JNR Class C61

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Class C61
JNR-C61-2.jpg
Preserved C61 2 at Umekoji Museum, May 2003
Type and origin
Power type Steam
Builder Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Nippon Sharyo
Build date 1947-1949
Specifications
Configuration 4-6-4 Hudson
Gauge 1,067 mm
Length 20,375 mm
Locomotive and tender
combined weight
78.10 t
Performance figures
Maximum speed 100 km/h[1]

The JNR Class C61 is a former class of steam locomotives operated in Japan. The class was the first type in Japan to use the 4-6-4 "Hudson" wheel arrangement. A total of 33 locomotives were built between 1947 and 1949, (one in 1947, 19 in 1948, and 13 in 1949). The locos were not built entirely from new, however, but used the boilers from former D51 2-8-2 "Mikado" freight locomotives.[2]

The immediate post-war years saw a dramatic decline in freight, while at the same time passenger traffic once again surged, requiring a programme to rapidly build new passenger locos (classes C57 and C58) as well as rebuilding passenger locos from former freight types (classes C61 and C62). These nominal conversions were also seen as a way of bypassing the difficulties in obtaining approval from GHQ (or Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers) for building completely new locomotives at the time.

The locomotives were notable in being the first in Japan to incorporate automatic stokers. The first eighteen locos delivered were allocated to Utsunomiya and Sendai depots to work express passenger duties on the Tōhoku Main Line. Nine locos were allocated to Oku and Mito depots to work on Jōban Line duties, and six locos were delivered to Tosu depot in Kyūshū to work on the Kagoshima Main Line. With the spread of electrification together with the influx of C59s displaced from Tōkaidō Main Line duties, the C61s found themselves gradually pushed further north to Morioka and Aomori depots. In later years, they were to be seen at the head of the newly inaugurated Hakutsuru limited express (between Sendai and Aomori) and the Hayabusa blue train (between Hakata and Kagoshima). With the completion of electrification from Morioka to Aomori in October 1968, the six last remaining C61s were moved to Aomori depot where they worked on the Ōu Mainline between Akita and Aomori. The six Kagoshima-based locos originally delivered new to Kyūshū were withdrawn, but the six remaining Tōhoku locos were transferred to Miyazaki depot in October 1971 to work on the Nippō Main Line between Miyazaki and Kagoshima. They worked there until finally being withdrawn in 1974.

Specifications[edit]

Overall length 20,375 mm
Overall height 3,980 mm
Driving wheel diameter 1,750 mm
Total operating weight 78.10 t (excluding tender)
Boiler capacity 7.4 m3
Boiler pressure 15.0 kgf/cm²
Cylinder dimensions 500 mm dia. x 660 mm stroke

Fleet details[edit]

(Source: [3])

Number Boiler from Rebuilt by Date rebuilt Date withdrawn Last depot allocation
C61 1 D51 615 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 30 Nov 1947 5 Aug 1966 Sendai
C61 2 D51 1109 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 31 Jul 1948    
C61 3 D51 1063 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 22 Aug 1948 31 Mar 1966 Sendai
C61 4 D51 1011 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 31 Aug 1948 25 Dec 1967 Sendai
C61 5 D51 1075 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 29 Sep 1948 31 Mar 1966 Sendai
C61 6 D51 1134 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 18 Oct 1948 13 Mar 1969 Aomori
C61 7 D51 1147 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 30 Oct 1948 10 Jan 1968 Aomori
C61 8 D51 1117 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 16 Nov 1948 31 Mar 1966 Sendai
C61 9 D51 925 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 29 Nov 1948 20 Aug 1968 Aomori
C61 10 D51 1047 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 14 Dec 1948 31 Mar 1966 Sendai
C61 11 D51 1139 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 5 Jan 1949 1 Oct 1968 Aomori
C61 12 D51 1143 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 28 Feb 1949 19 Dec 1970 Kagoshima
C61 13 D51 1115 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 19 Mar 1949 19 Dec 1970 Kagoshima
C61 14 D51 1124 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 31 Mar 1949 19 Dec 1970 Kagoshima
C61 15 D51 1084 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 27 Apr 1949 25 Dec 1967 Sendai
C61 16 D51 1128 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 19 May 1949 10 Oct 1968 Aomori
C61 17 D51 1130 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 31 May 1949 5 Aug 1966 Sendai
C61 18 D51 874 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 19 Jun 1949 18 Jan 1974 Miyazaki
C61 19 D51 1027 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 28 Jul 1949 18 Nov 1973 Miyazaki
C61 20 D51 1094 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 31 Jul 1949 18 Nov 1973 Miyazaki
C61 21 D51 1123 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 31 Aug 1949 25 Dec 1967 Taira
C61 22 D51 1158 Nippon Sharyo 25 Sep 1948 10 Oct 1968 Aomori
C61 23 D51 1010 Nippon Sharyo 30 Sep 1948 5 Aug 1966 Sendai
C61 24 D51 1135 Nippon Sharyo 4 Oct 1948 7 Nov 1972 Miyazaki
C61 25 D51 366 Nippon Sharyo 8 Oct 1948 31 Mar 1966 Sendai
C61 26 D51 198 Nippon Sharyo 28 Oct 1948 31 Mar 1966 Sendai
C61 27 D51 1146 Nippon Sharyo 31 Oct 1948 31 Mar 1966 Sendai
C61 28 D51 904 Nippon Sharyo 25 Nov 1948 20 Aug 1973 Miyazaki
C61 29 D51 69 Nippon Sharyo 29 Nov 1948 20 Aug 1973 Aomori
C61 30 D51 1134 Nippon Sharyo 11 Dec 1948 11 Dec 1968 Aomori
C61 31 D51 945 Nippon Sharyo 22 Dec 1948 19 Dec 1970 Kagoshima
C61 32 D51 1050 Nippon Sharyo 31 Jan 1949 19 Dec 1970 Kagoshima
C61 33 D51 1148 Nippon Sharyo 2 Mar 1949 19 Dec 1970 Kagoshima

Preserved examples[edit]

C61 20 (Feb. 2011)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b JR全車輌ハンドブック2009 [JR Rolling Stock Handbook 2009]. Japan: Neko Publishing. 2009. ISBN 978-4-7770-0836-0. 
  2. ^ Inoue, Kōichi (1999). 国鉄機関車辞典 (JNR Locomotive Encyclopedia). Japan: Sankaido. ISBN 4-381-10338-6. 
  3. ^ "C61形ハドソン機のプロフィール". Japan Railfan Magazine (Japan: Kōyūsha) 50 (587): p.74–83. March 2010. 
  4. ^ Jumo Shimbum: 上越線で復元のC61試運転 (27 April 2011). Retrieved 4 June 2011 (Japanese)