Ivan II of Moscow

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Ivan the Fair
Ivan2.jpg
An imaginary portrait by a modern artist
Grand Prince of Moscow
Reign 27 April 1353 – 13 November 1359
Predecessor Simeon I
Successor Dmitri I
Consort Fedosia of Bryansk
Alexandra Velyaminova
Issue
Dmitry Ivanovich Donskoi
Liuba Ivanovna
Ivan Ivanovich of Zvenigorod
Maria Ivanovna
Dynasty Rurik
Father Ivan I
Mother Helena
Born (1326-03-30)30 March 1326
Moscow, Grand Duchy of Moscow
Died 13 November 1359(1359-11-13) (aged 33)
Moscow, Grand Duchy of Moscow
Burial Cathedral of the Archangel Michael
Religion Eastern Orthodox

Ivan II Ivanovich the Fair (Russian: Иван II Иванович Красный) (30 March 1326 – 13 November 1359) was the Grand Prince of Moscow and Grand Prince of Vladimir in 1353. Until that date, he had ruled the towns of Ruza and Zvenigorod. He was the second son of Ivan Kalita, and succeeded his brother Simeon the Proud, who died of the Black Death.

Reign[edit]

Upon succeeding his brother and because of increased civil strife among the Golden Horde, Ivan briefly toyed with the idea of abandoning traditional Moscow allegiance to the Mongols and allying himself with Lithuania, a growing power in the west. This policy was quickly abandoned and Ivan asserted his allegiance to the Golden Horde.[1]

Contemporaries described Ivan as a pacific, apathetic ruler, who didn't flinch even when Algirdas of Lithuania captured his father-in-law's capital, Bryansk.[2] He also allowed Oleg of Riazan to burn villages on his territory. However, Orthodox churchmen aided in consolidating the power of the Grand Prince. He received much aid from the capable Metropolitan Alexius. Like his brother, Ivan II was not as successful as his father or grandfather with regard to territorial expansion. Nevertheless, he was able to annex areas southwest of Moscow, including the areas of Borovsk, and Vereya.

He is buried in the Cathedral of the Archangel Michael in Moscow.

Marriages and children[edit]

Ivan was married twice. In 1341, Ivan married his first wife Fedosia Dmitrievna of Bryansk. She was a daughter of Dmitry Romanovich, Prince of Bryansk. She died childless in Autumn, 1342.

Ivan remained a widower for three years. In 1345, Ivan married his second wife, Alexandra Vassilievna Velyaminova. She was a daughter of Vasily Velyaminov, a mayor of Moscow. They had at least four children:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Janet Martin (1995). Medieval Russia, 980–1584. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-36832-4. 
  2. ^ Alfred Rambaud, Edgar Saltus (1902). Russia. P. F. Collier & Son. pp. 146, 147.  [1]

External links[edit]

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Simeon
Grand Prince of Moscow
1353–1359
Succeeded by
Dmitriy Donskoy
Russian royalty
Preceded by
Simeon
Heir to the Russian Throne
1340–1348, 1353
Succeeded by
Dmitriy Donskoy