Ivor Montagu in middle age
|Born||Ivor Goldsmid Samuel Montagu
23 April 1904
Kensington, London, England
|Died||5 November 1984
Watford, Hertfordshire, England
|Known for||Filmmaker, critic, table tennis player, spy|
|Awards||Lenin Peace Prize
International Table Tennis Foundation Hall of Fame
The Honorable Ivor Goldsmid Samuel Montagu (23 April 1904, Kensington, London – 5 November 1984, Watford) was an English filmmaker, screenwriter, producer, film critic, writer, table tennis player, and Soviet spy during World War II. He helped to develop a lively intellectual film culture in Britain during the interwar years, and was also the founder of the International Table Tennis Federation.
Life and career
Montagu was the third son of Gladys Helen Rachel Goldsmid and Louis Montagu, 2nd Baron Swaythling. He attended Westminster School and King's College, Cambridge, where he contributed to Granta. He became involved in zoological research.
With Sidney Bernstein he established the London Film Society in 1925, the first British film association devoted to showing art films and independent films. Montagu became the first film critic of The Observer and the New Statesman. He did the post-production work on Alfred Hitchcock's The Lodger in 1926 and was hired by Gaumont-British in the 1930s, working as a producer on a number of the Hitchcock thrillers. His 1928 silent slapstick movie 'Bluebottles' (slang for police) is included in the British Film Institute's History of the Avant-Garde – Britain in the Twenties. The story was by H G Wells, and the stars of the film were Charles Laughton and Elsa Lanchester, while the remaining cast were his friends including Norman Haire (also Montagu's doctor), Sergei Nolbandov and Joe Beckett.
Montagu joined the Fabian Society in his youth, then the British Socialist Party, and then the Communist Party of Great Britain. This brought him into contact with Russian film makers. In 1930 he accompanied his friend Sergei Eisenstein to New York and Hollywood; later in the decade Montagu made a number of compilation films, including Defence of Madrid (1936) and Peace and Plenty (1939) about the Spanish Civil War. He directed the documentary Wings Over Everest (1934) with Geoffrey Barkas. As a political figure and for a time a communist, much of his work at the time was on low budget, independent political films. By World War II, however, he made a film for the Ministry of Information. After the war Montagu worked as a film critic and reviewer.
In 1933, Montagu was a founder member of the Association of Cinematograph and Television Technicians, holding various positions in the union until the 1960s. He also held post on the World Council of Peace. He was awarded the Lenin Peace Prize in 1959.
Montagu was identified as a World War II-era spy for the Soviet GRU, code name "Intelligentsia", after the decryption in the 1960s of Venona telegraphs from March 1940 through April 1942. A 25 July 1940 cable from Simon Davidovitch Kremer, Secretary to the Soviet Military Attaché in London specifically identified him as the head of the X Group spy ring "Ivor Montagu, the well known local communist, journalist and lecturer."
Montagu had a keen interest in wildlife conservation, and was a council member of the Fauna Preservation Society for several years. He was friends with the eminent Soviet conservationist and zoologist Prof. A Bannikov. He had contacts in Mongolia, and was a champion for the conservation of the endangered Przewalski's horse.
His brother Ewen Montagu, a Naval Intelligence Officer RNVR in MI6, during the Second World War, was one of the masterminds of the successful deception Operation Mincemeat, and author of The Man Who Never Was.
Montagu was a champion table tennis player, representing Britain in matches all over the world. He also helped to establish and finance the first world championships in London in 1926.
Montagu founded the International Table Tennis Federation in 1926, and was president of the group until 1967. He also founded the English Table Tennis Association (ETTA), and served several terms as chairman and president.
Montagu wrote many pamphlets and books, such as Film World (1964), With Eisenstein in Hollywood (1968), and The Youngest Son (1970). He wrote two books about table tennis: Table Tennis Today (1924) and Table Tennis (1936).
Hall of Fame
Montagu was inducted into the International Table Tennis Foundation Hall of Fame in 1995.
- "MI5 intercepted a telegram from Ivor Montagu, a film critic, producer and one-time Soviet spy, telling Chaplin how sorry he was to miss him in London when the star visited London in 1952." MI5 spied on Charlie Chaplin after FBI asked for help to banish him from US The Guardian, 17 February 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- O'Pray, Michael; British Film Institute (2000), Britain in the twenties history of the avant-garde, BFI Video, retrieved 15 April 2013
- British Film Institute: Peace and Plenty. Ivor Montagu, 1939.
- Records of the Government Code and Cypher School 15/43, British National Archives, Kew
- Macintyre, Ben. Operation Mincemeat. pp. 89–93.
- "Ivor Goldsmid Montagu". International Jewish Sports Hall of Fame. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
- "ITTF Hall of Fame" (PDF). International Table Tennis Federation. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
- Griffin, Nicholas (2014). Ping-Pong Diplomacy: The Secret History Behind the Game That Changed the World. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9781451642773.
- Ivor Montagu Biography at the British Film Institute's Screenonline. Reference Guide to British and Irish Film Directors
- Ivor Montagu at the British Film Institute's Screenonline
- Ivor Montagu at the Internet Movie Database
- Times obituary