Jaén de Bracamoros
|Nickname(s): "Cuna de la peruanidad" (Cradle of the peruvianity)|
|Established||June 4, 1821|
|• Mayor||Gilmer Fernandez Rojas|
|• Total||537,25 km2 (20,743 sq mi)|
|Elevation||729 m (2,392 ft)|
|• Density||2.5/km2 (6.5/sq mi)|
|Demonym||Jaeno(a), jaenés(a), jaenense|
|Time zone||PET (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||PET (UTC-5)|
The city of Jaén is the capital of the Jaén Province in the Cajamarca Region in Peru, located in the high jungle of northern Peru. From a hierarchical point of view of the Catholic Church it is the seat of the Apostolic Vicariate of St. Francis Xavier, also known as Apostolic Vicariate of Jaén en Peru.
It has a warm climate all year round, it is considered one of the hottest cities in the country, the climate is compensated by frequent and refreshing showers.
Jaén is also known as Land of the Braves Pakamuros. We can see part of their culture in Hermogenes Mejía Solf museum located in the same city.
The origin of the city dates back to the Late Horizon period, between 1,000 and 1,500 B.C, larger settlements were located in the valleys of the present provinces of Jaén, Bagua and San Ignacio. In the valley of Jaén there lies the great archaeological site Montegrande, with the presence of mounds and pottery styles of Pre-Chavin cultures and the Turuco, immense pre-Columbian cemetery located in Bellavista, Ingatambo in Pomahuaca. Similar sites are located in the valleys of Chamaya, Shumba, Tabaconas, Chinchipe and Utcubamba.
In these bountiful lands of North East Peruvian Culture flourished the Jivaro culture, whose ethnicity belonged to the Huánbucos and the Patagonians, settled in the Blooming Valley Chuquimayo, Chinchipe. The Inca Huayna Capac in its attempt to bring these people to the influence of the vast Inca Empire, suffered a catastrophic defeat, calling them Pukamoros.
The chronicler Pedro Cieza de León says that Huayna Capac undertook the conquest of the Bracamoros (Indians), but was defeated and fled. The historian Cabello de Balboa claims that Huáscar or rather his brother Huanca Auqui, envying the success of Atahualpa in Quijos, he sent pakamuros up against two expeditions.
Jijón and Caamaño (historians) describes the Bracamoros or the Pakamuros as Jivaro Indians of strong physical characteristics and independent, warlike and enterprising spirit, which were a major concern for the Incas who repeatedly tried to submit but did not. Instead by peaceful means they exerted a notable influence and then they extended by the present province of Jaén and North Eastern Region.
Age of the discovery and conquest of Jaén
The first of the Spanish conquistadors to venture into this part of the northeast was Captain Pedro Vergara, who is considered the discoverer for the Spaniards of the region of the tribe of the Pakamuros, the Bracamoros and the Yahuarsongo, in an area of a hundred leagues, succeeding in subjugating the tribes through relentless and savage military campaigning.
By the year 1607, the early city of Jaén de Bracamoros had changed up to four times to be finally settled just north of the Marañón-Huancabamba junction in the small valley of Tomependa.
This Jaén de Bracamoros grew into an important center of outreach and missionary work as head of a township provision was reserved to the Council of the Indies.
The most important industry that was installed was "Fraguas", for the forging of metals, tailoring machetes and axes of great use in a region where you had to continually cut trees and branches.
Jaén in the Independence
The jaenos, convinced of their love and freedom for Peru, were prepared to take the final step of their emancipation. Previously involved in the invitation to the public meeting to be held in the Plaza de Armas, the neighborhood and communities of the Province; the attending delegates were: Chirinos, San Ignacio, Colasay and Topenda. The meeting was held on June 4, 1821 and everyone with one voice proclaimed and sworn the Glorious Independence of Jaén de Bracamoros.
According to the INEI its growth rate for 81–93 years was 2.3 and its estimated 1999 population was 85,021 inhabitants, with a population density of 139.6 hab/Kms2. Two important features are its population, which is only 30.8% rural and 42.6% under 15 years. By the end of 2012 a population of 170,000 inhabitants was estimated without accounting the sector of Fila Alta.