Ivatan language

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Ivatan
Ibatan
Chirin nu Ibatan
Region Batanes Islands
Native speakers
33,000  (1998)[1]
Dialects
Ivasay
Isamurung
Babuyan
Language codes
ISO 639-3 Either:
ivv – Ivatan
ivb – Ibatan (Babuyan)

The Ivatan (Ibatan) language, also known as Chirin nu Ibatan ("language of the Ivatan people"), is an Austronesian language spoken in the Batanes Islands.

Despite the islands' closer proximity to Taiwan than Luzon, it is not one of the Formosan languages. Ivatan is one of the Batanic languages, which are perhaps a primary branch of the Malayo-Polynesian family of Austronesian languages.

The language of Babuyan Island is a dialect. Babuyan was depopulated by the Spanish and only repopulated at the end of the Spanish era with families from Batan Island.

Introduction[edit]

Ivatan is especially characterized by its words, which mostly have the letter v, as in vakul, Ivatan, and valuga. Letter e, is pronounced as the schwa oun, or uh, as in Dios Mamajes, 'di-yos-ma-ma-huhs', and palek 'pa-luhk'. While related to the Northern Philippine group of languages, Ivatan, having been isolated, is most closely to the two other members of the Bashiic sub-group of languages, Yami (Tao) and Itbayat, neither of which is indigenous to Luzon. Ibatan, spoken on the nearby Babuyan group of islands, is so similar to Ivatan that it is not entirely clear whether it should be classified as a dialect of Ivatan or a separate language, though each does receive its own code in ISO taxonomy.

Supporting separate listings is the fact that Ibatan is 31% mutual intelligible with Basco Ivatan, the standard form of the language, though that number rises to 64% for the Itbayaten form of the language. With Basco Ivatan, more commonly known as Ivasayen, an adjective denoting the Ivasayen people who inhabit the main island of Batan, and Itbayaten, derived from Itbayat, the name for the northernmost of the three islands, is a third dialect, Isamurongen, a dialect with a vocabulary identical to Ivasayen spoken on the southern half of Batan and on the most southern island, Sabtang.

As implied, notable variation exists in spoken Ivatan despite the fact that Batanes makes up roughly 200& NBS; and is home to only 18,000 inhabitants. Examination of the linguistic zones suggests that this is best explained by Batanes being composed of three islands rather than a single landmass, as these linguistic divisions roughly follow geographic ones, the notable exception being Isamurongen which is spoken on not only Sabtang, but Batan as well.

Perhaps this explanation can be seen most clearly in the differences in the dialects themselves, where lexical variation is insignificant, but phonological variation, often indicative of geographic isolation, is highly pronounced; The late advent of writing, which might have standardized pronunciation prior to divergence, could have also been a factor.

Variations in language[edit]

In the capital of Basco and the surrounding northern half of Batan, the area encompassed by Ivasayen, t is prominent, whereas in the Isamurongen zone to the south (Mahatao, Ivana, Uyugan and Sabtang) that phoneme becomes a ch. Itbayaten is unique in that it incorporates words not in use in the other dialects, though such differences amount to 2% of the total vocabulary.

Examples of the more visible variations of the Ivasayen and Isamurongen words and pronunciations are:

  • tiban (to look) in Basco is chiban in the southern towns
  • antiyaw (later) in Basco is anchiyaw in the southern towns
  • kabatiti (patola) in Basco is kabachichi in the southern towns
  • timoy (rain) in Basco is chimoy in the southern towns

Examples of different Ivasayen, Isamurongen and Itbayaten words that have the same English translation:

  • adkan (to kiss) in Basco and the southern towns is umahan in Itbayat.
  • arava (none) in Basco and the southern towns is aralih in Itbayat.
  • bago (pig) in Basco and the southern towns is kuyis in Itbayat.
  • otioyan (nest) in Basco, is ochoyan in the southern towns and hangtay in Itbayat.
  • ipos (tail) in Basco is vochivot in the southern towns and also ipos in Itbayat.

The Ivatan language is basically a spoken language. Until lately, little effort was made to record the language in written form. What the young generation know about it is largely through hearing it spoken and speaking it.

Some tend to mix the Ivatan words to Filipino or vice versa in sentences, much worst is the combining or compounding of the Filipino words to the Ivatan words. One common example of this is – mapatak. This is derived from marunong (Filipino) and chapatak (Ivatan) which literally means someone who knows which were then compounded to form the word mapatak. This is actually the result of the influence of non-Ivatans who tend to speak the language & were then eventually adopted.

Another common mistakes that are often heard, is the mispronunciation of the Ivatan word like iskarayla – the correct is iskalayra – which means stairs, and tumaraya – the correct is tumayara – which means going up.

One unique characteristic of the language is its enormous street language. It is called street language because it emanated from the streets. Examples of these are: tanchew, coined from mirwa ta anchiyaw – literally means we’ll meet again later, and nganmu, coined from jinu ngayan mu – literally means where are you going. These are results of shortening the Ivatan phrases or sentences into one or two words depending on its usage.

Common Ivatan expressions have various origin such as:

  • Dios mamajes/ Dios Mamajes nu mapia
    Literally: "God reward you with goodness" or "God bless you"
    Usage: Used to show gratitude to someone
  • Dios mavidin
    Literally: "May God remain with you"
    Usage: Used by the person who is leaving
  • Dios machivan
    Literally: "May God go with you"
    Usage: Used by the person who is staying behind

The Ivatan language is characterized with its pidgin Spanish, spoken with the musicality of southern Chinese accent.

Similarities to other languages in the Philippines includes the presence of the glottal stop in the pronunciation of words.

Phonology[edit]

The Ivatan language consists of 4 vowels, 21 consonants and 5 diphthongs.

  • Vowels: a, e, i, u
  • Diphthongs: aw, iw, ay, ey, oy
  • Consonants: b, ch, d, f, g, h, hh, j, k, l, m, n, ng, ny, p, r, s, t, v, w, y

Grammar[edit]

Further information: Ivatan grammar

Cultural terms of the Ivatan people[edit]

  • bulyas- onions
  • baka- cow
  • kaddin- goat
  • kayvayvanan- friendship; cooperative work by a community which starts at the blow of a shell horn called a vodiadong
  • payohoan- helping one another; work club of teenagers who alternate their shifts
  • paluwa; chinarem; tataya- three boats used for fishing
  • palay- rice plant
  • rakarakanen- vegetables
  • lakasan- tops of wooden trunks used for storing cloth and other valuables serve as benches
  • rahaung, camarin- a storeroom for larger farm equipment such as plows, harrows, sleds, card, and the ox-drawn pole used for clearing off sweet potatoes and other vines from fields being prepared for re-cultivation
  • talugung- a kind of conical hat woven from strips made from the stalk of a local plant called nini
  • suut, vakul- a head-and-back covering woven from the stripped leaves of banana or the vuyavuy
  • batulinaw- a necklace made of hollow globules (1½ cm. in diameter) interspersed with smaller pieces of gold in floral patterns and held together by a string made of fiber
  • tamburin- an all-gold necklace whose beads are smaller and more ornate than the batulinaw, and lockets
  • seseng, pamaaw, chingkakawayan, liyano, de pelo, dima s'bato, pitu s'bato, de perlas, bumbolya, karakol, pinatapatan- traditional earrings that come from the Spanish period
  • chayi – tree
  • soot – generic term referring to the Ivatan rain cape made from the finely stripped leaves of the vuyavuy palm.
  • vakul – woman's soot, worn on the head.
  • kanayi – man's soot, worn on the shoulders.
  • falowaIvatan boat, now usually motorized, for 10–20 passengers.
  • vanuwa – port
  • avayat – a broad directional term used to indicate the west, a western direction or the western side.
  • valugan – a broad directional term sued to indicate the east, an eastern direction or the eastern side.
  • minom- drink
  • bapor, tataya- boat
  • taw- sea
  • ranum- water
  • salao sao- wind
  • mahacay- man
  • mavakes- woman

Ivatan literature[edit]

Ivatan legends[edit]

  • Datu Tayong and Batbatan Otang
  • Orayen and Pudalan
  • The Origin of the "Nato"
  • The Origin of the People of Sabtang
  • The Legend of Layin
  • The Two Fishermen

Ivatan songs[edit]

  • Laganitan
  • An Domana ‘O’ Vohan
  • Taao Di Valogan
  • Hapnit
  • Ladji No Minasbang
  • Didiwen

Poems[edit]

  • I Wanted Wings
  • Meetings
  • Alone
  • Guide Me, My Guardian Angel

An kalilyak mu

Ivatan Proverbs[edit]

  • Ipangudidi mu u mapya nanawu.

Carry with you good teaching, always bear in mind sound advice.

  • Arava u mayet an namaes u ryes.

There is no strong man when the sea is at its worst.

  • Arava u ryes an AB u su vinyedi.

There is no current that does not bounce back.

  • Tumuhutuhud makaysed a tachi.

The feces that is dropped is sure comfort.

  • Ulungen mu ava u kakedkeran mu.

Do not gore the peg where you are tied.

  • Matakaw ava dimu u kasulivan.

Nobody can steal your knowledge.

  • Nyeng mu a hukbiten ta isek ni tatumuk.

Grasp the opportunity because the bed bugs will carry and hide them inside the floor.

  • Kanen mu ava u kakamay mu.

Do not eat your fingers.

  • Arava u susuhan da su vahay a mapsek.

No one burns the house of a good man.

Selected Idioms[edit]

  • Mahmahma u vatu kan uhu naw.

Stones are softer than his head.

  • Umsi ava su vahusa u kamates.

Tomatoes do not bear kamatis.

  • Tud da payramun u vinata naw.

They washed their face with what he said.

  • Inulay mu ta tya naydited u uhu na.

Leave him alone for his head is tangled.

  • Machitbatbay ka avan asa ka kaban amed.

Do not speak of a cavan for a measuring lime unit.

Ivatan Phrases[edit]

  • Hello – Kapian capa nu dios
  • How are you? – Ara ca mangu?
  • I am fine – Taytu aco a mapia
  • I am not fine – Ara coava mapia
  • Thank you – Dios mamajes
  • Where are you going? – Ngayan mo?
  • I am going to... – Mangay aco du...
  • Where is ___? – Ara dino si ___?
  • Straight ahead – Direcho
  • How much? – Manyi Pira?
  • How many? – Pira?
  • Good – Mapia
  • No good – Mapia/Mavid ava
  • Yes – Oon
  • I want ___ – Makey ako no ___
  • I don't want – Makey aco ava
  • I have a problem – Mian problema ko
  • No problem – Arava o problema
  • Good luck – Mapia palak
  • What's your name? – Angu ngaran mo?
  • Where is the house of ___? – Jino vahay da ___?
  • There- Du nguya, du daw, dawr
  • Here- Diaya
  • Hungry- Mapteng
  • Thirsty- Ma-waw
  • Tired- Mavanah, chinagagan (south), navanax
  • Happy- Masuyot, masaray
  • Whistling- Mamito, mihiñoxay (Itbayat)
  • Sea- Taw, hawa (Itbayat)
  • Soft- mahma, maxma & mayuxma (Itbayat)
  • Sea- Taw, hawa (Itbayat)
  • Bird- manumanok, kangkang (Itbayat)
  • Perpendicular- maybatbat, mipatinu-nong (Itbayat)
  • Mud- hetek, xetek (Itbayat)
  • Sea- Taw, hawa (Itbayat)
  • Kakuyab - Yesterday
  • Antinaraw - Afternoon
  • Antin manguh ta mangay? - When are we going?
  • Antin manguh ka mapagugud? - When are you going to cut your hair?

Ivatan Words[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Coined words are two words combined to form one new word.

Sentence Coined word Meaning Usage
Mirwa ta anchiyaw Tanchew We’ll meet again later. Street language
Jinu ngayan mu Nganmu Where are you going? Street language

Loanwords are words in the language that have been borrowed from other languages.

Loanword Origin Meaning
Telefono Spanish An instrument for reproducing sounds at a distance
Domingo; Lumingu Spanish Sunday
Lunis Spanish Monday
Martis Spanish Tuesday
Miyirkolis; Mirkulis Spanish Wednesday
Juibis; Juybis Spanish Thursday
Biyernis; Birnis Spanish Friday
Sabado; Sabalu Spanish Saturday

Similarities with other Philippine languages[edit]

  Person House Dog Coconut Day New
Ivatan Tawo Vahay Chito Niyoy Araw Va-yo
Tagalog Tao Bahay Aso Niyog Araw Bago
Bikol Tawo Harong Ayam Niyog Aldaw Ba-go
Cebuano Tawo Balay Iro Lubi Adlaw Bag-o
Tausug Tau Bay Iru' Niyug Adlaw Ba-gu
Kinaray-a Taho Balay Ayam Niyog Adlaw Bag-o
Kapampangan Tau Bale Asu Ngungut Aldo Bayu
Pangasinense Too Abong Aso Niyog Agew Balo
Ilokano Tao Balay Aso Niog Aldaw Baro
Gaddang Tolay Balay Atu Ayog Aw Bawu
Tboli Tau Gunu Ohu Lefo Kdaw Lomi

Similarities with the Tao language[edit]

  Day Home Friend Eat Drink
Ivatan Araw Vahay Cayvan Kuman Minom
Yami 雅美/達悟 Araw Vahay Kagagan Kanen Inomen

Similarities with other Austronesian languages[edit]

  One Two Three Four
Ivatan Asa Dadwa Tatdu Apat
Hawaiian Kahi Lua Kolu
Javanese Siji Loro Telu Papat
Indonesian Satu Dua Tiga Empat
Malagasy Isa Roa Telo Efatra

Accommodation[edit]

  Ivasayen Isamurongen Itbayaten
Room Cuarto Cuarto
Mail Tulas Turas
Water Danum Ranum
Time Oras Oras

Approval & Disapproval[edit]

  Ivasayen Isamurongen Itbayaten
Good Mapia Map'pia
Of course Siyempre Siyempre
Ok Okay Okay
Pretty Mavid Mavij
Yes Oon Uwen
No Omba Engga
Nothing Arava Aralih
Perhaps Siguro Siguro

Bank, Telephone & Post Office[edit]

  Ivasayen Isamurongen Itbayaten
Money Cartos Cartos
Telephone Telefono Telefono

Colors[edit]

  Itbayaten Isamurongen Ivasayen
Black Mavaweng Mavajeng
Blue A'sul Maanil
Brown Chocolati Chocolati
Dark Masarih Masari
Gray Mavu-avo Mavuavo
Green Birdi Berde
Light Marengang Marial
Red Mavayah Mavaya
White Mahilak Maydac
Yellow Mayuxama Mañujama

Days of the Week[edit]

  Ivasayen Isamurongen Itbayaten
Sunday Domingo Lumingu
Monday Lunis Lunis
Tuesday Martis Martis
Wednesday Miyirkolis Mirkulis
Thursday Juibis Juybis
Friday Biyernis Birnis
Saturday Sabado Sabalu

Direction[edit]

  Itbayaten Isamurongen Ivasayen
Left Guri Huli
Right Wanan Wanan
Straight ahead Diricho Diricho

Cardinal numbers[edit]

    Itbayaten Isamurongen Ivasayen
0 Zero Siro; a'bu Siro; abu
1 One A'sa Asa
2 Two Daduha Dadua
3 Three Atlu Tatdu
4 Four A'pat Apat
5 Five Lalima Dadima
6 Six A'nem Anem
7 Seven Pito Papito
8 Eight Waxo Wawajo
9 Nine Sasyam Sasyam
10 Ten Sapuxu Sapujo

Ordinal numbers[edit]

    Itbayaten Isamurongen Ivasayen
1st First Ma'num'ma Manum'ma
2nd Second
3rd Third
4th Fourth
5th Fifth Ichalima Cacadima
6th Sixth
7th Seventh
8th Eighth
9th Ninth
10th Tenth
L Last Ma'nau'di Manau'di

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Ivatan at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
    Ibatan (Babuyan) at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)

External links[edit]