan has resulted in numerous hits including the controversial "Choli ke peeche kya hai" and "Dhak dhak" (Beta). Soon after the release of the film Khalnayak, there were press reports stating that people were seeing the film again and again but only for the song "Choli ke peeche kya hai" that featured Dixit.
Although there have been many songs that fit the descriptions of item numbers in the early and mid-1990s, the term itself was coined when Shilpa Shetty danced for "Main Aai Hoon UP Bihar Lootne" in the movie Shool. This is perhaps the first time the media actually referred to Shetty as an "item girl" and the scene as an "item number".
Many top stars in Bollywood now do item numbers, and many new women entering Bollywood find item numbers a more amenable shortcut to success, as opposed to more traditional roles with no guarantee of eventual stardom. Former item girls in pop songs outside films, Rakhi Sawant and Meghna Naidu, for example, are now quite in demand and very popular. Today, they are even being given lead roles in commercially successful movies.[when?] As of 2007, Mallika Sherawat has become the most expensive "Item Girl", as she charged Rs.15 million (roughly US$375,000) for the song "Mehbooba Mehbooba" in Aap Ka Suroor - The Real Love Story. Actress Urmila Matondkar is one of the most successful item girls.[original research?] She was featured in "Chamma Chamma" in the 1998 film China Gate. Baz Luhrmann's 2001 film musical, Moulin Rouge! used a westernized version of this song.
Malaika Arora Khan and Yana Gupta are "official" item number dancers. They have said they don't want to act in movies since they earn sufficient amount of money by just doing one song.
Abhishek Bachchan became the first "item boy" with his performance in Rakht; Shahrukh Khan also performed an item number during the opening credits of Kaal but had an item numbers in a truer sense of the word with "Dard-e-Disco" in Om Shanti Om, where he was shot in typical "item girl" manner with bare six pack abs (though this number did have a tenuous connexion with the plot of a film within a film[original research?]), and in Krazzy 4. Also in Krazzy 4, Hrithik Roshan has an item number during the end credits. Ranbir Kapoor, son of legendary Bollywood stars Rishi Kapoor and Neetu Singh, made his debut in an item number in Chillar Party (2011); the song draws inspiration from Rishi Kapoor's Qawwali song "Parda" from Amar Akbar Anthony.
In the 2007 film Om Shanti Om, the song "Deewangi Deewangi" had guest appearances by over 30 Bollywood stars. In 2008, the makers of Rab Ne Bana Di Jodi featured Kajol, Bipasha Basu, Lara Dutta, Priety Zinta, and Rani Mukerji playing as five classic leading ladies, opposite Shahrukh Khan on the song "Phir Milenge Chalte Chalte".
In 2010, Katrina Kaif featured in "Sheila Ki Jawani" from Tees Maar Khan, and Malaika Arora Khan featured in "Munni Badnaam Hui" from Dabangg. Parallels were drawn between Katrina and Malaika, as well as between the item numbers, in what was popularly known as the "Munni vs Sheila" debate. The songs became so popular, that a new trend was started whereby many more films began incorporating item numbers, and top stars now wanted to do them.
In 2012, Kareena Kapoor appeared in many item songs. She first danced in Agent Vinod's mujra style song Dil Mera Muft Ka. Then she danced in her film Heroine, Halkat Jawani. Her next project was Muskaan Jhoti Hain in Talaash and last of all in December she danced with Salman Khan in his film Dabangg 2 song Fevicol Se.
In 2013, Deepika Padukone had some success item dancing, performing songs like Party On My Mind and Dilliwaali Girlfriend. Priyanka Chopra did a lot of songs like Babli Badamash, Pinky that did not do well, but then she made an appearance in Ranveer Singh's film Ram Leela song Ram Chahe Leela which was a blockbuster. Then debut's came in like Mahi Gill's Don't Touch My Body, Sonakshi Sinha's Thank god it Friday, Yeh Rishta Kya Kehlata Hai fame as Akshara - Hina Khan Roshni Jawani and jacqueline fernandez Jadu ki Jappi.
Sunny Leone performed her fist ever item dance with Laila in 2013, then came Baby Doll. Varun Dhawan made his debut with Palat.
Criticism and controversies
Item numbers have been criticized for their gratuitous objectification of the female body. Item numbers have also been imitated in Mumbai's bar dancers. In respect of the ban on bar dancers in Mumbai, it has even been argued[weasel words] that the morality of bar dancer's imitation of item numbers cannot be questioned without questioning the morality of screening of item numbers in a film in public theatres. It has been argued[weasel words] that the two are equally amoral as both objectify women for commercial gain.
Khalnayak was controversial right from the day it released. While the lyrics of "Choli ke peeche kya hai?" (translation: "What's behind the blouse?") were considered vulgar by some, others defended the song on the ground that it was based on folk traditions. The song eventually set off protests all over the country and a potential ban on the song was debated in the Indian Parliament. Such turn of events, however, only helped the song and the film become more popular, as many came to the movie just to see Madhuri Dixit perform the song.
Now recently the Indian Censor Board has issued a resolution that prevents Item Songs from being shown in television channels.
- Barrett, Grant (2006). The official dictionary of unofficial English: a crunk omnibus for thrillionaires and bampots for the Ecozoic Age. McGraw-Hill Professional. pp. 189, 190. ISBN 0-07-145804-2.
- Journals : Item number defined[dead link]
- Morey, Peter; Alex Tickell (2005). Peter Morey and Alex Tickell, ed. Alternative Indias: writing, nation and communalism. Rodopi. p. 221,178. ISBN 90-420-1927-1.
- Bhattacharya Mehta, Rini; Rajeshwari Pandharipande (2010). Bollywood and Globalization: Indian Popular Cinema, Nation, and Diaspora. Anthem Press. p. 42. ISBN 1-84331-833-4.
- Gera Roy, Anjali. The Body of New Asian Dance Music. SSRN. SSRN 1471101.
- Ghosh, Biswadeep (15 December 2010). "Biggest item numbers ever!". Times of India. Retrieved 25 April 2011.
- "Bollywood item numbers: from Monica to Munni". 2010. Retrieved 16 November 2010.
- Anandam P, Kavoori (2008). Global Bollywood. NYU Press. p. 187. ISBN 0-8147-4799-X.
- Mukherjee, Madhurita (3 February 2003). "Revamping Bollywood's sexy vamps". Times of India. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- Deshpande, Anirudh (2009). Class, Power And Consciousness In Indian Cinema And Television. Primus Books. p. 49. ISBN 978-81-908918-2-0.
- "Dance me no nonsense". The Hindu. Retrieved 6 January 2011.
- "Pulse of the people". The Hindu. 16 September 2010. Retrieved 16 June 2012.
- Shresthova, Sangita. "Strictly Bollywood? Story Camera Movement in Hindi Film Dance". MIT. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- Ganti, Tejaswini (2004). Bollywood: a guidebook to popular Hindi cinema. Routledge. pp. 86, 167. ISBN 0-415-28853-3.
- Bhattacharya, Roshmila (21 November 2010). "Our heart goes dhak dhak again". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 29 November 2010.
- "Latest Bollywood News — Top 5 Trends That Gripped Bollywood". YouTube. Retrieved 2011-11-08.
- "The Hottest Item Numbers of 2010 - Rediff.com Movies". Rediff.com. 9 December 2010. Retrieved 2012-07-06.
- Nagpaul-D'Souza, Dipti (26 December 2010). "Munni vs Sheila: The way of the 'Item Bomb'". Indian Express. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
- Wangoo, Anupama (26 December 2011). "Sheila steals Munni's thunder". Times of India. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
- "PIX: SIZZLING item numbers coming up! - Rediff.com Movies". Rediff.com. 26 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-06.
- Agnes, Flavia. "Hypocritical Morality: Mumbai’s Ban on Bar Dancers". Manushi. Retrieved 10 November 2010.