List of JVM languages

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This list of JVM Languages comprises computer programming languages that are used to produce software that runs on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). Some of these languages are interpreted by a Java program, and some are compiled to Java bytecode and JIT-compiled during execution as regular Java programs to improve performance.

The JVM was initially designed to support only the Java programming language. However, as time passed, ever more languages were adapted or designed to run on the Java platform.

High-profile languages[edit]

Apart from the Java language itself, the most common or well-known JVM languages are:

Additionally, JavaScript is supported on the JVM by the Nashorn and Rhino JavaScript engines.

JVM languages[edit]

JVM implementations of existing languages[edit]

Language Java implementations
BBx BBj is a superset of BBx, PRO/5, and Visual PRO/5.
C C to Java Virtual Machine compilers[2]
CFML Adobe ColdFusion
Open BlueDragon
Common Lisp Armed Bear Common Lisp[3]
Icon Jcon [4] (no longer supported)
JavaScript Rhino
Pascal Free Pascal
Perl 6 Rakudo Perl 6
Prolog JIProlog
Jekejeke Prolog
Jinni Prolog
Python Jython
REXX NetRexx
Ruby JRuby
Scheme Bigloo
Tcl Jacl

New languages with JVM implementations[edit]

  • Ateji PX, an extension of Java for easy parallel programming on multicore, GPU, Grid and Cloud.[5]
  • BBj, an object-oriented language for business applications
  • BeanShell, a scripting language whose syntax is close to Java.
  • Ceylon, a Java competitor from Red Hat
  • ColdFusion, a scripting language compiled to Java, used on the ColdFusion application Server
  • CAL, a Haskell-inspired functional language.
  • E language has an implementation on the JVM.
  • Fantom, a language built from the base to be portable across the JVM, .NET CLR, and JavaScript.[6]
  • Flow Java
  • Fortress, a language designed by Sun as a successor to Fortran, mainly for parallel scientific computing. Product development was taken over by Oracle when Sun was purchased. Oracle then stopped development in 2012 according to Dr. Dobb's.
  • Frege, a non-strict, pure functional programming language in the spirit of Haskell.[7]
  • Frink, a language that tracks units of measure through calculations.
  • Gosu, an extensible type-system language compiled to Java bytecode.
  • Ioke, a prototype-based language somewhat reminiscent of Io, with similarities to Ruby, Lisp and Smalltalk.
  • Jelly.
  • Join Java, a language that extends Java with the join semantics of the join-calculus.
  • Joy.
  • Judoscript.
  • Kotlin, a statically-typed language from JetBrains, the developers of IntelliJ IDEA.
  • Mirah, a customizable language featuring type inference and a highly Ruby-inspired syntax.[8][9]
  • NetLogo, a multi-agent language.
  • Nice.
  • Noop, a language built with testability as a major focus.
  • Pizza, a superset of Java with function pointers and algebraic data types.
  • Pnuts
  • Processing, a visualization and animation language and framework based on Java with a Java-like syntax.
  • X10, a language designed by IBM, featuring constrained types and a focus on concurrency and distribution.
  • Xtend, an object-oriented, functional, and imperative programming language built by the Eclipse foundation, featuring very tight Java interoperability, with a focus on extension methods and lambdas, and rich tooling

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Wampler, Dean (2009-01-15). "Adopting New JVM Languages in the Enterprise (Updated)". Retrieved 2009-06-18. 
  2. ^ "Axiomatic Multi-Platform C". Free Code. Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  3. ^ "Armed Bear Common Lisp (ABCL)". Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  4. ^ "Jcon: A Java-Based Icon Implementation". Retrieved 30 May 2014. 
  5. ^ "Ateji PX: Java Parallel Programming Made Simple". Ateji. Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  6. ^ "Fantom Programming Language". Fantom. Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  7. ^ "Frege". Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  8. ^ "The Mirah Programming Language". GitHub. Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  9. ^ "Mirah". Retrieved 1 March 2014. 

External links[edit]