Иж, Ижкар (Udmurt)
|- City -|
View of Izhevsk
Location of the Udmurt Republic in Russia
|City Day||June 12|
|Administrative status (as of March 2011)|
|Federal subject||Udmurt Republic|
|Administratively subordinated to||city of republic significance of Izhevsk|
|Capital of||Udmurt Republic|
|Administrative center of||city of republic significance of Izhevsk|
|Municipal status (as of June 2006)|
|Urban okrug||Izhevsk Urban Okrug|
|Administrative center of||Izhevsk Urban Okrug|
|Representative body||City Duma|
|Area (City) (2011)||315.15 km2 (121.68 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)||627,734 inhabitants|
|- Rank in 2010||19th|
|Population (2012 est.)||629,455 inhabitants|
|Density||1,992 /km2 (5,160 /sq mi)|
|Time zone||MSK (UTC+04:00)|
|Founded||April 10, 1760|
|Previous names||Izhevsky Zavod (until February 21, 1918),
Izhevsk (until 1984),
Ustinov (until 1987)
|Dialing code(s)||+7 3412|
Izhevsk (Russian: Иже́вск; IPA: [ɪˈʐɛfsk]; Udmurt: Иж, Iž, or Ижкар, Ižkar) is the capital city of the Udmurt Republic, Russia, situated along the Izh River in the Western Urals. It's population is 629,455 (2012 est.), up from 627,734 recorded in the 2010 Census, making it the nineteenth largest city in Russia and the largest in the republic.
From 1984 to 1987, the city was called Ustinov (Russian: Усти́нов). The city is a major hub of industry, commerce, politics, culture, and education in the Volga Region. It is world-famous for its defense, engineering, and metallurgy industries. Izhevsk has the titles of the Armory Capital of Russia and the City of Labor Glory.
The pioneer settlements on the territory where modern Izhevsk now stands were founded by Udmurts in the 5th century. They were two fortified settlements situated on the banks of the Karlutka River. Later, this territory joined the Khanate of Kazan. In 1552, Russians conquered the Khanate and, in 1582, Ivan the Terrible conferred the lands by the Karlutka and Izh Rivers on Bagish Yaushev, a Tatar morza. The quit-rent had been imposed on the Udmurt population ever since. The Yaushevs owned the land till the times of Peter the Great.
On September 15, 1757, Count Pyotr Shuvalov, owner of seven factories in the Urals, bought land in the Kama Region and got permission from Empress Elizabeth to build three ironworks there. In those days, ironworks were powered with steam, and wood was the only heat energy source. For that reason it was decided to build one of the plants on the forest-rich land near the Izh River. It was planned that iron bands and anchors would be made of delivered cast iron here. Another ironworks was built on the Votka River.
In April 10, 1760, serfs from neighboring villages and artisans from other Shuvalov's plants began the dam construction under the direction of Alexey Moskvin, a mining engineer and a trustee of Shuvalov. This date is considered to be Izhevsk's foundation date.
The construction was going at a slow pace. The serfs were discontent with being separated from their villages, with arduous duties and regular physical punishment. As a consequence, rebellions were often excited.
In 1762, Shuvalov died. The plants went to his son Andrey. In accordance with the ukase of Catherine the Great dated November 15, 1763, all Shuvalov's ironworks including one in Izhevsky Zavod lapsed to the Crown for debts. Since that time, it was under the authority of the Collegium of Mining, an institution in charge of the mining industry in Russia. The ironworks on the Izh and Votka Rivers were called Kama Plants.
In 1763, construction of the dam and ironworks was completed and the first bloomery iron was smelted. As a result of the dam construction, one of the biggest reservoirs in Europe was formed. Near the ironworks, the settlement was built. This settlement was named Izhevsky Zavod, meaning "the plant on the Izh" in Russian.
First time, the ironworks made palm-wide iron bands from three to six meters long. These bands were supplied to Moscow for the Kremlin renewal. The iron from Izhevsky Zavod was used for construction in St. Petersburg.
In October 1773, the news of the popular revolt against Catherine II on the Yaik and the manifestos of Yemelyan Pugachev reached Izhevsky Zavod. The Cossak passing himself off as Peter III proclaimed liberty for serfs and called to kill nobles and factory owners. This calls had the backing of the serfs and artisans. Thereby, Colonel Feodor Wenzel, the manager of Goroblagodat and Kama plants, and Aleksey Alymov, the manager of Izhevsky Zavod iromworks, were forced to escape to Kazan.
On January 1, 1774, a detachment of the Pugachev's rebel army came into the town. The rebels destroyed the ironworks, burned its office buildings, wrecked houses of the managers. The food from the demolished depod was distributed to the people, the ironworks money was sent to the staff of the rebel army in the environs of Ufa. The serfs were let go home, some of them joined the detachment. Thus, the iron production was stopped for a while.
In April 1774, Pugachev's army fought a losing battles everywhere and was forced to leave Izhevsky Zavod. The managers went back to the town. They cowed serfs and artisans into submission and forced them to pledge allegiance to Catherine the Great. The list of workers who had joined the rebel army was made for future reprisal.
In spite of opposition from the forces of Wenzel and Alymov Brothers, Pugachev's army occupy the town again on June 27, 1774. The crowds hailed Yemelyan Pugachev. He dealt with complains of serfs and workers for two days. Forty-two persons, including Wenzel and Alymovs, were executed.
On June 29, Pugachev left Izhevsky Zavod and set out for Kazan. Many workmen of Izhevsky Zavod joined his detachments and fought selflessly in last battles of the Rebellion, which was mostly crushed by early September 1775. In spite of defeat of the rebel army and execution of its leader, separate bands of rebels continued resistance. New managers of the ironworks suppressed serfs and returned artisans by force. The bands were cracked down.
The ironworks was restored and began to function by the end of 1775. The former order was reseated. The forced workers did not hold an interest in productivity raising and fell into decay by the 19th century.
Arms factory foundation
In 1800, Emperor Paul I ordered to build an arm factory in Urals considering mounting threat from Napoleonic France. Siting was given to Andrew Deryabin, a mining engineer, chief of Goroblagodat, Perm, Kama and Bogoslov Plants. He saw several places in the Perm and Vyatka Governorates and drew a conclusion that the most suitable place for plant foundation was Izh Zavod. It occurred to him to turn the ironworks into the armory.
Alexander I approved of Deryabin's project and arms factory building began on June 10, 1807. Thus 1807 is considered the year of Izhevsk's second birth.
There was a shortage of manpower at the new factory. Staff vacancies were felt up by serfs, workmen from Urals mining plants and recruits. Armorers were transferred from other arms factories and employed from Europe, mainly from Denmark and Sweden.
The settlement peopled very fast. There were more than 6,000 inhabitants by the end of 1808. Because of housing requirements, people had to build their houses after work, at night. Houses were made of factory's wood. At the same time, the factory built barracks and houses for employees, officers and officials, the hospital and other social facilities.
The settlement was built according to the master plan. Architect Feodor Dudin was an author of this plan and a director of all construction works. The principle of blockly development was assumed as a basis of the master plan. Wide and straight streets going down crossed perpendicular to them side streets. Their accurate network formed small rectangular blocks.
On May 18, 1810, a major fire burned in Izhevsky Zavod. 174 houses, the warehouse, and 2 wooden churches were destroyed.
After the fire, implementation of Dudin's plan began. The houses were made of pinewood logs. As a rule, a house consisted of two izbas, joined together with an inner porch. Houses of the poor consisted of one izba. Armorers and officials erected two-storied and five-wall log houses. There were fifteen streets in Izh by the 1820s.
In 1812, Izhevsky Zavod was divided into three administrative parts because of growth in population and territory.
In 1816, there were 1,710 houses, 8 factory stone buildings, a prison, a cemetery, a stone church and a school in the settlement. The population was 8,324.
In the 1820s, 1830s, and 1840s, a number of big stone building was erected. They were St. Alexander Nevsky's Cathedral (1820—1823), the Arsenal (1823—1825), Public Offices (1843—1845) and House of contractor Egor Novikov. They stand out among other buildings by their size and architecture and improved Izh appearance.
The population of the settlement was 19,163 in 1850. Its territory was about 6200 square miles. 3499 buildings were wooden, 27 ones, including 3 churches, were made of stone. The settlement had 1066 wells.
Izhevsky Zavod after the Emancipation Reform of 1861
On February 19, 1861, Emperor of Russia Alexander II carried out the Emancipation Reform. On October 9, 1865, Berg-kollegia apprehending the prospective cost increase leased the Arms Factory to the Partnership of Industrialists.
In 1866, serfs of the Factory received their liberty according with 1861 Emancipation Manifesto and got self-government. Izhevsky Zavod was divided into two volosts: Nagornaya and Zarechnaya, or Zareka. Each volost had its board of administration and consisted of rural societies. Rural society was headed by a starosta, selected in the gathering. There were seven rural societies in Nagornaya Volost; Zarechnaya Volost consisted of four.
Administrations of volosts reported to the Board of Sarapul Zemstvo. They were led by volost starshinas, elected for three years. Volost administrations were in the charge of duty acting and tax payment by people. They issued passports, managed improvement of territory and other local affairs.
Administrative and police oversight was carried out by the factory administration. Besides the administration delivered documents of title to land and house. The ponds, pastures and hayfields were turned over to the armorers and artisans.
The abolition of serfdom aggravated property inequalities between the inhabitants of Izhevsky Zavod. Well-to-do sections of population were the factory management, skilled armorers and artisans, administrative professionals, officials, clergy and merchants. Such stratification had an influence on view of the settlement. The labor were driven out of Nagornaya Part and settled in boggy Zareka. At that time, Koltoma, another working-class locality, grew.
In the early 1870s, there were about twenty private stone buildings in Izhevsky Zavod. In Zarechnaya Part all houses were made of wood.
Civic life depended on government contractual works. In the years of war or army re-equipment, the quantity of orders grew. There was an increase in the workforce size and people's earnings. After the order was filled and wages were cut, most of the workmen left the Arms Factory. As a result, the settlement fell into decay to the next government contractual work.
Enterprises in Izhevsky Zavod
In 1872, the steel works was founded in Izhevsky Zavod. In 1884, the arms factory and the steel works passed to the state.
Private armories appeared in Izhevsky Zavod. In 1860, an armorer Ivan Fyodorovich Petrov began to make hunting rifles at small armory in Zareka. Later, he set up shops in Yekaterinburg, Omsk, Nizhny Novgorod, and in the Caucasus. He and his sons also sold gun powder in Izhevsky Zavod. On of his sons, Vasily, later opened his own armory.
Adrian Nikandrovich Yevdokimov was a competitor of the Petrovs. He had the armory on Bazarnaya Street.
Nikolay Ilyich Berezin built his enterprise on Bazarnaya Street, too. He produce guns. Besides, Nikolay Berezin owned small iron foundry in the northeast suburbs.
Merchants Porsev and Kilin were the owners of two brick factories.
There were twelve private industrial enterprises in Izhevsky Zavod by 1914.
Izhevsky Zavod merchants
In the 1870s, trade blossomed in Izhevsky Zavod. Bodalev Brothers, Mokletsov, Ogloblin, Sveshnikov, and Sozykin were the most successful merchants. It was profitable to deal in spirits. There were three vodka distilleries, four wine warehouses, three wine cellars, and about fifty taverns in 1872. This year Ivan Bodalev opened his brewery on the bank of the reservoir.
At the turn of the 19th century there were four temples in Izhevsky Zavod. In 1907, St. Michael's Cathedral was built.
The Russian Revolution and the Russian Civil War
On March 5, 1917, workers at the plant formed a worker's soviet, which included representatives of the workers, the army, and of other citizens. Two days later the factory administration resigned and was replaced with elected officials. By the middle of September of the same year, Bolsheviks took under control both the council and the council's influential newspaper.
On October 27, 1917, Soviet government was officially announced, with the council officially dissolved soon thereafter. The former leaders of the council were arrested in June 1918, contributing to the beginning of an uprising against Bolshevik rule. The struggle for control of the city continued until the arrival of the Red Army, which took Izhevsk on November 7. On April 13, 1919, the city was occupied by units of Admiral Kolchak's White Army, only to fall again, this time decisively, to another assault by the Red Army in June 8 of the same year.
The Soviet period
The first tram lines were opened in 1935, and the now emblematic City Circus was founded in 1943.
World War II had a profound effect on the city, with much of the industrial infrastructure evacuated from the western regions of the Soviet Union, being relocated to the city. Elements of the evacuated enterprises were used to create the Izhevsk Mechanical Plant, which remains an important manufacturer of military components.
Military industry remained the core of the local economy after the war, leading to Izhvesk being designated a closed city, inaccessible to foreigners. The city's Izhmash factory began manufacturing the AK-47 automatic rifle in 1948, and continues to produce modern variants of the design to this day. The rifle's designer, Mikhail Kalashnikov still lives in Izhevsk. In 1966, Izhmash began manufacturing the Izh brand of automobiles.
In 1984, the city was renamed Ustinov; in honor of former minister of defense Dmitry Ustinov. Three years later, in spite of vocal protests by a significant number of citizens, Izhevsk regained its historical name.
Izhevsk weathered the turbulent post-Soviet years reasonably well, carried through by the continued demand for its military products. The city remains an important industrial and military center of the country, being referred to as the "Armory of Russia" (a title it shares with the city of Tula).
Administrative and municipal status
Izhevsk is the capital of the republic. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the city of republic significance of Izhevsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the city of republic significance of Izhevsk is incorporated as Izhevsk Urban Okrug.
Izhevsk is the most important economic center of the Udmurt Republic, with the majority of financial and industrial activity concentrated in the city. Military industry remains the backbone of the local economy, with a number of enterprises operating in the city. By far the most important of these is Izhmash, which produces small arms and assault rifles popular both in Russia and abroad. The plant also produces motorcycles and automobiles under IZH brandname.
|Climate data for Izhevsk|
|Record high °C (°F)||3.6
|Average high °C (°F)||−8.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−12.4
|Average low °C (°F)||−16.1
|Record low °C (°F)||−46.8
|Precipitation mm (inches)||30
|Avg. rainy days||4||3||5||11||17||17||16||17||19||18||10||6||143|
|Avg. snowy days||27||23||18||7||2||0.1||0||0||1||10||23||27||138.1|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||44.4||87.3||148.8||211.3||282.6||305.3||304.4||245.5||150.6||76.7||42.5||33.0||1,932.3|
|Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net|
|Source #2: Weatherbase (sun only)|
Life and culture
Izhevsk is the scientific and cultural center of the Udmurt Republic. Early on, the state took a leading role in childcare and education. 320 Public kindergartens/ preschools provide affordable childcare for 32,000 children. 100 Public schools provide free general education to over 100,000 Izhevsk students. A wide variety of technical colleges and two-year professional schools award associate degrees, most notably in medical assistance, performing arts and teaching.
The Ural department of the Russian Scientific Academy is represented in Izhevsk by several institutions, specializing in physics, applied mechanics and technical sciences, and economics, and the Institute of History, Language and Literature of Udmurtia does the same. Four out of five higher education institutes in the Udmurt Republic are located in Izhevsk: Udmurt State University, Izhevsk State Technical University, Agricultural Academy, and Medical Academy. Each of these educational institutions admits foreign students.
Udmurt State University celebrated its 75th anniversary in 2006. It is the oldest educational institution in the Udmurt Republic. Some 28,000 students are currently studying at the University, which offers 86 different majors. The university has thirteen departments and seven institutes. Out of 1,000 faculty members 130 hold Doctor of Science (Dr.Sc.) degrees, and 460 are Candidates of Sciences (Cand.Sc., equivalent to first year of Ph.D.). UdSU graduate school offers 11 attestation committees qualified to award Cand.Sc. and Dr.Sc. degrees in ecology, economics, law, psychology, pedagogics, ethnology, history, culture, linguistics of the Ural region, and Udmurt linguistics.
Izhevsk's most notable museums include the Kalashnikov Museum, the Arsenal Museum, the Galina Kulakova Museum, the National Fine Arts Gallery, the "Galeria" Arts Center, the Izhmash Museum, the National Kuzebai Gerd Museum, and the Gennadiy Krasilnikov Apartment-Museum. The Presidential Palace is also popular with tourists.
Izhevsk has a number of theaters, among the most prominent of which are:
- State Opera and Ballet Theater of the Udmurt Republic
- Korolenko State Russian Theater for Drama
- "Young Man" Alternative Theater
- State Puppet Theater of the Udmurt Republic
- National State Theater of the Udmurt Republic
- Academic Choir Chapel
- State Philharmonic of the Udmurt Republic
- Izhevsk Circus
In the post-Soviet period Izhevsk became known as home to a vibrant art and music scene. Izhevsk is sometimes referred to as "the capital of Russian electronic music". The most well-known Izhevsk electronic act was Стук Бамбука в XI Часов (Stuk Bambuka v XI Chasov), whose only album Лёгкое дело холод (1991) is now considered classic. Some of the most famous institutions include the Italmas, an Udmurt folk theater and dance company, and the local circus. In 2001–2004, a beautiful new auditorium was built in the center of town to serve as a permanent home for the city circus. Today circus acts from Izhevsk and other Russian and European cities entertain visitors at the Izhevsk Circus.
Notable buildings and structures
- Alexander Nevsky Cathedral is a Neoclassical building from 1823 patterned after St. Andrew's Cathedral in Kronstadt (whose architect was Andreyan Zakharov)
- St. Michael's Cathedral was built by the Izhevsk arms works in the early 20th century, destroyed by the Bolsheviks and rebuilt to the original design in 2007
- Pesochnaya TV Mast (195-m tall guyed tubular steel mast built in 1962, which is equipped with 6 crossbars running in 2 levels from the mast structure to the guys)
Izhvesk City Pond is now one of the city's most popular places for recreation. Its area is over 22 km2, yet it was artificially constructed (in parts dug by hand) in the 1760s for industrial needs. Empress Elizabeth of Russia granted Count Peter Shuvalov official permission to create three factories in the Kama River region September 15, 1757.
Construction of the three-step industrial dam at the critical point where the two rivers (Izh and Yagul/Podborenka) join started both the pond and the city in April 1760.
The dam was reconstructed in 1809–1815 when Alexander Deryabin converted the original metalworking factory into the new arms producing facility. It was subsequently modernized again in 1983–1984 in order to extend the dam. Today a number of major Izhevsk industrial plants are still located along the pond.
In 1972, the Izhevsk Pond Embankment, a three mile-long walkway and a system of boulevards and squares, was extended along the pond. Some consider the resulting esplanade and pond embankment one of Izhevsk finest attractions. The "Friendship of Nations" Square, with its central monument celebrating 400 years of Udmurtia's union with Russia, is a focal point of the esplanade and a hip place for youth recreation. During the summer months excursion boats operate from Izhevsk to the village of Volozhka.
Twin towns and sister cities
- Law #46-RZ
- Official website of Izhevsk. History of the city.
- Law #17-RZ
- Official website of Izhevsk. Alexander Alexandrovich Ushakov, Head of Izhevsk (Russian)
- Official website of Izhevsk. City Duma (Russian)
- Official website of Izhevsk. Our city (Russian)
- "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
- Official website of Izhevsk. History of the city (Russian)
- Izhlife.ru. Как Ижевск 900 дней был Устиновым (Russian)
-  Деловой город(Russian)
-  Russia Dial Codes
- "Importing Russia's Top Gun". New York Times. August 14, 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-16. "The nickname of this town, home of the factory that makes Kalashnikov rifles, is the 'Armory of Russia.'..."
- "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved March 25, 2012.
- "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Novoye Mart'Yanovo, Russia". Weatherbase. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- The Capital of Russian Electronic Music The Capital of Russian Electronic Music on RussiaJournal.com
- VA – Izhevsk Dance Machine on Kama Records website: release info and review excerpts
- An article on "Izhevsk phenomenon" on ClubConcept.ru
- Стук бамбука в 11 часов – Легкое дело холод (1991)
- Council of Europe (2011 [last update]). "Intercultural city: Izhevsk, Russian Federation". coe.int. Retrieved May 22, 2011.
- Izhevsk twinning
- Государственный Совет Удмуртской Республики. Закон №46-РЗ от 19 октября 2006 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Удмуртской Республики», в ред. Закона №60-РЗ от 12 октября 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные Законы Удмуртской Республики». Вступил в силу через десять дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Известия Удмуртской Республики", №185, 12 декабря 2006 г. (State Council of the Udmurt Republic. Law #46-RZ of October 19, 2006 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Udmurt Republic, as amended by the Law #60-RZ of October 12, 2012 On Amending Various Laws of the Udmurt Republic. Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication.).
- Государственный Совет Удмуртской Республики. Закон №17-РЗ от 12 ноября 2004 г. «Об установлении границы муниципального образования и наделении соответствующим статусом муниципального образования на территории города Ижевска Удмуртской Республики», в ред. Закона №35-РЗ от 30 июня 2006 г «О внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Удмуртской Республики». Вступил в силу через десять дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства Удмуртской Республики", №5, 25 июля 2005 г. (State Council of the Udmurt Republic. Law #17-RZ of November 12, 2004 On Establishing the Border of the Municipal Formation and on Granting Appropriate Status to the Municipal Formation on the Territory of the City of Izhevsk of the Udmurt Republic, as amended by the Law #35-RZ of June 30, 2006 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of the Udmurt Republic. Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication.).
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Izhevsk.|
- Official website of Izhevsk
- Official website of Izhevsk (Russian)
- Kalashnikov Museum
- Udmurt State University
- Website of Izhmash
- A guide to the contemporary art, music and culture of Izhevsk (Russian)
- National Library of Udmurt Republic (English) (Russian) (Udmurt)