Ivan the Terrible (Prokofiev)

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Ivan the Terrible (Russian: Иван Грозный) is incidental music by Sergei Prokofiev, his Op.116, composed in 1942-45 for Sergei Eisenstein's film Ivan the Terrible and its sequel, the first two parts of a planned but uncompleted trilogy. The project was Prokofiev's second collaboration with Eisenstein, the first being the popular Aleksandr Nevskiy (1938).

The subject of the first film ("Part 1") is the early years of the reign of Ivan IV of Russia: his coronation, his intent to curb the powers of the boyars, his wedding, his conquest of Kazan, his almost fatal illness, the poisoning and death of his first wife Anastasiya, the formation of the Oprichniki, and his abdication.

The sequel, Ivan the Terrible: The Boyar Conspiracy ("Part 2"), concerns the defection of Prince Kurbskiy to Poland-Lithuania, Ivan's disputes with Philip II, Metropolitan of Moscow, the intrigues of the boyars, the excesses of the Oprichniki, the attempted coup by the boyars, Philip, and Ivan's aunt, Yefrosinya Staritskaya, the murder of Vladimir Staritsky, and Ivan's triumph over his domestic enemies.

The film scores were not published during Prokofiev's lifetime. They were arranged in 1962 as an oratorio for speaker, soloists, chorus, and orchestra by Abram Stasevich, who conducted the scores for Eisenstein. In 1973 the composer Mikhail Chulaki and choreographer Yuriy Grigorovich drew on Prokofiev's film scores to create the ballet Ivan the Terrible, which was given its premiere in 1975. Later performing editions of the scores include an oratorio put together by Michael Lankester (1989), and a concert scenario by Christopher Palmer (1991). Recent restorations of the entire original film score have been recorded.

History[edit]

Composition history[edit]

Performance history[edit]

Publication history[edit]

  • 1958, 'Songs and Choruses from the Music for the Film Ivan the Terrible', vocal score, published by Levon Atovmyan in the magazine Sovetskaya Muzyka; the numbers included: 1) 'The Black Cloud', 2) 'Ocean-Sea', 3) 'Song of Praise', 4) 'The Swan', 5) 'The Cannoneers', and 6) 'Song about the Beaver'
  • 1962, Ivan the Terrible, oratorio by Abram Stasevich, vocal score, Sovetskiy Kompozitor, Moscow
  • 1972, Ivan the Terrible, oratorio by Stasevich, full score, Sovetskiy Kompozitor, Moscow
  • 1997, Ivan the Terrible, film score, full score, Musikverlage Hans Sikorski, Hamburg

Numbers[edit]

Part 1[edit]

Scene 1: Prologue

  • Overture
  • Death of Glinskaya
  • Young Ivan's March
  • The Ocean - The Sea
  • Shuisky and the Keepers of the Hounds
  • Death of Glinskaya

Scene 2: The Coronation

  • Kyrie eleison
  • Sofroniev Cherubic Hymn (by A. Kastalsky)
  • May he live forever!

Scene 3: The Wedding

  • Glorification
  • The Swan
  • The Simpleton
  • Riot

Scene 4: The Conquest of Kazan

  • Entrance of the Tartars
  • Cannon are brought to Kazan
  • Kurbsky's Trumpets
  • Ivan's Tent
  • Tartar Steppes
  • The Artillerymen
  • The Tartars
  • Kurbsky's Trumpets
  • Attack
  • Malyuta's Jealousy
  • Kazan has fallen

Scene 5: Ivan's Illness

  • O, my soul (liturgical chant)
  • O, Lord most gracious (liturgical chant)
  • O, my soul (liturgical chant)
  • Ivan's Appeal to the Boyars

Scene 6: The Death of Anastasia

  • Anastasia's Illness
  • Anastasia is poisoned
  • Eternal Remembrance (liturgical chant)
  • Rest with the Saints (liturgical chant)
  • Thou Alone (liturgical chant)
  • Ivan at Anastasia's Coffin

Scene 7: The Oath of the Oprichniks

  • Oath of the Oprichniks
  • Come back!

Part 2[edit]

  • Overture

Scene 8: At the Polish Court

  • Fanfares
  • Polonaise
  • Fanfares

Scene 9: Lamentation for the Executed Boyars

  • Do not sob, Mother (by F. Ivanov)
  • It were better for you, Judas
  • Shuisky and the Keepers of the Hounds

Scene 10: The Fiery Furnace (liturgical drama)

  • Wondrous is God (by D. Bortnyansky)
  • Song of the Boys
  • Song about the Beaver

Scene 11: The Tsar's Banquet and the Cathedral

  • Chaotic Dance and Orderly Dance of the Oprichniks
  • Song of the Oprichniks
  • O, my soul (liturgical chant)
  • Song of the Oprichniks (without choir)
  • Chorus of the Oprichniks (without words)
  • Vladimir's Murder
  • Entrance of Ivan
  • Finale

Instrumentation[edit]

Strings: violins I & II, violas, cellos, double basses
Woodwinds: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 1 english horn, 2 clarinets, 1 E-flat clarinet, 1 bass clarinet, 2 bassoons, 1 contrabassoon, tenor saxophone
Brass: 4 horns, 5 trumpets, 3 trombones, 1 tuba
Percussion: timpani, bass drum, snare drum, triangle, tambourine, cymbals, bells, church bells, xylophone, wood block, whip
Other: piano, harp

Versions by other hands[edit]

Oratorio by Abram Stasevich (1962)[edit]

Ballet by Mikhail Chulaki (1975)[edit]

The ballet Ivan the Terrible was arranged by Mikhail Chulaki for a 1975 production by choreographer Yuriy Grigorovich at the Bolshoy Theatre. The two act work consists of selections from Prokofiev's film score for Ivan the Terrible supplemented with excerpts from his Symphony No. 3 (1928), Russian Overture (1936), and film score for Aleksandr Nevsky (1938).

The world premiere performance took place on 20 February 1975 at the Bolshoy Theatre. Algis Zhuraitis conducted. The cast included Yuriy Vladimirov (Ivan), Nataliya Bessmertnova (Anastasiya), and Boris Akimov (Kurbskiy).

Oratorio by Michael Lankester (1989)[edit]

Concert Scenario by Christopher Palmer (1991)[edit]

Recordings[edit]

Audio[edit]

Year Conductor Orchestra and choir Soloists Version
1978 Riccardo Muti Philharmonia Orchestra,
Ambrosian Chorus
Irina Arkhipova (mezzo-soprano),
Anatoliy Mokrenko (baritone),
Boris Morgunov (speaker)
Stasevich
1979 Leonard Slatkin Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra and Chorus Claudine Carlson (mezzo-soprano),
Samuel Timberlake (bass)
Stasevich
1991 Neeme Järvi The Philharmonia Orchestra and Chorus Linda Finnie (contralto),
Nikita Storozhev (bass-baritone)
Palmer
1993 Mstislav Rostropovich London Symphony Orchestra and Chorus,
The New London Children's Choir
Tamara Sinyavskaya (mezzo-soprano),
Sergei Leiferkus (baritone),
Christopher Plummer (narrator)
Lankester
1997 Valeriy Gergiev Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra,
Chorus of the Kirov Orchestra
Lyubov Sokolova (mezzo-soprano),
Nikolay Putilin (baritone),
Without speaker
Stasevich
2000 Vladimir Fedoseyev Tchaikovsky Symphony Orchestra,
Yurlov State Capella,
Children's Choir of Studio Vesna
Irina Chistyakova (contralto),
Dmitriy Stepanovich (bass)
Film score
2003 Valeriy Polyansky Russian State Symphony Orchestra,
Russian State Symphonic Capella
Lyudmila Kuznetsova (mezzo-soprano),
Sergey Toptygin (baritone)
Film score

Video[edit]

Year Conductor Orchestra Roles Version
1990 Algis Zhuraitis Bolshoy Theatre Orchestra Irek Mukhamedov (Ivan),
Nataliya Bessmertnova (Anastasiya),
Gediminas Taranda (Kurbsky),
Bolshoy Ballet
Chulaki
2003 Vello Pähn Orchestre de l’Opéra de Paris Nicolas Le Riche (Ivan),
Eleonora Abbagnato (Anastasiya),
Karl Paquette (Kurbsky),
Ballet de l’Opéra National de Paris
Chulaki

References[edit]

Notes

Sources

  • Glinka State Central Museum of Musical Culture, Moscow, and Musikverlag Hans Sikorski, Hamburg, The complete music for the film 'Ivan the Terrible', notes to CD NI 5662/3, Nimbus Records Ltd. 2000

External links[edit]