"Ivory" is a personal care brand created by the Procter & Gamble Company (P&G), including varieties of a white and mildly scented bar soap, that became famous for its claim of purity and for floating in water. Over the years, the brand has been extended to other varieties and products.
Ivory bar soap is whipped with air in its production and floats in water. According to an apocryphal story, later discounted by the company, a worker accidentally left the mixing machine on too long and the company chose to sell the "ruined" batch, because the added air did not change the basic ingredients of the soap. When appreciative letters about the new, floating soap inundated the company, P&G ordered the extended mix time as a standard procedure. However, company records indicate that the design of Ivory did not come about by accident. In 2004, over 100 years later, the P&G company archivist Ed Rider found documentation that revealed that chemist James N. Gamble, son of the founder, had discovered how to make the soap float and noted the result in his writings.
Ivory's first slogan "It Floats!" was introduced in 1891. The product's other well-known slogan, "99 44⁄100% Pure" (in use by 1895), was based on the results of an analysis by an independent laboratory the founder's son, Harley Procter, hired to demonstrate that Ivory was purer than the castile soap then available.
Reported during October 1992, Procter & Gamble product research has involved creating other varieties of Ivory soap that do not float like the original, and would sink due to the altered ingredients, but also would avoid dissolving too fast when wet.[dubious ] In October 2001, P&G tested the sinking bar soap as part of an advertising campaign in the United States, in a six-month plan to release 1,051 soap bars that sink, among other bars that float, to see if people would notice the sinking bars, even if given a cash reward of up to $250,000. The D. L. Blair company, part of Draft Worldwide, a unit of the Interpublic Group of Companies, was assigned to administer the contest.
The Ivory soap bar (classic) contained: sodium tallowate, sodium cocoate or sodium palm kernelate, water, sodium chloride, sodium silicate, magnesium sulfate, and fragrance. The soap bar had a determined pH value: 9.5.
The classic formulation was more caustic in comparison to some milder bars, such as Dove, a non-soap synthetic detergent bar. However, some consumer investigations found that Ivory's antimicrobial activity was better than that of other skin soaps, even those containing antibacterials such as triclosan. A postulate for this effectiveness is the ability of the soap to lyse bacteria efficiently, and to rinse cleanly. The drawback to the soap was its drying effect on the skin, as it had easily dissolved natural oils. One reason for this was the lack of glycerin in the formula, which was believed to be too expensive and would raise the cost of Ivory bars, one of the least expensive soaps available for people of modest means.
New varieties of Ivory soap contain altered ingredients, such as in "Simply Ivory" (or "simplement ivory"): sodium tallowate and/or sodium palmate, water, sodium cocoate or sodium palm kernelate, glycerin, sodium chloride, fragrance, one or more of the following: coconut acid, palm kernel acid, tallow acid or palmitic acid, and tetrasodium EDTA. The additional ingredients primarily are to reduce the harshness of the soap, since additional glycerin and fatty acids are typically used for that. Tetrasodium EDTA is primarily to reduce soap scum formation. Bars of Ivory now come without the words "soap" or "float" on the packaging, and they are made with the latter formula.
Ivory is a small brand by P&G standards. The Ivory brand includes the classic bar soap, liquid hand soap, body wash, hair & body wash, dish liquid, and a mild laundry detergent (not a soap) product called Ivory Snow. Research in 2001 by Lehman Brothers revealed that the U.S. sales of all Ivory products, including the liquid soap and dish detergent, represented less than 1% of P&G's total worldwide sales in the 52 weeks ended September 9, 2001.
In popular culture
- Milliken, a New York City neighborhood, became known as Port Ivory, Staten Island, because of the P&G factory that was a landmark there from 1907-1991.
- This soap powder was used by many people at Christmas time after World War II to create a fake snow to put on live Christmas trees. A box of Ivory Snow combined with boiling water, mixed and whipped up with an electric mixer, produced a "mock snow." It was applied by hand wearing rubber gloves and rubbing the mixture all over the tree. It dried to a firm consistency and dripped down, looking like real snow. Mica flakes or white glitter were then sprinkled on top of the snowy mixture. The tree sat for about an hour before the garland and ornaments were added. Commercial aerosol cans of fake snow replaced this method starting in the 1960s.
- "99 and 44/100% Pure" are the words spoken by Willy Wonka on opening the factory door in the 1971 film, Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory.
- Before becoming a pornographic actress, Marilyn Chambers was a model for Ivory Snow. The producers of the 1972 hardcore film Behind the Green Door used Ivory Snow's "99 and 44/100 percent pure" slogan to advertise the actress' appearance in the film. The controversy helped to boost tickets sales for the film.
- Parodying Ivory's slogan, John Frankenheimer titled his 1974 film 99 and 44/100% Dead.
- Country singer Ronnie Milsap referenced the Ivory soap slogan in his 1974 hit song "Pure Love" written by Eddie Rabbitt.
- Ice-T refers to Ivory Soap in his 1988 track "I'm Your Pusher", boasting that he does not sanitize the content of his records: "I don't clean 'em up with no Ivory soap — I leave 'em hard and pure, hope that you can cope". Ice T also refers to using Ivory Soap to remove crackle from a scratched record to make it better to sample from in the song "Fried Chicken" on his fourth studio album "O.G. Original Gangster"
- A 1995 episode of Tales from the Crypt was titled "99 & 44/100% Pure Horror" and centered around the rich owner of a soap company and his wife.
- In Neal Shusterman's 2007 science-fiction novel Unwind, the law states that 99.44% of the organic material of "unwinds" who are harvested for organs must be saved for transplant.
- Sunlight, cleaning product
- "History of Ivory", Ivory.com, 2009, web: History of Ivory.
- Kenny, Daniel J. (1895). Illustrated Guide to Cincinnati and the World's Columbian Exposition. R. Clarke. p. 228. Retrieved 2013-05-22.
- "Origins of Ivory soap, 2008, web". Snopes.com. Retrieved 2011-11-28.
- Cox, Jim (2008). Sold on Radio: Advertisers in the Golden Age of Broadcasting. McFarland & Co. p. 213. ISBN 9780786451760.
- "Company News; P.& G. Introduces an Ivory soap that does not float", New York Times, 1992-10-23, web: NYTimes-PG-ivory-does-not-float.
- "The Media Business: Advertising; Ivory soap uses a bar that sinks, a $250,000 contest and old-style packaging to increase sales", Jane L. Levere, October 25, 2001, The New York Times, webpage: NYTimes-ivory-sinks, accessed April 2009, advertising campaign, reports, "1,051 of the bars will sink, instead of float".
- "~~ Ivory Soap - Simply Pure ~~ - Ivory Original Bar Soap". Epinions.com. Retrieved 2011-11-28.
- Determining Your Soap's pH
- "Ingredients", Simply Ivory (French: Simplement Ivory), 2008, Drugstore.com, webpage showing package: Dstore-simply (has tab "ingredients" at mid-page), package states (French): "Le juste équilibre. Un mousse délicate. Un parfum subtile. simplement ivory, 3 Bars - 90g (3.1 oz), Total Net Wt 270g (9.oz)".
- Goupil, Helene; Krist, Josh (2005). San Francisco: The Unknown City. Arsenal Pulp Press. p. 239. ISBN 9781551521886.
- Allyn, David Smith (2001). Make love, not war: the sexual revolution, an unfettered history. Taylor & Francis. p. 235. ISBN 9780415929424.
- Ivory Products Home Page
- History of Ivory
- How to Expand Ivory Soap
- How to Expand Ivory Soap Video by Josh Leo
- The Australian equivalent, in production since 1900, Velvet Pure Soap's home page
- Ivory Project: Advertising Soap in America 1838-1998 by the Smithsonian Institution