Jōō (Edo period)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Jōō (承応?), alternatively romanized as Jō-ō or Shōō, was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō,?, lit. "year name") after Keian and before Meireki. This period spanned the years from September 1652 through April 1655.[1] The reigning emperors were Go-Komyo-tennō (後光明天皇 ?) and Go-Sai-tennō (後西天皇 ?).[2]

Change of era[edit]

  • 1652 Jōō gannen (承応元年?): The era name was changed to Jōō (meaning "receiving answers"), which was to mark the death of the third shogun, Tokugawa Iemitsu. The previous era ended and a new one commenced in Keian 5, on the 18th day of the 9th month.

The name of this new era came from the Book of the Jin: "The Xia and the Shang dynasties follow their destinies, so the House of Zhou came when it was time." (夏商運、周氏期)

Events of the Jōō era[edit]

  • October 3, 1653 (Jōō 2, 12th day of the 8th month): A violent fire destroyed a large part of the Imperial palace and many temples which were nearby. Shortly thereafter, several girls, aged 12–14 years, were imprisoned for having started this fire and others in Heian-kyō.[3]
  • August 18, 1654 (Jōō 3, 6th day of the 7th month): A famous priest, Ingen, arrived at Nagasaki from China. His intention was to reform the practice of Buddhism in Japan.[3]
  • October 30, 1654 (Jōō 3, 20th day of the 9th month): Emperor Go- Kōmyō died of smallpox; and his funeral ceremonies were at Sennyū-ji (泉涌寺, senyō-ji?) on the 15th day of the 10th month.[4]

Sakoku(鎖国): Before and after 1653[edit]

Within the Jōō period, Japan was implementing the Sakoku policy which adopted by Tokugawa Bakumatsu. “Sakoku” means closed country in Japanese. Japan was adopting this policy from 1639 to 1868.[5] There was barely any foreign trade from other countries, with exception to Chinese and Dutch merchant. Japanese residences were strictly monitored by the Government. People were not allowed to leave the country, with consequence of death penalty. Foreigners were in the same situation, anyone who attempted to enter Japan’s territory would be killed by the soldiers right away.[6] The entire country was dictated by Tokugawa government. The Sakoku policy was adopted by the ruler for preventing invaders, and keeping their national characteristics and national religion. This policy was banned after the Edo Period (1603-1868). The country was re-opened to the world in 1868.[7]

For many Japanese, Edo period was the most prosperous time, which had brought peace to them. The country reached a steady state, where there were no changes to the country. Japan was stabilized by the Sakoku policy economically and politically. People produced their living necessities and contributed a portion of that to the rulers as tax. The society was full of prosperity and peaceful. Shops were everywhere; people were busy working and enjoying their life. When peace came, Samurais were losing their usefulness; therefore, the government gave them special privileges. Within the social hierarchy, the emperors were on the top, Samurai ranked second, playing a role as police, followed by the farmers and the merchants were at the bottom.[8] The Samurais were the only social group allowed to carry weapons daily, mostly were katana.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Jō-ō" in Japan encyclopedia, p. 432; n.b., Louis-Frédéric is pseudonym of Louis-Frédéric Nussbaum, see Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Authority File.
  2. ^ Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp. 412-13.
  3. ^ a b Titsingh, p. 412.
  4. ^ Titsingh, p. 413; Porter, Robert. (2001). Japan: The Rise of a Modern Power, p. 65.
  5. ^ Itoh, Mayumi (March 1996). "Japan's abiding sakoku mentality". Orbis: pg. 235–245. doi:10.1016/S0030-4387(96)90062-9. 
  6. ^ Unknown. "Sakoku Policy". St. Bonaventure College. Retrieved 2 April 2013. 
  7. ^ Itoh, Mayumi (March 1996). "Japan's abiding sakoku mentality". Orbis: pg. 235–245. doi:10.1016/S0030-4387(96)90062-9. 
  8. ^ ushistory.org (2013). "Life During the Edo Period". Ancient Civilizations Online Textbook. Retrieved 2 April 2013. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Keian
Era or nengō
Jōō

1652–1655
Succeeded by
Meireki