Jèrriais

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Not to be confused with Jersey Legal French.
Jèrriais
Native to Jersey, Sark
Native speakers
1,700  (2011 census)[citation needed]
2,800 as secondary language
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Linguist list
fra-jer
Linguasphere 51-AAA-hc
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Jèrriais is the form of the Norman language spoken in Jersey, in the Channel Islands, off the coast of France. It has been in decline over the past century as English has increasingly become the language of education, commerce and administration. There are very few people who speak Jèrriais as a mother tongue and, owing to the age of the remaining speakers, their numbers decrease annually. Despite this, efforts are being made to keep the language alive.

A similar language, Guernésiais is spoken in neighbouring Guernsey; the language of Sark, Sercquiais, is a descendant of the Jèrriais brought by the Jersey colonists who settled Sark in the 16th century; and there is mutual intelligibility with the Norman language of mainland Normandy.

Jèrriais is often called "Jersey French" or "Jersey Norman French" in English (though this may give the impression that the language is a dialect of French) and "jersiais" or "normand de Jersey" in French. Care should be taken to distinguish between Jèrriais and the Jersey Legal French used for legal contracts, laws and official documents by the government and administration of Jersey. For this reason, some prefer using the term "Jersey Norman" to avoid ambiguity and to disassociate the language from standard French.

Status[edit]

Jersey Airport greets travellers with Welcome to Jersey in Jèrriais
Local newspaper Jersey Evening Post hosts a Jersey Norman-French feature, with Jèrriais texts accompanied by their translation into English.

The latest figures come from the Jersey Annual Social Survey issued on 5 December 2012.[1] The survey of 4200 households took place in June 2012 and resulted in 2400 returns. It showed that 18% of the population could speak some Jèrriais words and phrases with more than 7% of those over 65 being fluent or able to speak a lot of Jèrriais. Two-thirds of adults said that they could not understand spoken Jèrriais, but more than a quarter are able to understand some, and 5% more can usually or fully understand someone speaking Jèrriais. 4% of people said that they could write some Jèrriais, although under 1% could write fluently. Just under a third (32%) said that they could understand something written in Jèrriais.

These figures update those of the census (2001) which showed that approximately 3% of the island's population speak Jèrriais in their personal interactions, although research suggests that up to 15% of the population have some understanding of the language. The latest census figures also showed an increase in declarations of children speaking the language: the first such increase recorded in census figures (although this may be due to greater consciousness among parents than to language use), doubtless encouraged by the introduction of a Jèrriais teaching programme into Jersey schools.

The parish with the highest proportion (8%) of Jèrriais speakers is Saint Ouen, and that with the lowest proportion (2.1%) is Saint Helier, although Saint Helier as the largest parish has the highest number of Jèrriais speakers. The number of census respondents who stated that they "usually" spoke Jèrriais was 113; 2,761 respondents stated that they "sometimes" spoke Jèrriais. A survey[2] carried out among a sample of Jèrriais speakers in 1996 found that 18% spoke Jèrriais more often than English, 66% spoke Jèrriais as often as English, and 16% spoke Jèrriais less often than English.

The States of Jersey fund the teaching programme in schools and provide some support in terms of signage, e.g. welcome signs at harbours and airport. Ratification of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages is under discussion. In September 2005, the States approved the development of a cultural strategy, one of whose strategic objectives was as follows:

"Jersey almost lost its language in the 20th century. By 2001 there were less than 3,000 speakers of Jèrriais. In the 21st century strenuous efforts are being made to re-establish it. Le Don Balleine, funded by the States, is leading a programme in schools teaching Jèrriais. L'Assembliée d'Jèrriais promotes the language generally. Language brings distinctiveness, a sense of localness and a whole new set of skills all of which are important qualities in attracting the creative economy. It is fundamental to the Island's identity. This objective is to work with these organisations to help in the revival and status of the language."[3]

In September 2009 a partnership agreement was signed by the Minister for Education, Sport and Culture and the President of Le Don Balleine to formalise the rôle of L'Office du Jèrriais in protecting and promoting Jèrriais and to develop a language plan to help make the language more prominent on a daily basis.[4]

There is newspaper and radio output in the language. From 2010, Jersey banknotes carry the value of the note written out in Jèrriais.[5]

Jèrriais is recognised as a regional language by the British and Irish governments within the framework of the British-Irish Council.

Literature[edit]

Main article: Jèrriais literature

The literary tradition is traced back to Wace, the 12th century Jersey-born poet, although there is little surviving literature in Jèrriais dating to before the introduction of the first printing press in Jersey in the 1780s. The first printed Jèrriais appears in the first newspapers at the end of the 18th century, and the earliest identified dated example of printed poetry is a fragment by Matchi L'Gé (Matthew Le Geyt 1777 – 1849) dated 1795.

An astonishing boom in competing newspapers and journals throughout the 19th century provided a platform for poets and writers to publish regularly – typically, satirical comment on the week's news, elections, Jersey politicians and notables.

The first printed anthology of Jèrriais poetry, Rimes Jersiaises, was published in 1865.

Influential writers include "Laelius" (Sir Robert Pipon Marett 1820 – 1884, Bailiff of Jersey 1880 – 1884), "A.A.L.G." (Augustus Aspley Le Gros 1840 – 1877), "St.-Luorenchais" (Philippe Langlois 1817 – 1884).

Elie (Edwin J. Luce 1881 – 1918) was editor of the French-language newspaper La Nouvelle Chronique de Jersey and a poet who wrote topical poems for the newspaper. He was also active in promoting the development of drama in Jèrriais and organised performances, ultimately leading to the establishment of a Jèrriais section of the Jersey Eisteddfod in 1912.

During the Occupation, little original writing was permitted to be published by the German censorship. However, very many older pieces of literature were re-published in the newspapers as an act of cultural self-assertion and morale-boosting.

After the Occupation and with the re-establishment of a free press, Edward Le Brocq (1877 – 1964) revived a weekly column in 1946 with a letter from Ph'lip et Merrienne, supposedly a traditional old couple who would comment on the latest news or recall time past.

The most influential writer of Jèrriais in the 20th century was a U.S. citizen, George Francis Le Feuvre (1891 – 1984) whose pen-name was "George d'la Forge". He emigrated to North America after the First World War but for almost forty years maintained a flow of articles in Jèrriais back to Jersey for publication in newspapers. Selections of his articles have been published in book form.

Frank Le Maistre (1910–2002), compiler of the dictionary Dictionnaire Jersiais–Français, maintained a literary output starting in the 1930s with newspaper articles under the pseudonym Marie la Pie, poems, magazine articles, research into toponymy and etymology.

Since Le Maistre, Geraint Jennings has been influential in preserving the language by compiling thousands of pages of Jèrriais text online in Les Pages Jèrriaises.

History[edit]

Some bilingual (or trilingual) signage may be seen in Jersey, such as this welcome sign at a supermarket

Although Jèrriais is now the first language of a very small minority, until the 19th century it was the everyday language of the majority of the population, and even until the Second World War up to half the population could communicate in the language. However, there is no complete Bible in Jèrriais (although there are versions of favourite Bible texts in Jèrriais), as French was, until the 20th century, the predominant language of the Church in Jersey (although sermons would be preached, or explained, in Jèrriais in country areas).

Awareness of the decline of language use became apparent in the 19th century in scholarly circles. Among foreign linguists, Louis Lucien Bonaparte visited Jersey and interested himself in the language and its literature. Victor Hugo, during his exile in Jersey, took an interest in the language and numbered some Jèrriais writers among his circle of acquaintances and supporters.

Sir Robert Pipon Marett's prestige and influence helped to reinforce the movement towards standardisation of the writing system based on French orthography, a trend which was also helped by the nascent Norman literary revival in the neighbouring Cotentin area of mainland Normandy where writers, inspired by the example of the Norman writers of Jersey and Guernsey, began their own production of literary works. However, differing (if mutually comprehensible) writing systems have been adopted in Jersey, Guernsey and mainland Normandy. The question is sometimes raised as to whether Jèrriais should move to a writing system based on English orthography, however this would have implications for the continuity of the literary tradition over two centuries or more (note though, that the digraph "th" for the typical dental fricative of Jèrriais has evidently been borrowed from English orthography).

As English became dominant in Jersey in the 20th century, efforts were made to preserve the language. The Jersey Eisteddfod has included a Jèrriais section since 1912. Associations were founded: L'Assembliée d'Jèrriais was founded in 1951; Le Don Balleine is a trust set up in accordance with the will of Arthur E. Balleine (1864–1943) who bequeathed funds for the promotion of the language. L'Assembliée d'Jèrriais launched a quarterly magazine in 1952, which has been published since (with the occasional hiatus, and latterly under the editorship of Le Don Balleine); a standard grammar Lé Jèrriais pour tous (by Paul Birt) appeared in 1985; cassettes, booklets and other materials have also been produced.

George d'la Forge's maintenance of the language in North American diaspora is not as surprising as it might seem, as considerable numbers of Jersey people had been involved in the economic development and exploitation of the New World (see New Jersey), although much of the concentration focused on the cod fisheries of the Gaspé peninsula in Quebec, Canada, which were controlled into the early 20th century by Jersey-based companies or companies of Jersey origin employing Jersey labour. The common language of business was Jèrriais, and it is reported that there were still some Jèrriais-speakers in Gaspé villages in the 1960s. The Gaspesian expression "faire une runne" (to go and work outside the region) comes from the Jèrriais word "run" applied to a fishing station.[6]

An inscription, reading "Liberated" in Jèrriais, was installed at La Pièche dé l'Av'nîn in St. Helier in 2005 to mark the 60th anniversary of the Liberation

The use of Jèrriais is also to be noted during the German Occupation of the Channel Islands during the Second World War; the local population used Jèrriais among themselves as a language neither the occupying Germans, nor their French interpreters, could understand. However, the social and economic upheaval of the War meant that use of English increased dramatically after the Liberation.

It is considered that the last monolingual adult speakers probably died in the 1950s[citation needed], although monolingual speaking children were being received into schools in St. Ouen as late as the late 1970s.[citation needed]

Famous Jèrriais speakers include Lillie Langtry and Sir John Everett Millais, the Pre-Raphaelite painter.

Dictionaries[edit]

The history of Jèrriais dictionaries goes back to 19th century manuscript glossaries, the work of Philippe Langlois, A. A. Le Gros and Thomas Gaudin. These were later revised and expanded into the Glossaire du Patois Jersiais published in 1924 by La Société Jersiaise. The 1960 Glossary of Jersey French (Nichol Spence) recorded Jèrriais in phonetic script. The 1924 Glossaire inspired the research by Frank Le Maistre that culminated in the Dictionnaire Jersiais–Français published in 1966 to mark the 900th anniversary of the Norman Conquest of England. The first practical English–Jèrriais dictionary was the English-Jersey Language Vocabulary (Albert Carré in collaboration with Frank Le Maistre and Philip de Veulle, 1972) which was itself based on the Dictionnaire Jersiais–Français. A children's picture dictionary Les Preunmié Mille Mots was published by La Société Jersiaise in 2000. A Jèrriais–English dictionary Dictionnaithe Jèrriais-Angliais was published by La Société Jersiaise, in collaboration with Le Don Balleine, in 2005 with a companion volume, a revised, modernised and expanded English–Jèrriais dictionary Dictionnaithe Angliais-Jèrriais published in 2008 by Le Don Balleine.[7]

Vocabulary[edit]

Although Jèrriais is occasionally misleadingly described as a mixture of Norse and French, it would be more linguistically accurate to state that when the Norse-speaking Normans (lit. North-man) conquered the territory that is now called Normandy they started speaking the langue d'oïl of their new subjects. The Norman language is therefore basically a Romance language with a certain amount of vocabulary of Norse origin, plus later loanwords from other languages. [8]

Influence of Norse[edit]

Norse origins can be seen in Jèrriais words such as these:

Influence of Breton[edit]

Jèrriais has also adopted a small number of words from the Breton language (e.g. pihangne 'spider crab', from Breton bihan 'small'; quédaine 'fast', from Breton gaden 'hare'), although the influence on today's language has overwhelmingly been from French and, increasingly, English.

Influence of French[edit]

Welcome to French Lane Saint Helier Jersey.jpg
In this road sign, mostly in French, the word pouclée is Jèrriais for dolmen
Bîngue à r'cyclier Saint Hélyi Jèrri.jpg

A large number of gallicisms have been introduced into the language due to the use of French as an official language and the cultural influence of France and French literature. Some French words have displaced in modern usage Jèrriais words that can still be found in older texts from the 18th and 19th centuries, for example:

  • French leçon (in the form léçon) has displaced native lichon (lesson)
  • French garçon has displaced native hardé (boy)
  • French chanson has displaced native canchon (song)

Efforts are being made to maintain some Jèrriais words which are competing in usage with French forms, for example:

  • native hielle is being promoted over French huile (oil)
  • native huiptante (eighty) is being promoted over French quatre-vingts (fourscore)

Influence of English[edit]

Some maritime vocabulary was borrowed from English at an early date, for example baûsouîn (boatswain, itself derived form Dutch bootsman), but by the late 18th century some domestic vocabulary, such as:

entered the language through the employment of Jèrriais-speaking servants in the houses of bourgeois English-speaking immigrants.

Other words borrowed from English before 1900 include:

Care however needs to be taken in identifying anglicisms as some words such as mogue (mug) or canne (can) which are often assumed to have been borrowed from English were in fact Norman words exported to England in the wake of the Norman Conquest, and words such as fliotchet (flock) and ridgi (rig) are Norman cognates of English words.

More recently, words such as boutchi (to book), partchi (to park) and tyeur (tyre) have been absorbed into the language, although current initiatives in creating neologisms for technological and social innovations prefer to avoid wholesale borrowing where possible. Among recent coinings are words such as textéthie for texting, maître-pêtre for webmaster (literally master-spider) and mégabouochie for megabyte.

Phonology[edit]

The phonological influence of Norse is debated, although the aspirated "h" may be due to Norse influence.

Palatalization[edit]

The palatalization of Latin /k/ and /g/ before /a/ that occurred in the development of French did not occur in northern dialects of Norman, including Jèrriais:

Jèrriais English French
acater to buy acheter
cat cat chat
vaque cow vache
caud warm chaud
gardîn garden jardin
gambe leg jambe
Compare palatalization in Jèrriais pièche with French place in this bilingual placename sign

However the palatalization of /k/ before front vowel produced different results in the Norman dialect that developed into Jèrriais than in French. (Many developments are similar to those in Italian, cf. cento-hundred and faccia-face).

Jèrriais English French
bachîn basin bassine
fache face face
faichon fashion façon
chent hundred cent
La Rue au Tchian (road of the dog): Latin canem (dog) developed into tchian, an example of the palatalization of /k/

At a later date surviving /k/ and /g/ underwent a secondary process of palatalization:

Jèrriais English French
motchi to mock moquer
patchet packet paquet
dgide guide guide
idgiot idiot idiot
Note palatalized partchiz (park) in this bilingual sign

This palatalization continues to operate (except in initial position) as can be seen by recent borrowings from English:

Jèrriais English
beustchi to busk
coutchi to cook
pliodgi to plug
braidgeux bragger

Dental fricative[edit]

A feature of Jèrriais that is immediately noticeable and distinguishes it from neighbouring languages is the voiced dental fricative [ð], written th, that typically occurs in intervocalic position:

Jèrriais English
bathi barrel
m'suther to measure
paiethie payment
ouothilyi pillow
La Néthe Rue road name (meaning the black road) shows the th digraph representing the voiced dental fricative

Or in final position:

Jèrriais English
méthe mother
braithe to cry

The fricative devoices to assimilate with a neighbouring unvoiced consonant in words such as paqu'thie (packing) or malaûc'theux (disgusting).

The fricative developed from /r/ + front vowel, but evidently after the 16th century as this feature is unknown in the language of Sark (colonised by Jersey families). Although the voiced dental fricative is standard in the literary language, it is not found in the eastern dialects.

This gravestone of George Francis Le Feuvre ("George d'la Forge"), at St. Ouen Parish Church, describes him as Auteur en langue Jèrriaîthe (Jèrriais author). The particular St. Ouennais form of Jèrriaise with final dental fricative is represented.

Some older speakers in St. Ouen use a dental fricative in positions where other dialects show a /z/. This may be represented in the orthography of particular writers.

standard Jèrriais St. Ouennais English
maîson maiethon house
ouaîselîn ouaiethelîn birds (collective)
tchaîse tchaîthe chair
anglyiciser anglyicîther anglicise

The dental fricative in the dialect of such speakers may also be heard in liaison:

standard Jèrriais St. Ouennais English
ous êtes ous'th êtes you are
ches ôtis ches'th ôtis these tools
nou-s-a nou-th-a one has

Length[edit]

Length is phonemic in Jèrriais. Long vowels are usually indicated in writing by a circumflex accent. A noun ending in a vowel lengthens the final vowel to indicate the plural (shown in writing by adding an s).

Gemination occurs regularly in verb tenses, indicated by a consonant-apostrophe-consonant trigraph, for example: ou pâl'la (she will speak); jé c'mench'chons (we will begin); i' donn'nait (he would give). Gerunds will also regularly contain geminate consonants, for example: faîs'sie (doing, making); chant'tie (singing); tith'thie (shooting); brîng'gie (sweeping); gângn'nie (winning).

Grammar[edit]

Verbs[edit]

Aspect[edit]

Jèrriais distinguishes between simple, progressive and perfect aspect:

Past:

preterite j'pâlînmes we spoke
progressive ou 'tait à pâler she was speaking
perfect ous avez pâlé you have spoken
imperfect j'pâlais I spoke

Future:

simple j'pâl'lai I will speak
progressive tu s'sa à pâler you will be speaking
perfect oulle étha pâlé she will have spoken

Present:

simple j'pâle I speak
progressive i' sont à pâler they are speaking

Iterative[edit]

Verbs can be made iterative in aspect by prefixing èr- (long form) or r' (short form):

aver have
èraver have again
   
êt' be
èrêt' be again
   
netti clean
èrnettit clean again
   
muchi hide
èrmuchi hide again
   
èrgarder watch
èrèrgarder watch again
   
téléphoner phone
èrtéléphoner phone again

Gerunds[edit]

This sign for a cidermaking event demonstrates the gemination s's in the gerund faîs'sie

Verbs can be transformed into gerunds, which are commonly used:

chanter sing
chant'tie singing
   
faithe make
faîs'sie making
   
haler pull
hal'lie hauling, haulage
   
partchi park
parqu'thie parking
   
liéthe read
liéthie reading
   
faxer fax
faxéthie faxing

Examples[edit]

A trilingual sign in Saint Helier, in English, Jèrriais and French
Bilingual banner for Make Poverty History, July 2005, reading Nânnîn à la pouôrreté (No to poverty)
JÈRRIAIS FRENCH ENGLISH
Jèrri Jersey Jersey
beinv'nu bienvenue welcome
bel cour yard
bieauté beauté beauty
bouônjour bonjour hello
braies pantalon trousers
brînge brosse brush
chièr cher dear
compather comparer compare
l'êtrangi l'étranger abroad
janmais jamais never
lian lien link
pouque sac bag
tchaîse chaise chair
tchian chien dog
ticl'ye bouilloire kettle
viages voyages journeys
yi oeil eye

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Literature[edit]

  • Lé Jèrriais Pour Tous by Paul W. Birt, 1985.
  • Dictionnaire Jersiais–Français, 1966.
  • Jersey Norman French: A Linguistic Study of An Obsolescent Dialect . Mari C. Jones, 2001
  • Jèrriais: Jersey's Native Tongue by Mari C. Jones, 2003. ISBN 1-904210-3-1
  • Dictionnaithe Jèrriais-Angliais. 2005. ISBN 0-901897-40-X
  • Les Chroniques du Don Balleine/Les Nouvelles Chroniques du Don Balleine (magazine). Jersey 1979 – current.

External links[edit]