Itraconazole

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Itraconazole
Itraconazole2DACS.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(2R,4S)-rel-1-(Butan-2-yl)-4-{4-[4-(4-{[(2R,4S)-2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl]methoxy}phenyl)piperazin-1-yl]phenyl}-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-one
Clinical data
Trade names Sporanox
AHFS/Drugs.com monograph
MedlinePlus a692049
Pregnancy cat. B3 (AU) C (US)
Legal status Prescription Only (S4) (AU) -only (CA) POM (UK) -only (US)
Routes Oral and i.v. ,Oral only (UK and US)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 55%, maximal if taken with full meal
Protein binding 99.8%
Metabolism hepatic (CYP3A4)
Half-life 21 hours
Excretion Urine, faeces
Identifiers
CAS number 84625-61-6 YesY
ATC code J02AC02
PubChem CID 55283
DrugBank DB01167
ChemSpider 49927 YesY
UNII 304NUG5GF4 YesY
KEGG D00350 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:6076 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL22587 YesY
Chemical data
Formula C35H38Cl2N8O4 
Mol. mass 705.64
 YesY (what is this?)  (verify)

Itraconazole (R51211), invented in 1984, is a triazole antifungal agent prescribed to patients with fungal infections. The drug may be given orally or intravenously.

Medical uses[edit]

Itraconazole has a broader spectrum of activity than fluconazole (but not as broad as voriconazole or posaconazole). In particular, it is active against Aspergillus, which fluconazole is not. It is also licensed for use in blastomycosis, sporotrichosis, histoplasmosis, and onychomycosis. Itraconazole is over 99% protein-bound and has virtually no penetration into cerebrospinal fluid. Therefore, it should never be used to treat meningitis or other central nervous system infections.[1] According to the Johns Hopkins Abx Guide, it has "negligible CSF penetration, however treatment has been successful for cryptococcal and coccidioidal meningitis".[2]

It is also prescribed for systemic infections, such as aspergillosis, candidiasis, and cryptococcosis, where other antifungal drugs are inappropriate or ineffective.

Itraconazole has also recently been explored as an anticancer agent for patients with basal cell carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and prostate cancer.[3] For example, in a phase II study involving men with advanced prostate cancer, high-dose itraconazole (600 mg/day) was associated with significant PSA responses and a delay in tumor progression. Itraconazole also showed activity in a phase II trial in men with non-small cell lung cancer when it was combined with the chemotherapy agent, pemetrexed.[4][5][6]

Available forms[edit]

Itraconazole is produced as blue 22 mm (0.87 in) capsules with tiny 1.5 mm (0.059 in) blue pellets inside. Each capsule contains 100 mg and is usually taken twice a day at twelve hour intervals. The Sporanox brand of itraconazole has been developed and marketed by Janssen Pharmaceutica, a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson. The three-layer structure of these blue capsules are complex because itraconazole is insoluble and is sensitive to pH. The complicated procedure not only requires a specialized machine to create it, but also the method used has manufacturing problems. Also, the pill is quite large, making it difficult for many patients to swallow. Parts of the processes of creating Sporanox were discovered by the Korean Patent Laid-open No. 10-2001-2590.[7] The tiny blue pellets contained in the capsule are manufactured in Beerse, Belgium.[7][8]

The intravenous preparation is no longer available in the US as of October 11, 2007 per Ortho-Biotech Professional Letter but may be available in other countries. Conventional Itraconazole (eg Sporinox)has relatively low bioavailability after oral administration, especially when given in capsule form on an empty stomach. The capsule form is a molecular dispersion of itraconazole in amorphous HPMC polymer. The fast-dissolving polymer targets a supersaturated solution of itraconazole from which enhanced absorption can be expected. Recently, itraconazole was found to contribute to the formation of nanofibers in certain simulated intestinal fluids. These nanofibers have a uniform width of 12 nm and a length up to several micrometers.[9] The oral solution is better absorbed. The cyclodextrin contained in the oral solution can cause an osmotic diarrhea, and if this is a problem, then half the dose can be given as oral solution and half as capsule to reduce the amount of cyclodextrin given. "Sporinex" Itraconazole capsules should always be taken with food, as this improves absorption, however the manufacturers of 'lozanoc' assert that it may be taken "without regard to meals".[10] Itraconazole oral solution should be taken an hour before food, or two hours after food (and likewise if a combination of capsules and oral solution are used). Itraconazole may be taken with orange juice or cola, as absorption is also improved by acid. Absorption of itraconazole is impaired when taken with an antacid, H2-blocker or proton pump inhibitor.[citation needed]

Adverse effects[edit]

Itraconazole is a relatively well-tolerated drug (although not as well tolerated as fluconazole or voriconazole) and the range of adverse effects it produces is similar to the other azole antifungals.[11]

The cyclodextrin used to make the syrup preparation can cause diahorrea. Side effects that may indicate a greater problem include:

Interactions[edit]

The following drugs should not be taken with itraconazole:[12]

Mechanism of action[edit]

The mechanism of action of itraconazole is the same as the other azole antifungals: it inhibits the fungal-mediated synthesis of ergosterol. Because of its ability to inhibit cytochrome P450 3A4 CC-3, caution should be used when considering interactions with other medications.[citation needed]

Itraconazole is pharmacologically distinct from other azole antifungal agents in that it is the only inhibitor in this class that has been shown to inhibit both the hedgehog signaling pathway[13][14] and angiogenesis.[15][16] These distinct activities are unrelated to inhibition of the cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase and the exact molecular targets responsible remain unidentified. Functionally, the antiangiogenic activity of itraconazole has been shown to be linked to inhibition of glycosylation, VEGFR2 phosphorylation,[16] trafficking,[17] and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways.[15] Evidence suggests the structural determinants for inhibition of hedgehog signaling by itraconazole are recognizably different from those associated with antiangiogenic activity.[18]

Pharmacokinetics[edit]

With conventional Itraconazole preparations serum levels can vary greatly between patients, often resulting in serum concentrations lower than the therapeutic index.<[19] It has therefore been conventionally advised that patients take itraconazole after a fatty meal rather than prior to eating.[20][21]

A product recently licenced through the european union decentralised proceedure[22] has increased bioavaialability, decreased sensitivity to co ingestion of food, and hence decreased variability of serum levels.

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Gilbert DN, Moellering, RC, Eliopoulos GM, Sande MA (2006). The Sanford Guide to antimicrobial therapy. ISBN 1-930808-30-5. [page needed]
  2. ^ Pham, P; Bartlett, JG (2007-07-24). "Itraconazole". Johns Hopkins. 
  3. ^ "Search results for Itraconazole". ClinicalTrials.gov. U.S. National Institutes of Health. 
  4. ^ Aftab BT, Dobromilskaya I, Liu JO, Rudin CM. "Itraconazole inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in non-small cell lung cancer" (PDF). Cancer Research 71 (21): 6764–6772. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-0691. PMC 3206167. PMID 21896639. 
  5. ^ Antonarakis ES, Heath EI, Smith DC, Rathkopf D, Blackford AL, Danila DC, King S, Frost A, Ajiboye AS, Zhao M, Mendonca J, Kachhap SK, Rudek MA, Carducci MA (2013). "Repurposing itraconazole as a treatment for advanced prostate cancer: a noncomparative randomized phase II trial in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer" (PDF). The Oncologist 18 (2): 163–173. doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2012-314. PMID 23340005. 
  6. ^ Rudin CM, Brahmer JR, Juergens RA, Hann CL, Ettinger DS, Sebree R, Smith R, Aftab BT, Huang P, Liu JO (May 2013). "Phase 2 study of pemetrexed and itraconazole as second-line therapy for metastatic nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer". Journal of Thoracic Oncology 8 (5): 619–623. doi:10.1097/JTO.0b013e31828c3950. PMID 23546045. 
  7. ^ a b Composition comprising Itraconazole for oral administration. 2004. Fresh Patents.com. 26 October 2006.
  8. ^ Sporanox (Itraconazole Capsules). June 2006. Janssen. 26 October 2006
  9. ^ Mellaerts R, Aerts A, Caremans TP, Vermant J, Van den Mooter G, Martens JA, Augustijns P (2010). "Growth of Itraconazole Nanofibers in Supersaturated Simulated Intestinal Fluid". Molecular Pharmaceutics 7 (3): 905–13. doi:10.1021/mp900300j. PMID 20232903. 
  10. ^ "SUBA™ Bioavailability Technology". Mayne Pharma Group. 
  11. ^ a b "The Safety of Sporanox Capsules and Lamisil Tablets for the Treatment of Onychomycosis". FDA Public Health Advisory. May 9, 2001. Archived from the original on 2009-05-28. Retrieved 2006-08-10. 
  12. ^ "Sporanox (Itraconazole) Capsules". Safety Labeling Changes Approved By FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. United States Food and Drug Administration. 
  13. ^ Kim J, Tang JY, Gong R, Kim J, Lee JJ, Clemons KV, Chong CR, Chang KS, Fereshteh M, Gardner D, Reya T, Liu JO, Epstein EH, Stevens DA, Beachy PA (2010). "Itraconazole, a Commonly Used Antifungal that Inhibits Hedgehog Pathway Activity and Cancer Growth". Cancer Cell 17 (4): 388–99. doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2010.02.027. PMID 20385363. 
  14. ^ Kim J, Aftab BT, Tang JY, Kim D, Lee AH, Rezaee M, Kim J, Chen B, King EM, Borodovsky A, Riggins GJ, Epstein EH, Beachy PA, Rudin CM (2013). "Itraconazole and arsenic trioxide inhibit hedgehog pathway activation and tumor growth associated with acquired resistance to smoothened antagonists". Cancer Cell 23 (1): 23–34. doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2012.11.017. PMC 3548977. PMID 23291299. 
  15. ^ a b Chong CR, Xu J, Lu J, Bhat S, Sullivan DJ, Liu JO (2007). "Inhibition of Angiogenesis by the Antifungal Drug Itraconazole". ACS Chemical Biology 2 (4): 263–70. doi:10.1021/cb600362d. PMID 17432820. 
  16. ^ a b Aftab BT, Dobromilskaya I, Liu JO, Rudin CM (2011). "Itraconazole Inhibits Angiogenesis and Tumor Growth in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer". Cancer Research 71 (21): 6764–72. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-0691. PMC 3206167. PMID 21896639. 
  17. ^ Xu J, Dang Y, Ren YR, Liu JO (2010). "Cholesterol trafficking is required for mTOR activation in endothelial cells". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107 (10): 4764–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.0910872107. PMC 2842052. PMID 20176935. 
  18. ^ Shi W, Nacev BA, Aftab BT, Head S, Rudin CM, Liu JO (2011). "Itraconazole Side Chain Analogues: Structure–Activity Relationship Studies for Inhibition of Endothelial Cell Proliferation, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 (VEGFR2) Glycosylation, and Hedgehog Signaling". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 54 (20): 7363–74. doi:10.1021/jm200944b. PMC 3307530. PMID 21936514. 
  19. ^ Patterson TF, Peters J, Levine SM, Anzueto A, Bryan CL, Sako EY, Miller OL, Calhoon JH, Rinaldi MG (1996). "Systemic availability of itraconazole in lung transplantation". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40 (9): 2217–20. PMC 163504. PMID 8878612. 
  20. ^ Fraga Fuentes MD, García Díaz B, de Juana Velasco P, Bermejo Vicedo MT (1997). "[Influence of foods on the absorption of antimicrobial agents]". Nutr Hosp (in Spanish; Castilian) 12 (6): 277–88. PMID 9477653. 
  21. ^ Barone JA, Koh JG, Bierman RH, Colaizzi JL, Swanson KA, Gaffar MC, Moskovitz BL, Mechlinski W, Van de Velde V (1993). "Food interaction and steady-state pharmacokinetics of itraconazole capsules in healthy male volunteers". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37 (4): 778–84. PMC 187759. PMID 8388198. 
  22. ^ "Lozanoc 50 Mg Hard Capsules (Itraconazole)" (PDF). Public Assessment Report Decentralised Procedure. UK Medicines and Health Care Products Regulatory Agency. 

External links[edit]