|Chirin nu Ibatan|
|Native speakers||33,000 (1998)|
ivv – Ivatan
ivb – Ibatan (Babuyan)
Despite the islands' closer proximity to Taiwan than Luzon, it is not one of the Formosan languages. Ivatan is one of the Batanic languages, which are perhaps a primary branch of the Malayo-Polynesian family of Austronesian languages.
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Variations in language
- 3 Phonology
- 4 Grammar
- 5 Cultural terms of the Ivatan people
- 6 Ivatan literature
- 7 Ivatan Phrases
- 8 Ivatan Words
- 8.1 Etymology
- 8.2 Similarities with other Philippine languages
- 8.3 Similarities with the Tao language
- 8.4 Similarities with other Austronesian languages
- 8.5 Accommodation
- 8.6 Approval & Disapproval
- 8.7 Bank, Telephone & Post Office
- 8.8 Colors
- 8.9 Days of the Week
- 8.10 Direction
- 8.11 Cardinal numbers
- 8.12 Ordinal numbers
- 9 Notes
- 10 External links
Ivatan is especially characterized by its words, which mostly have the letter v, as in vakul, Ivatan, and valuga. Letter e, is pronounced as the schwa oun, or uh, as in Dios Mamajes, 'di-yos-ma-ma-huhs', and palek 'pa-luhk'. While related to the Northern Philippine group of languages, Ivatan, having been isolated, is most closely to the two other members of the Bashiic sub-group of languages, Tao (Yami) and Ibatan, neither of which is indigenous to Luzon.Ibatan, spoken on the nearby Babuyan group of islands, is so similar to Ivatan that it is not entirely clear whether it should be classified as a dialect of Ivatan or a separate language, though each does receive its own code in ISO taxonomy.
Supporting separate listings is the fact that Ibatan is 31% mutual intelligible with Basco Ivatan, the standard form of the language, though that number rises to 64% for the Itbayaten form of the language. With Basco Ivatan, more commonly known as Ivasayen, an adjective denoting the Ivasayen people who inhabit the main island of Batan, and Itbayaten, derived from Itbayat, the name for the northernmost of the three islands, is a third dialect, Isamurongen, a dialect with a vocabulary identical to Ivasayen spoken on the southern half of Batan and on the most southern island, Sabtang.
As implied, notable variation exists in spoken Ivatan despite the fact that Batanes makes up roughly 200& NBS; and is home to only 18,000 inhabitants. Examination of the linguistic zones suggests that this is best explained by Batanes being composed of three islands rather than a single landmass, as these linguistic divisions roughly follow geographic ones, the notable exception being Isamurongen which is spoken on not only Sabtang, but Batan as well.
Perhaps this explanation can be seen most clearly in the differences in the dialects themselves, where lexical variation is insignificant, but phonological variation, often indicative of geographic isolation, is highly pronounced; The late advent of writing, which might have standardized pronunciation prior to divergence, could have also been a factor.
Variations in language
In the capital of Basco and the surrounding northern half of Batan, the area encompassed by Ivasayen, t is prominent, whereas in the Isamurongen zone to the south (Mahatao, Ivana, Uyugan and Sabtang) that phoneme becomes a ch. Itbayaten is unique in that it incorporates words not in use in the other dialects, though such differences amount to 2% of the total vocabulary.
Examples of the more visible variations of the Ivasayen and Isamurongen words and pronunciations are:
- tiban (to look) in Basco is chiban in the southern towns
- antiyaw (later) in Basco is anchiyaw in the southern towns
- kabatiti (patola) in Basco is kabachichi in the southern towns
- timoy (rain) in Basco is chimoy in the southern towns
Examples of different Ivasayen, Isamurongen and Itbayaten words that have the same English translation:
- adkan (to kiss) in Basco and the southern towns is umahan in Itbayat.
- arava (none) in Basco and the southern towns is aralih in Itbayat.
- bago (pig) in Basco and the southern towns is kuyis in Itbayat.
- otioyan (nest) in Basco, is ochoyan in the southern towns and hangtay in Itbayat.
- ipos (tail) in Basco is vochivot in the southern towns and also ipos in Itbayat.
The Ivatan language is basically a spoken language. Until lately, little effort was made to record the language in written form. What the young generation know about it is largely through hearing it spoken and speaking it.
Some tend to mix the Ivatan words to Filipino or vice versa in sentences, much worst is the combining or compounding of the Filipino words to the Ivatan words. One common example of this is – mapatak. This is derived from marunong (Filipino) and chapatak (Ivatan) which literally means someone who knows which were then compounded to form the word mapatak. This is actually the result of the influence of non-Ivatans who tend to speak the language & were then eventually adopted.
Another common mistakes that are often heard, is the mispronunciation of the Ivatan word like iskarayla – the correct is iskalayra – which means stairs, and tumaraya – the correct is tumayara – which means going up.
One unique characteristic of the language is its enormous street language. It is called street language because it emanated from the streets. Examples of these are: tanchew, coined from mirwa ta anchiyaw – literally means we’ll meet again later, and nganmu, coined from jinu ngayan mu – literally means where are you going. These are results of shortening the Ivatan phrases or sentences into one or two words depending on its usage.
Common Ivatan expressions have various origin such as:
- Dios mamajes/ Dios Mamajes nu mapia
Literally: "God reward you with goodness" or "God bless you"
Usage: Used to show gratitude to someone
- Dios mavidin
Literally: "May God remain with you"
Usage: Used by the person who is leaving
- Dios machivan
Literally: "May God go with you"
Usage: Used by the person who is staying behind
- Vowels: a, e, i, u
- Diphthongs: aw, iw, ay, ey, oy
- Consonants: b, ch, d, f, g, h, hh, j, k, l, m, n, ng, ny, p, r, s, t, v, w, y
Cultural terms of the Ivatan people
- sudi- taro
- wakay- sweet potato
- bulyas- onions
- baka- cow
- kaddin- goat
- kayvayvanan- friendship; cooperative work by a community which starts at the blow of a shell horn called a vodiadong
- payohoan- helping one another; work club of teenagers who alternate their shifts
- paluwa; chinarem; tataya- three boats used for fishing
- kabbata- legends
- kalusan- working songs
- kabbuni- riddles
- pananaban- proverbs
- vachi- song leader
- mais- corn
- palay- rice plant
- rakarakanen- vegetables
- vulaw a bagu- wild boar
- tatus- coconut crabs
- dulang- low dining table
- bangku- low bench
- rahaung, camarin- a storeroom for larger farm equipment such as plows, harrows, sleds, card, and the ox-drawn pole used for clearing off sweet potatoes and other vines from fields being prepared for re-cultivation
- talugung- a kind of conical hat woven from strips made from the stalk of a local plant called nini
- lukoy- bolo knife
- suhut- sheath of a bolo knife
- suut, vakul- a head-and-back covering woven from the stripped leaves of banana or the vuyavuy
- alat- baskets
- batulinaw- a necklace made of hollow globules (1½ cm. in diameter) interspersed with smaller pieces of gold in floral patterns and held together by a string made of fiber
- tamburin- an all-gold necklace whose beads are smaller and more ornate than the batulinaw, and lockets
- seseng, pamaaw, chingkakawayan, liyano, de pelo, dima s'bato, pitu s'bato, de perlas, bumbolya, karakol, pinatapatan- traditional earrings that come from the Spanish period
- angang- jars
- dibang – flying fish
- payi – lobster
- arayu – dorado
- tipuho – breadfruit
- uhango – pandan
- tamidok – fern
- chayi – tree
- soot – generic term referring to the Ivatan rain cape made from the finely stripped leaves of the vuyavuy palm.
- vakul – woman's soot, worn on the head.
- kanayi – man's soot, worn on the shoulders.
- falowa – Ivatan boat, now usually motorized, for 10–20 passengers.
- timban – church
- vanuwa – port
- avayat – a broad directional term used to indicate the west, a western direction or the western side.
- valugan – a broad directional term sued to indicate the east, an eastern direction or the eastern side.
- palek – sugar cane wine
- malisto- fast
- mawadi- slow
- mavid- beautiful
- kuman- eat
- minom- drink
- bapor, tataya- boat
- taw- sea
- ranum- water
- salao sao- wind
- cayvan- friend
- mahacay- man
- mavakes- woman
- Datu Tayong and Batbatan Otang
- Orayen and Pudalan
- The Origin of the "Nato"
- The Origin of the People of Sabtang
- The Legend of Layin
- The Two Fishermen
- An Domana ‘O’ Vohan
- Taao Di Valogan
- Ladji No Minasbang
- I Wanted Wings
- Guide Me, My Guardian Angel
An kalilyak mu
- Ipangudidi mu u mapya nanawu.
Carry with you good teaching, always bear in mind sound advice.
- Arava u mayet an namaes u ryes.
There is no strong man when the sea is at its worst.
- Arava u ryes an AB u su vinyedi.
There is no current that does not bounce back.
- Tumuhutuhud makaysed a tachi.
The feces that is dropped is sure comfort.
- Ulungen mu ava u kakedkeran mu.
Do not gore the peg where you are tied.
- Matakaw ava dimu u kasulivan.
Nobody can steal your knowledge.
- Nyeng mu a hukbiten ta isek ni tatumuk.
Grasp the opportunity because the bed bugs will carry and hide them inside the floor.
- Kanen mu ava u kakamay mu.
Do not eat your fingers.
- Arava u susuhan da su vahay a mapsek.
No one burns the house of a good man.
- Mahmahma u vatu kan uhu naw.
Stones are softer than his head.
- Umsi ava su vahusa u kamates.
Tomatoes do not bear kamatis.
- Tud da payramun u vinata naw.
They washed their face with what he said.
- Inulay mu ta tya naydited u uhu na.
Leave him alone for his head is tangled.
- Machitbatbay ka avan asa ka kaban amed.
Do not speak of a cavan for a measuring lime unit.
- Hello – Kapian capa nu dios
- How are you? – Ara ca mangu?
- I am fine – Taytu aco a mapia
- I am not fine – Ara coava mapia
- Thank you – Dios mamajes
- Where are you going? – Ngayan mo?
- I am going to... – Mangay aco du...
- Where is ___? – Ara dino si ___?
- Straight ahead – Direcho
- How much? – Manyi Pira?
- How many? – Pira?
- Good – Mapia
- No good – Mapia/Mavid ava
- Yes – Oon
- I want ___ – Makey ako no ___
- I don't want – Makey aco ava
- I have a problem – Mian problema ko
- No problem – Arava o problema
- Good luck – Mapia palak
- What's your name? – Angu ngaran mo?
- Where is the house of ___? – Jino vahay da ___?
- There- Du nguya, du daw, dawr
- Here- Diaya
- Hungry- Mapteng
- Thirsty- Ma-waw
- Tired- Mavanah, chinagagan (south), navanax
- Happy- Masuyot, masaray
- Whistling- Mamito, mihiñoxay (Itbayat)
- Sea- Taw, hawa (Itbayat)
- Soft- mahma, maxma & mayuxma (Itbayat)
- Sea- Taw, hawa (Itbayat)
- Bird- manumanok, kangkang (Itbayat)
- Perpendicular- maybatbat, mipatinu-nong (Itbayat)
- Mud- hetek, xetek (Itbayat)
- Sea- Taw, hawa (Itbayat)
- Kakuyab - Yesterday
- Antinaraw - Afternoon
- Antin manguh ta mangay? - When are we going?
- Antin manguh ka mapagugud? - When are you going to cut your hair?
Coined words are two words combined to form one new word.
|Mirwa ta anchiyaw||Tanchew||We’ll meet again later.||Street language|
|Jinu ngayan mu||Nganmu||Where are you going?||Street language|
Loanwords are words in the language that have been borrowed from other languages.
|Telefono||Spanish||An instrument for reproducing sounds at a distance|
Similarities with other Philippine languages
Similarities with the Tao language
Similarities with other Austronesian languages
Approval & Disapproval
Bank, Telephone & Post Office
Days of the Week
|0||Zero||Siro; a'bu||Siro; abu|
||Constructs such as ibid., loc. cit. and idem are discouraged by Wikipedia's style guide for footnotes, as they are easily broken. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references (quick guide), or an abbreviated title. (June 2010)|
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (May 2008)|
- Official Site of the Batanes Province
- The Ivatan
- Affiliation with the Yami of Taiwan
- Bansa.org Ivatan Dictionary
- Ivatan-English Dictionary from Webster's Dictionary
- IVATAN LANGUAGE: AN ANALYSIS – BatanesOnline.com
- Ivatan Language of the Batales Islands
- Batanes: Ivatan Songs composed and / or collected by Manuel Fajardo
- Batanes: Ivatan Legends
- I Wanted Wings: Poems
- Batanes, Philippines at 2005–2011 Philippine Travel Destinations Guide
- Uyugan, Batanes! On the Web! Batanes