JPTS stands for Jet Propellant Thermally Stable (high thermal stability, high altitude fuel), and was created specifically as fuel for the Lockheed U-2 reconnaissance aircraft. The United States Air Force currently[year needed][when?] spends approximately $10 million annually on fuel support for the Lockheed U-2 aircraft. The U-2 has used JPTS since the aircraft's development in the 1950s.
JPTS is a specialty fuel and is produced by only two oil refineries in the United States. As such, it has limited worldwide availability and costs over three times the per-gallon price of the Air Force's primary jet fuel, JP-8. Research is under way to find a cheaper and easier alternative involving additives to generally-used jet fuels.
JPTS is specified to have a flash point of 43 °C (110 °F) and a freezing point of -53 °C (-64 °F).
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