Justice Society of America

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Justice Society of America
Cover to Justice Society of America vol. 3 #1 (February 2007).
Art by Alex Ross.
Publication information
Publisher DC Comics
First appearance All Star Comics #3 (Winter 1940)
Created by Sheldon Mayer
Gardner Fox
Roster
See:List of Justice Society members

The Justice Society of America, or JSA, is a DC Comics superhero group conceived by editor Sheldon Mayer and writer Gardner Fox. The JSA first appeared in All Star Comics #3 (Winter 1940), making it the first team of superheroes in comic books.

The team was popular throughout the 1940s, but superheroes' cultural prominence faded, and the JSA's adventures ceased with issue #57 of the title (Feb-Mar 1951). JSA members remained absent from comics until ten years later, when the original (Jay Garrick) Flash appeared alongside a new character by that name in The Flash #123 (September 1961). During the Silver Age of Comic Books, DC Comics reinvented several Justice Society members and banded many of them together in the Justice League of America. The Justice Society was established as existing on "Earth-Two" and the Justice League on "Earth-One". This allowed for annual cross-dimensional team-ups of the teams, lasting from 1963 until 1985. New series, such as All-Star Squadron, Infinity, Inc. and a new All-Star Comics featured the JSA, their children and their heirs. These series explored the issues of aging, generational differences and contrasts between the Golden Age and subsequent eras.

The 1985 Crisis on Infinite Earths limited series merged all of the company's various alternate realities into one, placing the JSA as World War II-era predecessors to the company's modern characters. A JSA series was published from 1999 to 2006. A new Justice Society of America series ran from 2007 to 2011. As part of DC Comics' The New 52, the team appears in the Earth 2 ongoing series launched in 2012.

Publication history[edit]

All Star Comics[edit]

The Justice Society of America first appeared in All Star Comics #3 (Winter 1940) written by Gardner Fox and edited by Sheldon Mayer[1][2] during the Golden Age of Comic Books. The team initially included Doctor Fate, Hour-Man (as his name was then spelled), the Spectre, the Sandman, the Atom, the Flash, Green Lantern, and Hawkman.[3] Because some of these characters (the Atom, the Flash, Green Lantern, and Hawkman) were published by All-American Publications rather than DC Comics, All-Star Comics #3 is the first inter-company superhero title, as well as the first team-up title. Comics historian Les Daniels noted that "This was obviously a great notion, since it offered readers a lot of headliners for a dime, and also the fun of watching fan favorites interact."[4] The JSA's adventures were written by Gardner Fox as well as by John Broome and Robert Kanigher. The series was illustrated by a legion of artists including Bernard Baily, Jack Burnley, Lee Elias, Frank Giacoia, Joe Giella, Irwin Hasen, Everett E. Hibbard, Carmine Infantino, Jack Kirby, Joe Kubert, Harry Lampert, Sheldon Moldoff, Win Mortimer, Martin Nodell, Bob Oksner, H. G. Peter, Paul Reinman, Bernard Sachs, Joe Simon, and Alex Toth.[5]

The first JSA story featured the team's first meeting, a framing sequence for each member telling a story of an individual exploit. In the next issue, the team worked together on a common case, but each story from there on still featured the members individually on a mission involving part of the case, and then banding together in the end to wrap things up. An in-house rule explicitly laid out on the last page of All Star Comics #5, reprinted on page 206 of All Star Comics Archives Vol. 1, required that whenever a member received his or her own title, that character would leave All Star Comics, becoming an "honorary member" of the JSA. Thus, the Flash was replaced by Johnny Thunder after #6, and Green Lantern left shortly thereafter for the same reason. For this reason, Superman and Batman were established as already being "honorary" members prior to All Star Comics #3. How these two heroes helped found the JSA before becoming honorary members was not explained until DC Special #29 in 1977. Hawkman is the only member to appear in every JSA adventure in the original run of All Star Comics and the Atom missed two issues.[6]

All Star Comics #8 (Dec. 1941-Jan. 1942) featured the first appearance of Wonder Woman.[7] Unlike the other characters who had their own titles, she was allowed to appear in the series, but only as the JSA's secretary from #11 onwards, and did not actively take part in most adventures until much later in the series. She was excluded from the title due to the same rules that had excluded the Flash, Green Lantern, Superman, and Batman from the title, though in #13 it was claimed she had become an active member.

Cover to All Star Comics #3 (Winter 1940), the first appearance of the JSA. Art by E.E. Hibbard.

A fan club for the team called the "Junior Justice Society of America" was introduced in All Star Comics #14 (Dec. 1942-Jan. 1943). The membership kit included a welcome letter, a badge, a decoder, a four-page comic book, and a membership certificate.[8]

By All Star Comics #24 (Spring 1945), a real-world schism between National Comics and All-American Publications — a nominally independent company run by Max Gaines and Jack Liebowitz — had occurred, which resulted in the Detective Comics, Inc., heroes being removed from the title. As a result, the Flash and Green Lantern returned to the team. With issue #27 (Winter 1945), National Comics bought out Max Gaines' share of All-American and the two companies merged to form Detective Comics, Inc.[9] The JSA roster remained mostly the same for the rest of the series.[10] Gardner Fox left the series with issue #34 (April–May 1947) with a story that introduced a new super-villain, the Wizard.[11] The Injustice Society first battled the JSA in issue #37 in a tale written by Robert Kanigher.[12] The team's second female member, Black Canary, first helped the group in All Star Comics #38 and became a full member in #41,[13]

All Star Comics and the JSA's Golden Age adventures ended with issue #57, the title becoming All-Star Western, with no superheroes.[14] A good amount of artwork has survived from an unpublished All Star Comics story titled "The Will of William Wilson" and has been reprinted in various publications from TwoMorrows Publishing.[15]

The explanation for the team's disappearance and the inactivity of most of its roster after the early 1950s was first given in Adventure Comics #466 ("The Defeat of the Justice Society!", December 1979) by writer Paul Levitz, which explained that most of the Society chose to disband and retire rather than appear in front of the Joint Un-American Activities Committee, which demanded that they unmask themselves. This was later retroactively changed to the real House Un-American Activities Committee.

The chairmanship of the Justice Society mostly resided with Hawkman, although initially the Flash, and later Green Lantern, took their turns at leading the team. For a brief period in 1942, they were known as the Justice Battalion, as they became an extension of the armed forces of the United States of America during World War II. It was later revealed that the reason the JSA did not invade Europe and end the war was due to the influence of the Spear of Destiny, which caused the JSA's most powerful members to fall under the control of its wielder, Adolf Hitler. It was revealed in the 1980s that the JSA had a loose affiliation with the All-Star Squadron. The All-Star Squadron's adventures were set in the 1940s, and were considered to have happened concurrently with the Justice Society's in an example of "retconning", or retroactive continuity, where new material is inserted into already existent continuity. Both teams were the brainchild of American president Franklin D. Roosevelt.

The headquarters for the JSA was initially a hotel suite in New York City and, after the war, the team settled on a brownstone building in Gotham City and later in Civic City.[16] For a very brief period, the JSA was provided a satellite headquarters, much like their later counterparts, the JLA. This turned out to be a deathtrap orchestrated by a crooked senator's henchman from Eliminations, Inc. The Gotham City brownstone remained unoccupied until years later, when the team was active again. The headquarters used in the 2000s was a brownstone in the neighborhood of Morningside Heights, Manhattan, north of Central Park.[17]

The Silver Age[edit]

Having successfully introduced new versions of several characters (the Flash, Green Lantern, etc.) during the late 1950s, DC tapped industry veteran and former Justice Society writer Gardner Fox to create a new version of the Justice Society. Editor Julius Schwartz, influenced by the popularity of Major League Baseball's National League and American League, decided to change the name of the team from Justice Society to Justice League.[18] As Barry Allen, the Silver Age Flash was to Jay Garrick, the Golden Age Flash, so the Justice League was to the Justice Society: the same team, but with an updated roster and a fresh start.

In The Flash #123 (September 1961) "The Flash of Two Worlds", the Silver Age Flash meets his Golden Age counterpart, Jay Garrick, who along with the rest of the original Justice Society is said to inhabit an alternate universe. This historic meeting thus became one of the classic DC comics of the Silver Age.[19] Fan letters on the pages of following issues were wildly enthusiastic about the revival of the original Flash, both from older fans who remembered the old JSA tales, and younger fans eager to learn more about these new heroes. Further meetings occurred in The Flash #129 "Double Danger on Earth" (June 1962) and The Flash #137 "Vengeance of the Immortal Villain" (June 1963). The Flash #129 contains the first mention of the JSA in the Silver Age, and refers directly to their last adventure in All-Star Comics #57, while in The Flash #137 the JSA reform.[20]

The JSA meets the JLA. Cover of Justice League of America #21 (August 1963). Art by Mike Sekowsky and Murphy Anderson.

These stories set the stage for "Crisis on Earth-One" (Justice League of America #21, August 1963)[21] and "Crisis on Earth-Two" (Justice League of America #22, September 1963),[22] a two-part tale where the Golden Age Justice Society teams up with the Silver Age Justice League to combat a team of villains from both worlds.[23] The following year, Earth-Three was introduced, its existence was guessed at in the previous year's tale, with Justice League of America #29, "Crisis on Earth-Three," (August 1964).[24]

This Earth features an evil version of the Justice League known as the Crime Syndicate of America, whose line-up consists of Superwoman (an evil version of Wonder Woman), Owlman (an evil version of Batman), Ultraman (an evil version of Superman), Johnny Quick (an evil version of the Flash), and Power Ring (an evil version of Green Lantern).[25][26] These stories became the first in a long series of team-ups of the two supergroups, an annual summer tradition which continued until 1985. These meetings produced a considerable number of notable events and characters to JSA history, including Black Canary leaving to join the Justice League, the return of the Golden Age team the Seven Soldiers of Victory,[27][28][29] the creation of the Freedom Fighters, which incorporated several Quality Comics characters into DC continuity after the characters were purchased by DC Comics,[30][31][32] and the introduction of a number of other alternative Earths to house these other teams.

As well as the annual Justice League of America appearances, members of the JSA guest-starred in other titles over the next several years: the Golden Age Atom in The Atom #29 and #36, and the Golden Age Green Lantern in several issues of Green Lantern. In addition, a number of the characters appeared in team-up stories in issues of the DC titles The Brave and the Bold and Showcase, while the Spectre was given a solo run in the latter which led to his own series.[33]

Almost uniquely in superhero comics at the time, the JSA members during this period were portrayed as middle-aged — and often wiser — versions of their younger, contemporary counterparts. Originally this theme appears to have been introduced simply to acknowledge the back-history of the JSA in DC continuity (another fairly new development for comics), later it was to become a major theme for character development.

The Bronze Age[edit]

A JSA civil war. Cover of All Star Comics #69 (Nov.-Dec. 1977). Art by Al Milgrom and Jack Abel.

The JSA's popularity grew until they regained their own title. All Star Comics #58 (January – February 1976) saw the group return as mentors to a younger set of heroes briefly called the "Super Squad" until they were integrated into the JSA proper. This run lasted until #74, with a brief run thereafter in Adventure Comics #461-466,[34] but it had three significant developments: it introduced Power Girl in All Star Comics #58,[35][36] chronicled the death of the Golden Age Batman in Adventure Comics #461-462, and, after nearly 40 years, it finally provided the JSA with an origin story in DC Special #29.[37] The Huntress was introduced in DC Super Stars #17 (Nov.-Dec. 1977) which told her origin,[38] and All Star Comics #69 (Nov.-Dec. 1977), which was published the same day.[39] The 1970s run of All Star Comics was written by Gerry Conway and Paul Levitz, and artists included Ric Estrada, Wally Wood, Keith Giffen, Joe Staton, and Bob Layton.

The series was noteworthy for depicting the heroes as having aged into their 50s.[40] The artwork gave them graying hair and lined faces. It was highly unusual, then or now, for a comic book to have heroes this old. Most comic books obscure the timelines or periodically relaunch the series to keep the characters youthful. This depiction was a consequence of the fact that the heroes were closely linked to World War II era. This became problematic in the 1980s when the heroes would logically be well into their 60s. The explanation given for this by writer Roy Thomas in All-Star Squadron Annual #3 was that the team and several friends have absorbed energy from the magical villain Ian Karkull during an adventure in the 1940s that stunts their aging process.

Meanwhile, the JSA continues their annual team-ups with the Justice League. Notable events include meeting the Fawcett Comics heroes, including Captain Marvel,[41][42][43] the death of Mr. Terrific,[44][45][46] and the origin of the Black Canary.[47][48]

The JLA/JSA crossovers often involved a third team as well such as the Legion of Super-Heroes,[49][50] the New Gods,[51][52][53] the Secret Society of Super-Villains,[54][55][56] and the All-Star Squadron.[57][58][59][60][61][62]

All-Star Squadron was a series taking place in the JSA's original setting of the wartime 1940s. This led to a spinoff, modern day series entitled Infinity, Inc. which starred the children and heirs of the JSA members.[63] Both series were written by noted JSA fan Roy Thomas and featured art by Rich Buckler, Jerry Ordway, Todd McFarlane and others.

In 1985, DC retconned many details of the DC Universe in Crisis on Infinite Earths.[64] Among the changes, the Golden Age Superman, Batman, Robin, and Wonder Woman ceased to exist, and the Earth-One/Earth-Two dichotomy was resolved by merging the Multiverse into a single universe. This posed a variety of problems for the JSA, whose history — especially in the 1980s comics — was strongly tied up in these four characters.

The JLA/JSA team-ups ended with the last pre-Crisis teamup occurring in Justice League of America #244 and Infinity Inc. #19 during the Crisis.[65][66]

After Crisis on Infinite Earths[edit]

The Last Days of the Justice Society (1986). Art by David Ross and Mike Gustovich.

One of Roy Thomas' efforts to resolve the Crisis-created inconsistencies was to introduce some analogues to Superman, Batman, and Wonder Woman, in a sequel to All-Star Squadron titled Young All-Stars.

In 1986, DC decided to write off the JSA from active continuity. The Last Days of the Justice Society one-shot involved most of the team battling the forces of evil while merged with the Norse gods in an ever-repeating Ragnarök-like Limbo, written by Thomas, with art by David Ross and Mike Gustovich.[67] Only Power Girl, the Star-Spangled Kid, the Spectre and Doctor Fate escaped the cataclysm. This is later revealed to be a simulation created by Odin searching for a way to thwart the real Ragnarök.[68] Roy Thomas revised the JSA's origin for post-Crisis continuity in Secret Origins vol. 2 #31.[69]

Justice Society of America (vols. 1 and 2) (1991-1993)[edit]

Justice Society of America (vols. 1 and 2)
Cover to Justice Society of America vol. 2 #1. Art by Mike Parobeck.
Publication information
Publisher DC Comics
Schedule Monthly
Format Vol. 1 limited series
Vol. 2 - ongoing series
Genre
Publication date (Vol. 1)
April 1991 – November 1991
(Vol. 2)
August 1992 – May 1993
Number of issues Vol. 1 8
Vol. 2 10
Creative team
Writer(s) Len Strazewski
Penciller(s)
Inker(s)

Fan interest resulted in the revival of the JSA in 1991. An eight-issue Justice Society of America limited series featuring a previously untold story set in the 1950s was published in 1991. In the final issues of the four-issue Armageddon: Inferno limited series, the JSA returns to the modern-day DC Universe when Waverider transported the "daemen" of the interdimensional Abraxis to Asgard as a substitute for the JSA in the Ragnarök cycle, allowing the team to return to Earth.

In 1992, the JSA was given an ongoing monthly series titled Justice Society of America, written by Len Strazewski with art by Mike Parobeck, featuring the original team adjusting to life after returning from Ragnarök. Though Justice Society of America was intended as an ongoing series and was popular with readers, it was cancelled after only three issues had been released and the series ended with its tenth issue. Fans' reaction to the quick-handed cancellation was fierce, and the decision was roundly criticized in fanzines and budding electronic bulletin board services such as Compuserve.

Strazewski, in an interview explaining the cancellation of this series, said, "It was a capricious decision made personally by Mike Carlin because he didn't like Mike's artwork or my writing and believed that senior citizen super-heroes was not what DC should be publishing. He made his opinion clear to me several times after the cancellation."[70] Justice Society of America included the first appearance of Jesse Quick, the daughter of All-Star Squadron members Liberty Belle and Johnny Quick.

Not long after, most of the team was incapacitated or killed in the 1994 crossover series Zero Hour: Crisis in Time. During the battle between the Justice Society and the villain Extant, the latter removes the chronal energies keeping the Justice Society young. The Atom, Doctor Mid-Nite and Hourman die immediately.[71] Hawkman and Hawkgirl who were separated from the rest of the Justice Society after being pulled into the timestream merge into a new Hawkgod being, resulting in their deaths. Dr. Fate dies of the resulting aging shortly after Zero Hour. Green Lantern is kept young due to the mystical effects of the Starheart, but loses his ring and subsequently changes his name to Sentinel.

The rest of the team is now too physically old to continue fighting crime and retires. Starman retires and passes on the Starman legacies to his sons, resulting in the creation of one of the new series following Zero Hour, James Robinson's Starman.

JSA (1999–2006)[edit]

JSA
Cover to JSA #1 (August 1999). Art by Alan Davis and Mark Farmer.
Publication information
Publisher DC Comics
Genre
Publication date August 1999 - September 2006
Number of issues 87
Creative team
Writer(s) James Robinson, David S. Goyer, Geoff Johns, Paul Levitz
Artist(s) Various

The JSA remained inactive for some time after the events of "Zero Hour", but the surviving members (the Flash, Wildcat, and Alan Scott, now going by the name Sentinel) have remained active throughout the DC Universe, having been placed as reserve JLI members, as evidenced in Justice League Europe #50.

The Justice Society was revived as a monthly series called JSA in 1999 which mixed the few remaining original members with younger counterparts. This incarnation of the team focused on the theme of generational legacy and of carrying on the heroic example established by their predecessors. The series was launched by James Robinson[72] and David S. Goyer. Goyer later co-wrote the series with Geoff Johns,[73] who continued to write the series solo after Goyer's departure. The series featured the art of Stephen Sadowski, Leonard Kirk and Don Kramer, among others. It featured a story by Pulitzer Prize winner Michael Chabon.

During the events of Infinite Crisis, some of the surviving Golden Age characters, such as Wildcat and the Flash, are transported to the new "Earth-Two," as created by Alexander Luthor, and seem to recall the existence of the original one, albeit vaguely.

JSA: Classified (2005–2008)[edit]

JSA: Classified
Cover to JSA: Classified #1 (September 2005).
Art by Amanda Conner and Jimmy Palmiotti.
Publication information
Publisher DC Comics
Schedule Monthly
Genre
Publication date September 2005 - August 2008
Number of issues 39
Creative team
Writer(s) Geoff Johns
Artist(s) Amanda Conner
Penciller(s) Jimmy Palmiotti
Creator(s) Harvey Richards
Stephen Wacker

In September 2005, JSA '​s popularity led to a spinoff series, JSA: Classified, which tells stories of the team at various points in its existence, as well as spotlighting specific members in solo stories. The first arc featured Power Girl's origin. It was written by Geoff Johns, with art by Amanda Conner. The series was cancelled with issue issue #39 (August 2008).

One Year Later[edit]

After the events of DC's Infinite Crisis crossover and the World War III event chronicled in 52, JSA members Jay Garrick, Alan Scott, and Ted Grant decide to revive the Justice Society.

Justice Society of America vol. 3 (2006–2011)[edit]

Justice Society of America vol. 3
Variant incentive cover to
Justice Society of America vol. 3 #1 (February 2007).
Art by Dale Eaglesham.
Publication information
Publisher DC Comics
Schedule Monthly
Format Ongoing series
Genre
Publication date February 2007 - October 2011
Number of issues 54
Creative team
Writer(s)
Artist(s) Alex Ross
Penciller(s)
Inker(s)
Colorist(s) Jeromy Cox, Hi-Fi

On December 6, 2006, a new series was launched with the creative team of Geoff Johns (writer), Dale Eaglesham (pencils), and Alex Ross (cover art).[74] The beginning of the new series shows JSA veterans the Flash, Green Lantern, and Wildcat choosing members of the new generation of superheroes to train. Continuing a major theme from the previous JSA title, this new series focuses on the team being the caretakers of the superhero legacy from one generation to the next.

The crossovers between the JLA and JSA began again with "The Lightning Saga" (see below) in JLA vol. 4 #8-10 and JSA #5-6 and an epilogue in issue #7.

Justice Society of America Annual #1 (September 2008) featured the Justice Society Infinity, a team continuing from an analogous post-Crisis Earth-Two. Most of the members of the Justice Society Infinity are either original members of Earth-Two's Justice Society, such as the Atom and Robin (Dick Grayson), but the Society includes characters that are normally associated with Infinity, Inc., such as Jade and Nuklon (Albert Rothstein).

Johns' run as writer of Justice Society of America ended with issue #26. Following a two-issue story by Jerry Ordway,[75] Bill Willingham and Matt Sturges took over as writers with issue #29 in July 2009.[76][77]

Another JLA/JSA crossover was chronicled in Justice League of America #44-48 and Justice Society of America #41-42 under the Brightest Day banner.[78] James Robinson, the writer who co-wrote the 1999 JSA relaunch, took over as the book's writer for the crossover while Mark Bagley illustrated the entire event.[79] After the crossover, Robinson wrote one final issue with artist Jesus Merino, which dealt with the relationship between Green Lantern and his son Obsidian.

Following the Brightest Day story arc, Marc Guggenheim became the new writer with issue #44, and Scott Kolins took over art duties from Merino.[80] During his first several issues, Guggenheim introduced a number of new characters to the team, such as Blue Devil and Manhunter.[81] In issue #49, he expanded the JSA's roster by bringing back all of the JSA All-Stars except for Magog, who had been killed in Justice League: Generation Lost, and Power Girl, who had unofficially departed from the JSA during the same maxi-series, as well as the original Liberty Belle. In addition, Guggenheim introduced a new character named Red Beetle (a gadget-wielding heroine clad in a red variation of the Silver Age Blue Beetle's costume), and brought in Ri and Darknight, two Chinese superheroes that he had created for his Batman Confidential run.

JSA All-Stars vol. 2 (2009–2011)[edit]

JSA All-Stars (vol. 2)
Cover to JSA All-Stars vol. 2 #1 (February 2010). Art by Freddie Williams II.
Publication information
Publisher DC Comics
Schedule Monthly
Genre
Publication date February 2010 - July 2011
Number of issues 18
Creative team
Writer(s) Matthew Sturges
Artist(s) Freddie Williams II
Creator(s) Matthew Sturges
Freddie Williams II

An ongoing series titled JSA All-Stars debuted with a February 2010 cover date. It was named after a 2003 limited series. The series focused upon a second team that formed after the JSA split. Calling themselves the "All-Stars," the group included more of the newer, younger members of the JSA. The roster consisted of Magog, Damage, Power Girl, Hourman, Atom Smasher, Sand, Stargirl, Cyclone, Tomcat, Citizen Steel, Judomaster, King Chimera, Anna Fortune and A.I. Roxy, with Magog and Damage later being killed off.

DC cancelled JSA All-Stars with issue #18 (July 2011) due to the events of Flashpoint, the DC 2011 summer event.[82] Because of the title's cancellation, writer Marc Guggenheim had all of the All-Stars sans Power Girl and Magog rejoin the JSA in Justice Society of America #49[83]

The New 52[edit]

Earth 2 and Worlds' Finest (2012-)[edit]

With The New 52, the JSA was relaunched by writer James Robinson and artist Nicola Scott in the Earth-2 series. Additionally, the Worlds' Finest title features the Huntress and Power Girl from the new Earth 2 stranded on the main DC Earth. Worlds' Finest is written by Paul Levitz, and was initially drawn by George Pérez and Kevin Maguire on a rotating basis.[84][85] James Robinson left the Earth 2 title with issue #16 and Tom Taylor became the new writer at #17.[86] Nicola Scott remained on the series as penciller and her work on the title has been described as her "mainstream breakthrough".[87]

Collected editions[edit]

The Golden Age issues of All Star Comics were collected in the following hardcover DC Archive Editions:

Title Material collected Pub. date ISBN
All Star Comics Archives Vol. 0 All Star Comics #1-2 March 2006 978-1401207915
All Star Comics Archives Vol. 1 All Star Comics #3-6 November 1997 978-1563890192
All Star Comics Archives Vol. 2 All Star Comics #7-10 November 1997 978-0930289126
All Star Comics Archives Vol. 3 All Star Comics #11-14 November 1997 978-1563893704
All Star Comics Archives Vol. 4 All Star Comics #15-18 December 1998 978-1563894336
All Star Comics Archives Vol. 5 All Star Comics #19-23 December 1999 978-1563894978
All Star Comics Archives Vol. 6 All Star Comics #24-28 October 2000 978-1563896361
All Star Comics Archives Vol. 7 All Star Comics #29-33 July 2001 978-1563897207
All Star Comics Archives Vol. 8 All Star Comics #34-38 August 2002 978-1563898129
All Star Comics Archives Vol. 9 All Star Comics #39-43 August 2004 978-1401200015
All Star Comics Archives Vol. 10 All Star Comics #44-49 August 2004 978-1401201593
All Star Comics Archives Vol. 11 All Star Comics #50-57 March 2005 978-1401204037

Most of the Silver Age and Bronze Age stories depicting the annual team-up adventures of the Justice League and the Justice Society were collected in the following trade paperbacks:

Title Material collected Publication date ISBN
Crisis on Multiple Earths Vol. 1 Justice League of America #21-22, #29-30, #37-38, #46-47 August 2002 978-1563898952
Crisis on Multiple Earths Vol. 2 Justice League of America #55-56, #64-65, #72-73, #83-84 November 2003 978-1401200039
Crisis on Multiple Earths Vol. 3 Justice League of America #91-92, #100-102, #107-108, #113 August 2004 978-1401202316
Crisis on Multiple Earths Vol. 4 Justice League of America #122-124, #135-137, #147-148 May 2006 978-1401209575
Crisis on Multiple Earths Vol. 5 Justice League of America #159-160, #171-172, #183-185 April 2010 978-1401226237
Crisis on Multiple Earths Vol. 6 Justice League of America #195-197, 207-209, All-Star Squadron #14-15 June 2013 978-1401238223
Crisis on Multiple Earths: The Team-Ups Vol. 1 The Flash #123, #129, #137, #151; Green Lantern vol. 2 #40; Showcase #55-56, The Brave and the Bold #61 January 2006 978-1401204709
Crisis on Multiple Earths, The Team-Ups Vol. 2 The Flash #170, #173; Green Lantern vol. 2 #45, #52; The Brave and the Bold #62; The Atom #29, #36; The Spectre #3 March 2007 978-1401212285

The Bronze Age continuation of All Star Comics (1976–1978), along with the subsequent JSA series in Adventure Comics and a related special, has been collected in the following trade paperbacks:

Title Material collected Publication date ISBN
Justice Society Volume 1 All Star Comics #58-67; DC Special #29 August 2006 978-1401209704
Justice Society Volume 2 All Star Comics #68-74; Adventure Comics #461-466 February 2007 978-1401211943

The JLA story arc "Crisis Times Five" (1999), which features the first Justice League/Justice Society team-up since Crisis on Infinite Earths, has been collected in the following trade paperback:

Title Material collected Publication date ISBN
JLA: Justice for All JLA #24-33 December 1999 978-1563895111

The JSA (1999–2006) series was collected in the following trade paperbacks:

Vol. # Title Material collected Publication date ISBN
1 Justice Be Done JSA #1-5; JSA Secret Files #1 April 2000 978-1563896200
2 Darkness Falls JSA #6-15 August 2002 978-1563897399
3 Return of Hawkman JSA #16-25; JSA Secret Files #1 November 2002 978-1563899126
4 Fair Play JSA #26-31; JSA Secret Files #2 May 2003 978-1563899591
5 Stealing Thunder JSA #32-38 October 2003 978-1563899942
6 Savage Times JSA #39-45 November 2004 978-1401202538
7 Princes of Darkness JSA #46-55 March 2005 978-1401204693
8 Black Reign JSA #56-58; Hawkman vol. 4 #23-25 July 2005 978-1401204808
9 Lost JSA #59-67 September 2005 978-1401207229
10 Black Vengeance JSA #68-75 March 2006 978-1401209667
11 Mixed Signals JSA #76-81 September 2006 978-1401209674
12 Ghost Stories JSA #82-87 January 2007 978-1401211967

The third Justice Society of America series was collected in the following editions:

Vol. # Title Material collected Publication date ISBN
1 The Next Age Justice Society of America vol. 3 #1-4 September 2007
November 2008
978-1401214449 (HC)
978-1401215859 (TPB)
2 Justice League of America: The Lightning Saga Justice League of America vol. 2 #0, 8-12; Justice Society of America vol. 3 #5-6 February 2008
January 2009
978-1401216528 (HC)
978-1401218690 (TPB)
3 Thy Kingdom Come, Part One Justice Society of America vol. 3 #7-12 April 2008
April 2009
978-1401216900 (HC)
978-1401217419 (TPB)
4 Thy Kingdom Come, Part Two Justice Society of America vol. 3 #13-18, Annual #1 December 2008
November 2009
978-1401219147 (HC)
978-1401219468 (TPB)
5 Thy Kingdom Come, Part Three Justice Society of America vol. 3 #19-22; Justice Society Kingdom Come Special: Superman; Justice Society Kingdom Come Special: Magog; Justice Society Kingdom Come Special: The Kingdom April 2009
April 2010
978-1401221669 (HC)
978-1401221676 (TPB)
6 Black Adam and Isis Justice Society of America vol. 3 #23-28 September 2009
September 2010
978-1401225308 (HC)
978-1401225315 (TPB)
7 The Bad Seed Justice Society of America vol. 3 #29-33 May 2010 978-1401227142 (TPB)
8 Axis of Evil Justice Society of America vol. 3 #34-40 December 2010 978-1401229016 (TPB)
9 Justice League of America: The Dark Things Justice League of America vol. 2 #44-48; Justice Society of America vol. 3 #41-42 March 2011 978-1401230111 (HC)
10 Super Town Justice Society of America vol. 3 #44-49 September 2011 978-1401232849 (TPB)
11 Monument Point Justice Society of America vol. 3 #50-54, Annual #2 February 21, 2012 978-1401233686 (TPB)
12 Justice League of America: The Rise of Eclipso Justice Society of America vol. 3 #43; Justice League of America vol. 2 #54-60 October 2012 978-1401234133 (TPB)

A new JSA team, the JSA All Stars, spun off the original and was collected in the following trade paperbacks:

Title Material collected Publication date ISBN
Constellations JSA All Stars vol. 2 #1-6 November 2010 978-1401229009
Glory Days JSA All-Stars vol. 2 #7-13 May 2011 978-1401231576
The Puzzle Men JSA All-Stars vol. 2 #14-18 December 2011 978-1401232979

Several JSA miniseries, Elseworlds (non-canon) graphic novels, Silver Age collections, and one-shots were collected in the following trade paperbacks:

Title Material collected Publication date ISBN
The Justice Society Returns All Star Comics vol. 2 #1-2; Adventure Comics vol. 2 #1; All-American Comics vol. 2 #1; National Comics vol. 2 #1; Sensation Comics vol. 2 #1; Smash Comics vol. 2 #1; Star-Spangled Comics vol. 2 #1; Thrilling Comics vol. 2 #1; Golden Age Secret Files #1; JSA Secret Files #1 December 2003 978-1401200909
JSA: The Liberty Files (Elseworlds) JSA: The Liberty File #1-2; JSA: The Unholy Three #1-2 April 2004 978-1401202033
JSA All Stars JSA All Stars #1-8 June 2004 978-1401202194
JSA: The Golden Age (Elseworlds) The Golden Age #1-4 June 2005 978-1401207113
Power Girl JSA #32, #39; JSA: Classified #1-4; Showcase #97-99; Secret Origins vol. 2 #11 June 2006 978-1401209681
The Huntress: Darknight Daughter DC Super Stars #17; Batman Family #18-20; Wonder Woman #271-287, #289-290, #294-295 December 2006 978-1401209131
JSA Classified: Honor Among Thieves JSA: Classified #5-9 January 2007 978-1401212186
JSA Presents: Green Lantern Green Lantern: Brightest Day, Blackest Night (one-shot); JSA: Classified #25, #32-33 September 2008 978-1401219727
Doctor Mid-Nite Doctor Mid-Nite #1-3 April 2009 978-1563896071
JSA vs. Kobra JSA vs. Kobra #1-6 August 2010 978-1401227296

Awards[edit]

The Justice Society received a 1965 Alley Award in the category "Strip or Book Most Desired for Revival".[88]

Other media[edit]

Television[edit]

  • A Justice League two-part episode titled "Legends" pays homage to the Justice Society, with a team of imaginary comic book superheroes in a perfect world. The team was called the Justice Guild of America. The members are Green Guardsman (Green Lantern), Streak (Flash), Black Siren (Black Canary), Catman (Wildcat), and Tom Turbine (the Atom with elements of Superman). Green Lantern claims comics about them taught him to be a hero. It is later revealed that the Guild died in 1962 in a nuclear war that devastated Seaboard City and, for the past 40 years, a boy mutated by the radiation has used his mental powers to make them appear alive. The Guild sacrifice themselves to restore reality. According to the writers, the creative team originally intended to use the JSA for the episode, but DC Comics declined, as their portrayal clashed with their comic counterparts' post-Crisis on Infinite Earths portrayal.
  • Many members of the JSA have been featured in Justice League Unlimited, including Black Canary, Doctor Fate (Kent Nelson), Atom Smasher, Stargirl (with S.T.R.I.P.E.), Sand, Mr. Terrific (Michael Holt), Doctor Mid-Nite (Charles McNider), Wildcat, Obsidian and Hourman (Rick Tyler). Stargirl and Mr. Terrific are the two with the most exposure. Stargirl has a speaking part in at least two episodes, while Mr. Terrific takes over Martian Manhunter's job of manning the Watchtower. Wildcat has one episode, "Cat and the Canary," in which he is prominently featured. A version of Power Girl appears as Galatea, and Jay Garrick's helmet can be seen in the episode "Flash and Substance." Hawkman appears in the series and believes that he and Hawkgirl are reincarnations of a king and queen of Egypt.
  • A few members of the Justice Society have appeared in various episodes of Batman: The Brave and the Bold, including Flash, Wildcat, and Doctor Fate. The Justice Society appear in the episode "Golden Age of Justice," with members including Flash, Wildcat, Hourman, Doctor Mid-Nite, and Hawkman. It is revealed that they tutored Batman during his early superhero days. In the present day, Batman helps them when an old foe Per Degaton comes out of stasis. A flashback reveals that the original Black Canary was a member until she died during a mission to save people from a burning building. Before the original Black Canary died, she told Wildcat to watch over her daughter. The Justice Society appears in "The Siege of Starro! Part One," fighting Per Degaton's army of robots in Washington, D.C. The flashback reveals that Doctor Fate was a member of the Justice Society. They later appear in "Crisis: 22,300 Miles Above Earth!" with the Spectre, Doctor Fate, the Flash, Wildcat, Mr. Terrific, Sandman, Starman, and Green Lantern now shown as members. They arrive at the Justice League Satellite in order to have a party with the Justice League International, but instead up fighting their youthful counterparts. Both teams end up working together to combat Ra's al Ghul. Additionally, Stargirl appears in the episode "Cry Freedom Fighters!" where she teams up with Blue Beetle.
  • The Justice Society of America was featured in Season 9 of Smallville, during the two-hour dual episode/television movie Absolute Justice (the episode was written by Geoff Johns, who wrote the episode Legion, which introduced the Legion of Super-Heroes). The episode featured JSA members Hawkman (played by Michael Shanks), Doctor Fate (Brent Stait), and Stargirl (Britt Irvin).[89] Several other members appear briefly, or in flashback, including the original Star-Spangled Kid, Sandman, Wildcat, Flash, Atom, Green Lantern, and Red Tornado. Hawkgirl, Hourman, Doctor Mid-Nite, Mister Terrific, the Spectre, and the original Black Canary appear in a painted group portrait. The JSA are portrayed much like their post-Crisis incarnation as an earlier generation of superheroes that have re-emerged to aid the new superheroes, having been forced to retire when the government tried to take control of the JSA after determining their real identities. Hawkman and Stargirl both appear in additional episodes in Seasons 9 and 10, with Hawkman sacrificing himself in the tenth season mid-finale to save Lois Lane from Slade Wilson.
  • Several members of the JSA appear in Young Justice. According to the producers of the show, most of the original JSA members are dead or retired by the time the series takes place.[90] The team itself appears in a flashback sequence in the episode "Humanity", with a line-up consisting of Green Lantern, Flash, Sandman, Wildcat, Doctor Fate, and Red Tornado. Firebrand was a member for a short time as well before she was revealed to be an android created by T.O. Morrow.
  • Sandman appeared in two episodes of the series The Flash (1990-91), "Ghost In The Machine" and "The Deadly NightShade", played by Jason Bernard. He was named NightShade but was equipped with Sandman's characteristic gasmask and anesthetic pistol.
  • The helmet of Doctor Fate can be seen among the heroes' artifacts in the pilot episode of Constantine (2014).
  • In the third season of Arrow, Wildcat will be played by actor J.R Ramirez, where he will coach Laurel Lance.

Film[edit]

  • The JSA appears in the opening credits of the 2008 animated film Justice League: The New Frontier. In this story, Hourman has apparently been killed, and the Justice Society have retired. Ted Grant has retired as a crime fighter but is still a professional boxer.

Video game[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wallace, Daniel; Dolan, Hannah, ed. (2010). "1940s". DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. Dorling Kindersley. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9. DC took the 'greatest hits' premise of the comic to its logical conclusion in All Star Comics #3 by teaming the Flash, the Atom, Doctor Fate, Green Lantern, Hawkman, Hourman, Sandman, and the Spectre under the banner of the Justice Society of America for an ongoing series. 
  2. ^ Levitz, Paul (2010). "The Golden Age 1938–1956". 75 Years of DC Comics The Art of Modern Mythmaking. Taschen America. p. 56. ISBN 9783836519816. Mayer and Fox cooked up one of the biggest ideas in superhero history: What if the varied stars of All-Star Comics actually met and worked together? 
  3. ^ Markstein, Don (2010). "The Justice Society of America". Don Markstein's Toonopedia. 
  4. ^ Daniels, Les (1995). "The Justice Society of America All American's All Star Team Up". DC Comics: Sixty Years of the World's Favorite Comic Book Heroes. Bulfinch Press. p. 54. ISBN 0821220764. 
  5. ^ Thomas, Roy (2000). "The Men (and One Woman) Behind the JSA: Its Creation and Creative Personnel". All-Star Companion Volume 1. TwoMorrows Publishing. pp. 21–34. ISBN 1-893905-055. 
  6. ^ Thomas "'Also in This Issue...' Additional Features of All-Star Comics #3-57" All-Star Companion Volume 1 p. 175
  7. ^ Wallace "1940s" in Dolan, p. 40: "Wonder Woman...took the lead in Sensation Comics following a sneak preview in All Star Comics #8."
  8. ^ Pasko, Martin (2008). The DC Vault: A Museum-in-a-Book with Rare Collectibles from the DC Universe. Running Press. p. 49. ISBN 0762432578. 
  9. ^ Thomas "The Case of the Invisible All-Stars!" All-Star Companion Volume 1 pp. 84-89
  10. ^ Morrissey, Richard (August 1981). "The Justice Society of America". Amazing Heroes (Fantagraphics Books) (3): 36. 
  11. ^ Wallace "1940s" in Dolan, p. 55: "Gardner Fox penned his last story about the Justice Society of America in this issue. The writer...introduced an ill-tempered illusionist called the Wizard."
  12. ^ Wallace "1940s" in Dolan, p. 56: "In Robert Kanigher's story...a cabal of villains united as the Injustice Society of the World and took revenge on the JSA's assembled do-gooders."
  13. ^ Wallace "1940s" in Dolan, p. 57: "Black Canary made her first appearance outside of Flash Comics in a feature by writer Robert Kanigher and artist Alex Toth...By the story's end, Black Canary was considered for JSA membership but wouldn't officially join until All Star Comics #41."
  14. ^ Irvine, Alex "1950s" in Dolan, p. 66: "As superhero comics continued to decline in popularity, many of them mutated into Western, crime, and horror titles. The superhero omnibus All Star Comics was one such series, becoming All-Star Western as of issue #58."
  15. ^ Thomas, Roy (December 11, 2006). "From All-Star Companion v. 2 - Where There's a 'Will' — There's 'William Wilson'!". Newsarama. Archived from the original on March 17, 2012. Retrieved March 17, 2012. 
  16. ^ Thomas "The Golden Age of the Justice Society" All-Star Companion Volume 1 p. 157
  17. ^ Jimenez, Phil (2004). "JSA Headquarters". In Dougall, Alastair. The DC Comics Encyclopedia. Dorling Kindersley. p. 132. ISBN 0-7566-4119-5. OCLC 213309017. 
  18. ^ Eury, Michael (2005). The Justice League Companion. TwoMorrows Publishing. p. 10. ISBN 1-893905-48-9. The readers were more familiar with 'League' from the National League and the American League. 
  19. ^ McAvennie, Michael "1960s" in Dolan, p. 103: "This classic Silver Age story resurrected the Golden Age Flash and provided a foundation for the Multiverse from which he and the Silver Age Flash would hail."
  20. ^ Morrissey p. 37
  21. ^ Fox, Gardner (w), Sekowsky, Mike (p), Sachs, Bernard (i). "Crisis on Earth-One!" Justice League of America 21 (August 1963)
  22. ^ Fox, Gardner (w), Sekowsky, Mike (p), Sachs, Bernard (i). "Crisis on Earth-Two!" Justice League of America 22 (September 1963)
  23. ^ McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 109: "The two-part 'Crisis on Earth-One!' and 'Crisis on Earth-Two!' saga represented the first use of the term 'Crisis' in crossovers, as well as the designations 'Earth-1' and 'Earth-2'. In it editor Julius Schwartz, [writer Gardner] Fox, and artist Mike Sekowsky devised a menace worthy of the World's Greatest Heroes."
  24. ^ McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 112: "Writer Gardner Fox and artist Mike Sekowsky crafted a tale in which the Crime Syndicate...ambushed the JLA on Earth-1."
  25. ^ Fox, Gardner (w), Sekowsky, Mike (p), Sachs, Bernard (i). "Crisis on Earth-Three" Justice League of America 29 (August 1964)
  26. ^ Fox, Gardner (w), Sekowsky, Mike (p), Sachs, Bernard (i). "The Most Dangerous Earth of All" Justice League of America 30 (September 1964)
  27. ^ Wein, Len (w), Dillin, Dick (p), Giella, Joe (i). "The Unknown Soldier of Victory!" Justice League of America 100 (August 1972)
  28. ^ Wein, Len (w), Dillin, Dick (p), Giella, Joe (i). "The Hand That Shook the World" Justice League of America 101 (September 1972)
  29. ^ Wein, Len (w), Dillin, Dick (p), Giella, Joe; Giordano, Dick (i). "..And One of Us Must Die!" Justice League of America 102 (October 1972)
  30. ^ McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 156 "The annual Justice League-Justice Society get-together resulted in scribe Len Wein and artist Dick Dillin transporting both teams to the alternate reality of Earth-X. There, Nazi Germany ruled after winning a prolonged World War II and only a group of champions called the Freedom Fighters remained to oppose the regime."
  31. ^ Wein, Len (w), Dillin, Dick (p), Giordano, Dick (i). "Crisis on Earth-X!" Justice League of America 107 (September-October 1973)
  32. ^ Wein, Len (w), Dillin, Dick (p), Giordano, Dick (i). "Thirteen Against the Earth!" Justice League of America 108 (November-December 1973)
  33. ^ Morrissey pp. 37-38
  34. ^ Wells, John (October 24, 1997), "'Lost' DC: The DC Implosion", Comics Buyer's Guide (1249): 131–132, The contents of All-Star Comics #75 were split into a two-part Justice Society story published in Adventure Comics #461-462. 
  35. ^ McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 169: "Along with artist Ric Estrada, [Gerry] Conway also introduced the DC Universe to the cousin of Earth-2's Superman, Kara Zor-L a.k.a. Power Girl."
  36. ^ Conway, Gerry (w), Estrada, Ric (p), Wood, Wally (i). "The Super Squad!" All Star Comics 58 (February 1976)
  37. ^ McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 175: "The genesis of comics' first superhero team...had been a mystery since the JSA's debut...Writer Paul Levitz and artist Joe Staton decided to present the definitive origin story."
  38. ^ McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 175: "While writer Paul Levitz and artist Joe Staton introduced the Huntress to the JSA in this month's All Star Comics #69, they concurrently shaped her origin in DC Super-Stars."
  39. ^ DC Super Stars #17 (November-December 1977) at the Grand Comics Database "Origin and first appearance of the Helena Wayne Huntress, who simultaneously first appears in this issue and All-Star Comics (DC, 1976 series) #69, both released August 24, 1977."
  40. ^ Morrissey p. 45 "[Paul] Levitz had announced his intention to have the JSA members age naturally."
  41. ^ Bridwell, E. Nelson; Pasko, Martin (w), Dillin, Dick (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). "Crisis in Eternity!" Justice League of America 135 (October 1976)
  42. ^ Bridwell, E. Nelson; Pasko, Martin (w), Dillin, Dick (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). "Crisis on Earth-S!" Justice League of America 136 (November 1976)
  43. ^ Bridwell, E. Nelson; Pasko, Martin (w), Dillin, Dick (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). "Crisis in Tomorrow!" Justice League of America 137 (December 1976)
  44. ^ McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 182: "Writer Gerry Conway and artist Dick Dillin crafted a tale of foul play aboard the JLA satellite, during the team's annual get-together with Earth-2's JSA. Mr. Terrific...was murdered before he could expose a turncoat among the heroes."
  45. ^ Conway, Gerry (w), Dillin, Dick (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). "The Murderer Among Us: Crisis Above Earth-One!" Justice League of America 171 (October 1979)
  46. ^ Conway, Gerry (w), Dillin, Dick (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). "I Accuse..." Justice League of America 172 (November 1979)
  47. ^ Thomas, Roy; Conway, Gerry (w), Patton, Chuck (p), Tanghal, Romeo (i). "Crisis in the Thunderbolt Dimension!" Justice League of America 219 (October 1983)
  48. ^ Thomas, Roy (w), Patton, Chuck (p), Tanghal, Romeo; Marcos, Pablo (i). "The Doppelganger Gambit" Justice League of America 220 (November 1983)
  49. ^ Levitz, Paul; Pasko, Martin (w), Dillin, Dick (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). "Crisis in the 30th Century!" Justice League of America 147 (October 1977)
  50. ^ Levitz, Paul; Pasko, Martin (w), Dillin, Dick (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). "Crisis in Triplicate!" Justice League of America 148 (November 1977)
  51. ^ Conway, Gerry (w), Dillin, Dick (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). "Crisis on New Genesis or "Where Have All the New Gods Gone?"" Justice League of America 183 (October 1980)
  52. ^ Conway, Gerry (w), Pérez, George (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). ""Crisis Between Two Earths" or Apokolips Now!" Justice League of America 184 (November 1980)
  53. ^ Conway, Gerry (w), Pérez, George (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). "Crisis on Apokolips or Darkseid Rising!" Justice League of America 185 (December 1980)
  54. ^ Conway, Gerry (w), Pérez, George (p), Beatty, John (i). "Targets on Two Worlds" Justice League of America 195 (October 1981)
  55. ^ Conway, Gerry (w), Pérez, George (p), Tanghal, Romeo (i). "Countdown to Crisis!" Justice League of America 196 (November 1981)
  56. ^ Conway, Gerry (w), Pollard, Keith; Pérez, George (p), Tanghal, Romeo (i). "Crisis in Limbo!" Justice League of America 197 (December 1981)
  57. ^ Manning, Matthew K. "1980s" in Dolan, p. 198: "The Justice League of America teamed up with the Justice Society of America on a large-scale with 'Crisis on Earth-Prime', a five-part saga that crossed from the pages of Justice League of America into All-Star Squadron."
  58. ^ Conway, Gerry (w), Heck, Don (p), Tanghal, Romeo (i). "Crisis Times Three!" Justice League of America 207 (October 1982)
  59. ^ Thomas, Roy (w), Gonzales, Adrian (p), Ordway, Jerry (i). "The "Mystery Men" of October!" All-Star Squadron 14 (October 1982)
  60. ^ Conway, Gerry (w), Heck, Don (p), Trapani, Sal (i). "The Bomb-Blast Heard 'Round the World!" Justice League of America 208 (November 1982)
  61. ^ Thomas, Roy (w), Gonzales, Adrian (p), Ordway, Jerry (i). "Master of Worlds and Time!" All-Star Squadron 15 (November 1982)
  62. ^ Conway, Gerry (w), Heck, Don (p), Heck, Don (i). "Let Old Acquaintances Be Forgot..." Justice League of America 209 (December 1982)
  63. ^ Manning "1980s" in Dolan, p. 203: The children of the original Justice Society of America made their smash debut in this issue by writer Roy Thomas and penciler Jerry Ordway...All-Star Squadron #25 marked the first appearances of future cult-favorite heroes Jade, Obsidian, Fury, Brainwave Jr., the Silver Scarab, Northwind, and Nuklon."
  64. ^ Wolfman, Marv; Pérez, George. Crisis on Infinite Earths. DC Comics. ISBN 1563894343. 
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  68. ^ Gaiman, Neil (w), Jones, Kelley (p), Pratt, George (i). "Season of Mists Chapter 5" The Sandman v2, 26 (May 1991)
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  73. ^ Manning "1990s" in Dolan, p. 288: "James Robinson left the title in the capable hands of [David] Goyer's new writing partner, Geoff Johns."
  74. ^ Cowsill, Alan "2000s" in Dolan, p. 329: "Writer Geoff Johns and artist Dale Eaglesham relaunched the JSA, with Alex Ross providing covers for the series."
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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]