Ivanhorod

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Ivanhorod
Івангород
Village
Ivanhorod road sign
Ivanhorod road sign
Ivanhorod is located in Ukraine
Ivanhorod
Ivanhorod
Location of Ivanhorod in Ukraine
Coordinates: 48°48′10″N 29°48′09″E / 48.80278°N 29.80250°E / 48.80278; 29.80250Coordinates: 48°48′10″N 29°48′09″E / 48.80278°N 29.80250°E / 48.80278; 29.80250
Country  Ukraine
Province  Cherkasy Oblast
District Khrystynivka Raion
Population (2001)
 • Total 1,193 [1]
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 20040
Area code +380 4745

Ivanhorod[2] or Ivangorod[3] (Ukrainian: Іванго́род, Russian: Ивангород, Polish: Iwangród) is a village located in the Khrystynivka Raion of the Cherkasy Oblast (province) in central Ukraine.[4]

History[edit]

The first traces of a settlement date back to prehistoric times, with archeological findings from the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture. In the Middle Ages Ivanhorod lay on the Chumak trade road from Kiev to Crimea. From the 13th century on, it was part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and subsequently, until 1791, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.[5] The village (from 1609 owned by the Kalinowski family) lay on the path of the Khmelnytsky Uprising.[6][7] After the Second Partition of Poland Iwanogród became part of the Russian Empire.

The Jewish community in Ivanhorod dates back to early 19th century. In 1897, the Jewish population was 442 people. During the Holocaust (on what is now Ukrainian territory), a mass murder was committed by the German Einsatzgruppe in the southern part of Ivanhorod (1942) with an unknown number of victims.[8]

Execution of Jews near Ivanhorod by German Einsatzgruppe during World War II.[8] This now iconic [9][10] photograph was mailed from the Eastern Front to Germany and intercepted by a member of the Home Army Polish resistance

The executions[edit]

A wartime photograph showing a mother and child shot in cold blood outside the village by a German SS soldier is now considered, in the words of British journalist Robert Fisk, "one of the most impressive and persuasive images of the Nazi Holocaust."[10] It was featured in numerous books,[11][12] and at photo-exhibits both in Poland and Germany, as "precious and terrible evidence" of "the Nazi cruelties in Eastern Europe."[10]

The photograph was originally sent from the Eastern Front to Nazi Germany, but intercepted at the Warsaw post office by members of the Polish resistance, the Home Army,[8] for Jerzy Tomaszewski who documented Nazi war crimes for the Polish government-in-exile.[13][14] On the reverse, it was inscribed: "Ukraine 1942 - Judenaktion in Iwangorod" (English: Ukraine 1942 - Jewish operation in Ivanhorod). The executioner appears to be standing over the body of an already executed person. The gun barrels of other executioners are visible at the left-hand edge of the photograph.[2] In 1964, at the height of the Cold War, the popular German weekly Der Spiegel (Nr. 49/1964) published the photograph along with a diatribe naming several angry readers claiming it to be a fake generated by the Russians, although the most incriminating evidence came from the official German records.[15] Confronting a society with photographic evidence of one's own personal experience of war is almost as old as photography itself, wrote reporter-turned-historian Janina Struk, who discussed this image in her Private Pictures: A Soldiers' Inside View of War. In extreme situations the "possession of such private pictures could lead to a court martial",[16] and yet soldiers keep taking them.[10][17]

Economy[edit]

As of 2013, Ivanhorod had 504 employed residents, with the main economic activity being agriculture. There is a school in the village, a library with 18,000 books, a medical clinic with 9 employees, pharmacy, a post office, a bank, and several large farms.[18]

See also[edit]

  • Russian name given to Dęblin as Ivangorod, Poland under foreign partitions
  • A town in the Leningrad Oblast of Russia called Ivangorod, west of St. Petersburg

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ ВРУ (1994–2013). "Івангород, Черкаська область" (Internet Archive). Облікова картка. Верховна Рада України. Retrieved 13 July 2013. 
  2. ^ a b Lo-Tishkach (2013). "Ivanhorod, Uman-Vinnytsia road". European Jewish Cemeteries Initiative. Retrieved 13 July 2013. 
  3. ^ "Ivangorod, Ukraine – Satellite Images". Maplandia.com. 2005. Retrieved 13 July 2013. 
  4. ^ "Cherkasy Raion". Regions of Ukraine and their Structure (in Ukrainian). Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Retrieved 12 January 2012. 
  5. ^ Склад Уманського козацького полку
  6. ^ Ю. А. Мицик, О. Г. Бажан, В. С. Власов, Історія України, Києво-Могилянська академія, Київ 2008
  7. ^ Diary of Albrecht Stanisław Radziwiłł (Google Books, p. 470). Also: Wojciech Jacek Długołęcki (1995), Batoh 1652, Warsaw: Bellona, pp. 25–26, 44, ISBN 83-11-08402-5 
  8. ^ a b c USHMM, Jewish woman and her child near Ivangorod, Ukraine. 1942 (Internet Archive). Retrieved July 13, 2013.
  9. ^ Patrick Weidinger (December 7, 2012). "Ukraine 1942, Jewish Action Ivangorod (No. 6)". 10 Lesser-Known Iconic Photos of World War II. Top Ten Best and Worst.com: Arts & Literature, History. Retrieved 22 July 2013. 
  10. ^ a b c d Robert Fisk (19 November 2011). "Robert Fisk: Ukraine, 1942. What are we seeing?". The Independent.co.uk. Retrieved 19 July 2013. "The soldier in the picture is wearing German Einsatzgruppen uniform [said former member of Hitler's Einsatzgruppen], and holding the usual Einsatzgruppen rifle. What more proof do you need? Years later, an exhibition of German atrocity photographs in Eastern Europe was put on in Dresden where an old man stared at the pictures for a long time. Then he began to cry. And as he rushed from the exhibition hall, he shouted: "It's me...It's me."" 
  11. ^ Darlene R. Stille (Jan 1, 2011). Architects of the Holocaust. Capstone. pp. 36–37. ISBN 0756544416. Retrieved 19 July 2013. 
  12. ^ Brendan Redko (2013). An Ordinary Polish Boy: Journey to England (Google Books). AuthorHouse. p. 18. ISBN 1481782347. Retrieved 19 July 2013. 
  13. ^ 'My duty was to take pictures', The Guardian, 28 July 2005.
  14. ^ Binder, David (12 October 1980), "Photos Record 1944 Warsaw Uprising; Copied German Snapshots Too." The New York Times, Retrieved July 13, 2013.
  15. ^ "Datum: 30. November Betr.: Abermals Fälschungen (Again fakes)". 49/1964. Der Spiegel. 02.12.1964. Retrieved 13 July 2013. "PDF copy of the 1964 article made available by the publisher" 
  16. ^ Janina Struk (Oct 15, 2011). "How Pictures Can Haunt a Nation" (Google Books). Private Pictures: Soldiers' Inside View of War. I.B.Tauris. p. 97. ISBN 1848854439. Retrieved 19 July 2013. 
  17. ^ Bob Dent (10 February 2012). "Review: Private Pictures: Soldiers’ Inside View of War, by Janina Struk". Shots & snapshots: to war with a gun & a camera. 2013 The Budapest Times. Retrieved 19 July 2013. 
  18. ^ А. Г. Муха (П'ятниця, 25 січня 2013). "Бюджет Івангородської сільської ради" (in Ukrainian). Христинівська районна державна адміністрація Черкаської області. Retrieved 13 July 2013.