|Regions with significant populations|
Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Delhi, Maharashtra
|Brahmin Tamil, Kannada, Telugu|
Iyengar or Ayyangar ([əjːəŋɡɑːr]) is a caste given to Hindu Brahmins of Tamil origin who follow the Visishtadvaita philosophy propounded by Ramanuja. They are found mostly in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
Iyengar are divided into two religious sects, being the Vadakalai and the Thenkalai. As with other Hindu communities, they are also classified based on their gotra, or patrilineal descent.
Iyengars display a mark on their forehead known as the Srivaishnava Urdhva Pundra as a caste mark.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Language and dialect
- 5 Religious observances
- 6 Notable people
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
There are various opinions regarding the etymology of Iyengar.
- It means one who is characterised by five attributes (Aindu angangal).
Robert Lester says that the word “Ayyangaar”, an alternate transliteration, was first used by Kandhaadai Ramanuja Ayyangaar of Tirupathi around 1450 AD.
The Iyengar community traces its philosophical origins to Nathamuni, the first Sri Vaishnava acharya, who lived around 900 CE. He is traditionally believed to have collected the 4,000 works of Nammalvar and other alvars, the poet-saints of southern India who were intensely devoted to Vishnu on both an emotional and intellectual plane. The belief is that he set this collection - commonly called the Tamil Prabhandams - to music, and he introduced the devotional hymns of the alvars into worship, thus mixing their Tamil Veda with the traditional Vedas written in Sanskrit. A scriptural equivalence was accepted by the community that formed in acceptance of his works, with the Sanskrit texts considered to be metaphysical truth and the Tamil oral variants to be based on human experience of the same. This community became immersed in the dual-language worship in temples where issues of caste were of no concern.
A century or so later, Ramanuja became the principal among religious leaders who formalised the efforts of Nathamuni as a theology. Ramanuja developed the philosophy of Visishtadvaita and has been described by Harold Coward as "the founding interpreter of [Sri Vaisnavite] scripture."[a] While Anne Overzee says that he was a collator and interpreter rather than an original thinker, although showing originality in his method of synthesising the Tamil and Sanskrit sources, Ranjeeta Dutta has said that the two sets of sources "continued to be parallel to each other and not incorporative" at this time.
Nathamuni and Ramanuja were both Brahmins, while Nammalvar was of the Vellala caste which their community considered to be the lowest varna, known as shudra. All three men were Tamils,[b] although Ramanuja documented his thoughts in Sanskrit.
Ramanuja was initially a proponent of the traditional bhakti philosophy that demanded adherents had a good command of Sanskrit texts and a ritualised approach to life and devotion. This outlook marginalised women and members of the shudra varna because they were disbarred from learning the Sanskrit Vedas, and Ramanuja later changed his position and became more receptive to an inclusionist theory. His thoughts also contained what John Carman has described as a "significant ambiguity", of which Ramanuja may not himself have been aware: his metaphorical devices suggested that devotion through ritual "earned" salvation but also that salvation was given through the grace of god. Subsequently, some time around the fourteenth century, the Iyengar community divided into two sects, both of which maintained a reverence for his works but which were increasingly divided due to the doctrinal uncertainties evident in them.
The Vadakalai sect are also referred to as the "northern" culture or school, and the Thenkalai sect are the "southern" variant. These cultures reference the perceived prominence given by the sects to the terse style of Sanskrit traditions and the lyrical Tamil Prabhandams, respectively, although S. M. Srinivasa Chari believes this linguistic differentiation to be overstated. The Vadakalai favour Vedanta Desika as their acharya and the Thenkalai prefer instead the teachings of Manavala Mamuni but Chari notes that the sects share a common allegiance to Nammalvar and Ramanuja, and that their subsequent significant thinkers "wholly accepted the authority and importance" of both linguistic styles.[c] Harold Schiffman says that the linguistic schism reflects wider underlying doctrinal differences between the populist southern school and the social conservatism of the north, with Tamil historically being a language understood by the masses while Sanskrit was elitist and caste-bound.
Vedic philosophy holds that the supreme goal in life is to attain the blissful state of Brahman through moksha, being the process of liberation of the suffering soul from the cycle of reincarnation. Although eighteen points of difference between the two Iyengar sects are generally recognised, being referred to as the ashtadasa bhedas, most of these are minor.[d] Abraham Eraly describes a principal difference, being
... their views on the nature of divine grace - while the Thenkalai holds that devotion is all that is necessary and that god will on his own initiative carry the devotee to salvation, like a cat carrying a kitten, the Vadakalai holds that man has to win god's grace through his efforts and he has to cling on to god, like an infant monkey clinging on to its mother.
Coward considers this to be the difference between the two schools of thought, and Carman says that "... both [sects] accord primacy to divine grace, but one group feels it necessary to insist that there is no human contributions at all to the attainment of salvation." These variations in interpretation of the nature of prapatti - loosely, "self-surrender to god" - are called marjara nyaya and markata nyaya, referring to the young of cats and monkeys. They give rise to another naming convention for the two sects, being the "monkey school" and the "cat school".
Vadakalai Iyengars believe that it is necessary to offer obeisance/prostration to God multiple times, while Thenkalai Iyengars believe that it is enough if you offer obesaiance/prostration to God once. This is the reason as to why a Vadakalai Iyengar is often seen prostrating four times, while Thenkalai Iyengars are seen prostrating only once.
The sectarian rivalry has at times been bitter and, according to Andre Beteille, "aggressive". Thomas Manninezhath notes an intensification of disputes at the time of Thayumanavar in the eighteenth century and on other occasions legal processes have been used in attempts to settle the control of temples.
Relations with other communities
Prior to the independence of India, Brahmins had a significant presence in the government posts and education system of Madras province, a part of which is now Tamil Nadu. Since independence, grievances and alleged instances of discrimination by Brahmins in Tamil Nadu are believed to be the main factors which fuelled the Self-Respect Movement and marginalised them. This, in combination with the depressed economic and social conditions of non-Brahmins, led the non-Brahmins to agitate and form the Justice Party in 1916, which later became the Dravidar Kazhagam. The Justice Party banked on vehement anti-Hindu and anti-Brahmin propaganda to ease Brahmins out of their privileged positions. Gradually, the non-Brahmin replaced the Brahmin in every sphere and destroyed the monopoly over education and the administrative services which the Brahmin had previously held.
However, with the destruction of Brahmin monopoly over the services and introduction of adequate representation for other communities, anti-Brahmin feelings did not subside. There were frequent allegations of casteism and racism against Brahmins very similar to the ones made by the lower castes against them in the decades before independence.
Some Iyengars have worked to remove caste-barriers. Sir P. Rajagopalachari, during his tenure as the Dewan of Travancore, introduced legislation to give Dalit and Ezhava children access to schools, despite protests from Malayali upper-castes. He also enabled the lifting of restrictions on the nomination of low-castes and untouchables to the Travancore State Assembly. Chakravarti Rajagopalachari, during his tenure as the Chief Minister of Madras Presidency, enacted a law similar to the Temple Entry Proclamation issued in Travancore that permitted the entry of Dalits into Hindu temples.
There were also accusations that they were Sanskritists who had a distorted and contemptuous attitude towards Tamil language, culture and civilisation Kamil Zvelebil, a Dravidologist, argues from a study of the history of Tamil literature that this accusation is wrong. He notes that the Brahmin was chosen as a scapegoat to answer for the decline of Tamil civilisation and culture in the medieval and post-medieval periods.
The Hebbar Iyengars speak a Tamil dialect known as Hebbar Tamil. Once found only in the Karnataka towns of Belur, Shanti Grama, Nuggehalli, Nonavinakere, Bindiganavile and Hiremagalur, Hebbar Iyengars are now found in many parts of India, across Europe, and North America. It is believed that Hebbars are the descendants of Srivaishnavas who migrated to Karnataka from Tamil Nadu, following Ramanuja.
Mandayam Iyengars are those who migrated to Mandya district in Karnataka from Tirupathi in Andhra Pradesh. They are fewer in number than Hebbars and speak a dialect of Tamil known as Mandayam Tamil. Mandayam Iyengars, without exception, belong to the Thenkalai subsect.
The Iyengars of Melkote are called Khoday Iyengars and are known for their proficency in Sanskrit literature. In South Indian languages, khoday means "umbrella" and the clan were given the epithet because their ancestors held an umbrella over the idol of Yoga Narashimha on the occasion of Melakote Vairamudi, in the presence of the then Maharaja of Mysore. Most of the Mandyam sect do not celebrate Deepawali due to the lore that Tippu Sultan massacred hundreds of relatives of the Tirumaliyengar, in retaliation for his having entered into an agreement with the British in 1790, on behalf of the dowager queen Rani Lakshammanni of Mysore.
The word Chozhiar means “of the Chola”. Chozhiar is the name given to a sect of Brahmins native to the Chola region. While most Chozhiars profess Saivism, some profess Vaishnavism and are known as Chozhiar Iyengars.
Language and dialect
The mother tongue of most Iyengars in Tamil Nadu is Tamil. They speak a dialect that is almost identical to Brahmin Tamil, differing only in the degree of Sanskritization. Scholars have often refused to recognise this as a separate dialect, regarding it only as a sub-dialect of Brahmin Tamil.
However, Iyengars in Karnataka speak a dialect that has a significant Kannada substrate, which has descended from medieval Tamil. Iyengars in southern Andhra Pradesh speak both Tamil and Telugu.
A typical Iyengar wedding are made up of the following events:Vethalaipakku, Pandalkal, Janwaasam, Nischayathartham, Nandi or Vratham, Kashiyathrai, Oonjal, Piddishuttal, Kanyadaanam, Mangalaya Dharanam, Akshathai, Homam, Saptapadi, Nagoli, Vasthra, Gruhapravesham, Sambandhi Virandhu,Reception and Nalangu.
- The traditional biographies of Ramanuja place his life in the period of 1017-1137 CE,
- Nathamuni is thought to have been born at Viranarayana, Ramanuja was born at Sriperumbudur, and Nammalvar at Alvartirunakam.
- S. Dasgupta is quoted by Thomas Manninezhath: "Though the leaders themselves were actuated by a spirit of sympathy with one another, yet their followers made much of these little differences in their views and constantly quarrelled with one another, and it is a well-known fact that these sectarian quarrels exist even now".
- The eighteen sectarian differences are detailed in History of Sri Vaishnavism in the Tamil country (N. Jagadeesan, Koodal Publishers, 1977)
- Aiyaṅgār, Maṇḍayam A. Nārāyaṇa (1898). Essays on Indo-Aryan Mythology.
- Lester, Robert C. (1 January 1994). "The Sattada Srivaisnavas". The Journal of the American Oriental Society.
- Dutta, Ranjeeta (September–October 2007). "Texts, Tradition and Community Identity: The Srivaisnavas of South India". Social Scientist 35 (9/10): 22–43. JSTOR 27644238. (subscription required)
- Overzee, Anne Hunt (1992). The Body Divine: The Symbol of the Body in the Works of Teilhard de Chardin and Ramanuja. Cambridge University Press. p. 35. ISBN 9780521385169.
- Coward, Harold G. (2008). The Perfectibility of Human Nature in Eastern and Western Thought. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. pp. 139–141. ISBN 9780791473351.
- Carman, John B. (1994). Majesty and Meekness: A Comparative Study of Contrast and Harmony in the Concept of God. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 101–102. ISBN 9780802806932.
- Carman, John B. (1994). Majesty and Meekness: A Comparative Study of Contrast and Harmony in the Concept of God. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 80. ISBN 9780802806932.
- Overzee, Anne Hunt (1992). The Body Divine: The Symbol of the Body in the Works of Teilhard de Chardin and Ramanuja. Cambridge University Press. pp. 30–31. ISBN 9780521385169.
- Dasgupta, S. N. (1991). A History of Indian Philosophy 3. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 94. ISBN 9788120804142.
- Bhakti Poetry in Medieval India: Its Inception, Cultural Encounter and Impact. Sarup & Sons. 2004. p. 28. ISBN 9788176254366.
- Carman, John B. (1994). Majesty and Meekness: A Comparative Study of Contrast and Harmony in the Concept of God. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 147. ISBN 9780802806932.
- Coward, Harold G. (2008). The Perfectibility of Human Nature in Eastern and Western Thought. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. p. 139. ISBN 9780791473351. "The distinction between the two schools is the degree of self-effort or God's grace required for one's surrender to the Lord and release from rebirth.""
- Carman, John B. (1994). Majesty and Meekness: A Comparative Study of Contrast and Harmony in the Concept of God. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 95. ISBN 9780802806932.
- Bhakti Poetry in Medieval India: Its Inception, Cultural Encounter and Impact. Sarup & Sons. 2004. p. 19. ISBN 9788176254366.
- Chari, S. M. Srinivasa (1997). Philosophy and Theistic Mysticism of the Alvars. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 244. ISBN 9788120813427.
- Manninezhath, Thomas (1993). Harmony of Religions: Vedanta Siddhanta Samarasam of Tayumanavar. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 35.
- Schiffman, Harold F. (1998). Linguistic Culture and Language Policy. Routledge. pp. 183–184. ISBN 9780415184069.
- Chari, S. M. Srinivasa (1997). Philosophy and Theistic Mysticism of the Alvars. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 143–144. ISBN 9788120813427.
- Chari, S. M. Srinivasa (1997). Philosophy and Theistic Mysticism of the Alvars. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 240. ISBN 9788120813427.
- Eraly, Abraham (2011). The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin Books India. p. 853. ISBN 9780670084784.
- Carman, John B. (1994). Majesty and Meekness: A Comparative Study of Contrast and Harmony in the Concept of God. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 148. ISBN 9780802806932.
- King, Richard (1999). Indian Philosophy: An Introduction to Hindu and Buddhist Thought. Edinburgh University Press. p. 224. ISBN 9780748609543.
- Tamil Nadu, Religious Condition under Vijaya Nagar Empire
- The World of the Weaver in Northern Coromandel, c.1750-c.1850 – by P.Swarnalatha, Pub’ by Orient Longman, ISBN 81-250-2868-4. Google Books. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
- Pg.443 – ''The Indian economic and social history review, Volume 22'', Delhi School of Economics. Google Books. 19 December 2009. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
- Pg.61- ''Textiles and weavers in medieval South India'', by Vijaya Ramaswamy, Oxford University Press. Google Books. 7 January 2010. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
- Pg.86 Encyclopaedia of Indian philosophy, Volume 1, by Vraj Kumar Pandey, Anmol Publications. Google Books. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
- Pg.128 Studies in social history: modern India, O. P. Bhatnagar, India. University Grants Commission, University of Allahabad. Dept. of Modern Indian History, St. Paul's Press Training School – 1964. Google Books. 20 March 2007. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
- Béteille, André (1965). Caste, Class & Power: Changing Patterns of Stratification in a Tanjore Village. University of California Press. pp. 75, 96. ISBN 9780520020535.
- Manninezhath, Thomas (1993). Harmony of Religions: Vedanta Siddhanta Samarasam of Tayumanavar. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 26.
- Ghurye, Govind Sadashiv (1969) . Caste and Race in India (5th ed.). Popular Prakashan. p. 209. ISBN 9788171542055.
- "''Superiority in Numbers'' from ''Tehelka.com'', April 22, 2006". Tehelka.com. 22 April 2006. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
- Caste in Indian Politics by Rajni Kothari, Pg 254
- Ayyankali, Chapter 4:Kerala's First Workers Strike
- Ayyankali, Chapter 8:Praja Sabha Member-2e
- P.V.Manickam Naicker, writes in 'The Tamil Alphabet and its Mystic Aspect', 1917,Pg 74–75: "Even should Dutt's description of the aryanisation be true, the real Aryan corpus in South-India came to nothing. A cranial study of the various classes will also confirm the same. The lecturer, being a non-Brahmin, wishes to leave nothing to be misunderstood. His best and tried friends are mostly Brahmins and he is a sincere admirer of them. There is no denying the fact that the ancestors of the present Brahmins were the most cultured among the South-Indians at the time the said Aryanisation took place and got crystallized into a class revered by the people. As the cultured sons of the common mother Tamil, is it not their legitimate duty to own their kinsmen and to cooperate and uplift their less lucky brethren, if they have real patriotism for the welfare of the state? On the contrary, the general disposition of many a Brahmin is to disown his kinship with the rest of the Tamil brethern, to disown his very mother Tamil and to comstruct an imaginary untainted Aryan pedigree as if the Aryan alone is heaven-born
- Zvelebil, Pg 197
- Zvelebil, Kamil V. (1992). Companion Studies to the History of Tamil Literature. BRILL. pp. 212–213, 216. ISBN 90-04-09365-6.
- Pg.184 Census of India, 1951, Volume 14, Part 1; India. Census Commissioner, Govt. of India Press – 1954
- Gariyali, C. K. (11 March 2002). "Iyengar Marriage Part 1". Chennai Online. Retrieved 2008-09-04.[dead link]
- Gariyali, C. K. (16 April 2002). "Iyengar Marriage Rituals – Part Four". Chennai Online. Retrieved 2008-09-04.[dead link]
- W. Clothey, Fred (2006). Ritualizing on the Boundaries: Continuity and Innovation in the Tamil Diaspora. University of South Carolina. ISBN 1-57003-647-0, ISBN 978-1-57003-647-7 Check
- Zvelebil, Kamil (1973). The Smile of Murugan on Tamil Literature of South India. BRILL. ISBN 90-04-03591-5.
- E. V. Ramasami (27 March 1929). "Is this Nationalism?" (PDF). The Revolt.
- Ghosh, G. K.; Shukla Ghosh (2003). Brahmin Women. Firma KLM. ISBN 9788171021079.
- K. Rangachari (1931). The Sri Vaishnava Brahmins.