Ja'far al-Sadiq

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Ja`far al-Ṣadiq
جعفر الصادق  (Arabic)

6th imam of Twelver and 5th imam of Ismaili Shia
Jafar Sadik Name in Arabic.gif
Ja`far ibn Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq with Islamic calligraphy
Born c. (702-04-23)23 April 702 CE[1]
(17 Rabi' al-awwal 83 AH)
Medina, Umayyad Empire
Died c. 7 December 765(765-12-07) (aged 63)
(15 Shawwal 148 AH)
Medina, Umayyad Empire
Cause of death
Death by poisoning
Resting place
Jannatul Baqi, Saudi Arabia
24°28′1″N 39°36′50.21″E / 24.46694°N 39.6139472°E / 24.46694; 39.6139472
Other names Ja'far ibn Muḥammad ibn `Ali
Ethnicity `Arab (Quraysh)
Title
Term 733 – 765 CE
Predecessor Muhammad al-Baqir
Successor disputed
TwelversMusa al-Kadhim
Isma‘ilisIsma‘il ibn Ja‘far
AftahisAbdullah al-Aftah
Religion Islam
Spouse(s)

Fatima bint al-Hussain'l-Athram

Hamīdah al-Barbariyyah[3]
Children
Parents Muhammad al-Baqir
Farwah bint al-Qasim

Ja'far ibn Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq (Arabic: جعفر بن محمد الصادق‎‎; 700 or 702–765 C.E. ) commonly called Ja'far al-Sadiq was known as al-Sadiq (The Truthful). He was a descendant of Ali from his father's (Muhammad al-Baqir ) side and a descendant of Abu Bakr from his mother's(Farwa) side. He is the last to be recognized by all Shiite sects as imam, and is revered by Sunni Muslims as a transmitter of Hadith and a prominent jurist.[4]

In the mid-eighth century when the Abbasids took the caliphate from the Umayyads and due to the weakness of central authority al-Sadiq was able to teach freely in a school of about four-thousand students among which were Abū Ḥanīfa and Malik ibn Anas, founder of two major sunnit schools of law, Wasil ibn Ata, founder of Mu'tazili school, and the alchemist Geber.[5] [6][7] the traditions recorded from al-Sadiq is said to be more than all hadiths recorded from all other Shiite imams combined.[8]

Al-Sadiq was famous for knowing nearly everything including alchemy, astrology, the occult science of letters, and mystical knowledge. This is evident from the writings of his students especially the alchemist Geber who had claimed that some of his scientific works were "little more than records of Ja'far's teaching or summaries of hundreds of monographs written by him."[9][10][5] As the founder of "Ja'fari school of law", al-Sadiq also elaborated the doctrine of Nass (divinely inspired designation of each imam by the previous imam), and Ismah (the infallibility of the imams).[5][7]

The question of succession after al-Sadiq's death was the cause of division among Shiites who either considered his eldest son, Isma'il (who had died before his father) as the next imam or regarded Musa al-Kadhim, (al-Sadiq third son) as the next imam. The first group was called Ismaili and the second group who became more popular was named Ja'fari or Twelver.[11][12]

Birth and early life[edit]

Ja'far al-Sadiq was born in Medina either in 80/699-700 or 83/703-704. On his father side he was a great-great grandson of Ali, the first Shiite imam. His mother, Farwa was a great-granddaughter of Abu Bakr. Hence, al-Sadiq was the first among the Shiite imams who combined in his person decent from both Abu Bakr the first Rashidun Caliphate, and Ali the first Shiite imam. For his first fourteen years he was brought up in presence of his grandfather Zayn al abedin and was witnessed the latter's withdrawal from politics, devoting his time to prostrations, and the respect that the famous jurists of Medina held toward the imam, in spite of the latter's few followers who resisted the popularity of Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah, and later on the latter's son Abu Hashim appeal of the Imamate. [13][14]

In his mother's house al-Sadiq saw his grandfather Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr who was respected by people of Medina as a famous traditionalist. Umayyad power at the time was at its climax, along with a period of peace and plenty, and the childhood of al-Sadiq was coincided with the growing interest of Medinans in prophetic science and explanation of Quran.[14]

His Imamate[edit]

Al-Sadiq was thirty seven or thirty four when he inherited the position of Imamate from his father Muhammad al-Baqir, and was imam for 28 years which was longer than that of any other Shiite imam.[14] His Imamate, however, was the most crucial period of Islamic history in both political and doctrinal areas. The conflicts among Umayyads, Abbasids and various Shiite sects gave the opportunity to al-Sadiq to enhance the Shiite teachings to a prominent level after experiencing an insignificant following. It had been because the majority of Shiites had preferred the revolutionary politic of Zaid (al-Sadiq's uncle) to the mystical quietism of al-Sadiq's father (al-Baqir) and grandfather (Zain al-Abedin). After Abbasids' brutal repression, however, they were ready to listen to al-Sadiq, and accept his theory of Imamate.[4][14]

Divisions[edit]

After the death of Ja'far al-Sadiq, the sixth imam, the majority of Shiites followed his son Musa al-Kazim while another group, followed Isma'il, the older son of Ja'far al-Sadiq, who had died while his father was still alive. This latter group separated afterwards from the majority of Shiite and became known as Ismailis. Others accepted as imam either Abdullah al-Aftah or Muhammad, both sons of the Ja'far al-Sadiq. Finally, another group stopped with the sixth imam himself and considered him as the last imam. After the death of Imam Musa al-Kazim, however, the majority followed his son, Ali al-Ridha, while some stopped with the seventh imam and became known as the Waqifiyah. From the eighth imam to the twelfth imam, whom the majority of the Shiite consider him as the promised Mahdi, no important division took place in Shiism.[a][8][15]

Doctrine of Imamate[edit]

Opposing Zayd (who attracted the support of the Shiites who were impatient with al-Baqir, (al-sadiq's father) political passivity, and fought against Umayyads and was killed in 740.[16]) who had claimed that the position of an imam was conditional on his appearing publicly to claim his rights, al-Baqir had said: "Your faith then is merely in your father, as such, for according to your theory he was not an Imam, for he certainly never came forth to assert his claims."[17] However, it was al-Sadiq who elaborated the doctrine of Imamate which says "Imamate is not a matter of human choice or self-assertion," but each imam possess a unique Ilm (knowledge) which qualify him for the position. This knowledge was passed down from Prophet through the line of Ali's immediate descendants. The doctrine of Nass or "divinely inspired designation of each imam by the previous imam", therefore, was completed by al-Sadiq.[b] In spite of being designated as the imam, however, al-Sadiq said, he won't push his claim to Caliphate.[19][12]

Political stance[edit]

Under the Umayyad rulers[edit]

al-Sadiq's life extended over the latter half of Umayyad dynasty which was accompanied with many revolts (mostly by Shiite movements), and the violent end of Umayyad Caliphate by Abbasids (decedents of Muhammad's uncle, Abbas); and also Abbasid repression of its former Shiite allies after victory over Umayyads. Disputes among the Shiite sects, themselves, over the question of the Imamate or leadership was another problem during the life of al-Sadiq. Al-Sadiq, however, maintaining his forefathers' policy of quietism, neither took part in the uprising of Zaydits (who gathered around al-Sadiq's uncle, zayd, who was backed by the Mu'tazilites and the traditionalists of Medina and Kufa.[14]) nor supported his cousin, Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya party (A messianic group originating from the Kaysanites who referred to al-Nafs al-Zakiya as Mahdi.[14]), nor participated in the fight of Abbasids against Umayyads. [4] al-Sadiq response to the messenger from Abu Muslim, (Khorasani leader of the uprising against Umayyads) who had requested his help, was famous: al-Sadiq asked for a lamp and burned Abu Muslim's letter, and said to the envoy who brought it, " Tell your master what you have seen." [17] In burning Abû Muslim's letter he had also said, "This man is not one of my men, this time is not mine."[20] There are also other requests from some other rebel factions that tried to convince al-Sadiq to support their claims. Al-Sadiq evaded their requests without explicitly advancing his own claims. He had said that even though he, as the designated imam, was the true leader of the Ummah, he would not press his claim to the caliphate.[12]

Under the Abbasid rulers[edit]

Abbasid Revolution overturned the Umayyad caliphate and then turned against Shiite groups who had previously been their allies against the Umayyads. The new Abbasid rulers, who had risen to power on the basis of their claim to descent from Muhammad's uncle Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, were suspicious of al-Sadiq; for Shiites had always believed that leadership of Ummah was a position issued by divine order which had been given to each imam by the previous imam. Besides, al-Sadiq had many following as both scholars and those who considered him as the imam of the time.[11] During rule of Al-Mansur, al-Sadiq was summoned to Baghdad along with some other prominent men of Medinain order to be under close watch of the Caliphe. Al-sadiq, however, asked the Caliph to excuse him from going there by reciting a Hadith from the prophite who had said "the man who goes away to make a living will achieve his purpose, but he who sticks to his family will prolong his life."[17] Al-Mansur reportedly accepted his request. After the defeat and death of his cousin Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya in 762, however, al-Sadiq thought it advisable to obey al-Mansur's summons. After a short stay in Baghdad, however, he convinced the caliph that he had no threat and so was allowed to return to Medina.[4][5]

Toward the end of his life, however, he was subject to some harassment by Abbasid caliphs. It is said that the governor of Medina was instructed by the Caliph to burn down his house, an event which reportedly did al-Sadiq no harm.[d] It is also related that al-Sadiq was watched closely and occasionally imprisoned to cut his ties with his followers.[11]

Doctrine of Taqiyya[edit]

See also: Taqiyyah

In the mid-eighth century, when al-Sadiq witnessed fighting of Abbasids against Umayyad for leadership of the ummah, and then killing of their former Shiite allies in the aftermath of the victory, and when he himself was threatened by Abbassid Caliphs who regarded him as a potential treat, al-Sadiq adopted Taqiyyah as a defensive tool.[21][4] Taqiyya was, therefore, a form of religious dissimulation,[22] or a legal dispensation whereby a believing individual can deny his faith or commit otherwise illegal or blasphemous acts while they are in fear or at risk of significant persecution.[23] in other words Taqiyya says that it is acceptable to hide one's true opinions if by revealing them, one put oneself or others in danger.[11] The doctrine of Taqiyya, which developed by al-Sadiq, accordingly, served to protect Shiites when Al-Mansur, the Abbasid caliph, conducted a brutal and oppressive campaign against Alids and their supporters.[22]

According to Moezzi, in the early sources Taqiyya means "the keeping or safeguarding of the secrets of the Imams' teaching." "Divergence of traditions" is, therefore, sometimes justified by Shiite imams as a result of the need for using taqiyya. "He who is certain that we [the imams] proclaim only the truth (Al-Haqq), may he be satisfied with our teaching," asserts al-Sadiq; "and if he hears us say something contradictory to what he heard earlier, he should know that we are acting only in his own interest."[20] Practicing Taqiyya had also an esoteric significance for those who believed their teachings would not be comprehensible by ordinary Ulama, and so hided the more profound meaning they had seen in the revelation.[12]

Teachings[edit]

The end of the Umayyad dynasty and beginning of the Abbasids was a time when due to the changes in the caliphate, and weakness of central authority al-Sadiq was able to teach freely in a school which trained about four thousands students among which were Abū Ḥanīfa and Malik ibn Anas, founder of two major Sunnit schools of law, the Hanafiyah and the Malikiyah.[24][25][26] Wasil ibn Ata, founder of Mu`tazila school was also among his students. The alchemist Geber is another famous figure who claimed that some of his scientific works were "little more than records of Ja'far's teaching or summaries of hundreds of monographs written by him." [5][7] It is said that the number of traditions left behind by him and his father was more than all Hadiths recorded from the prophet and all other Shiite imams combined.[8] According to Ya'qubi it was customary for anyone who wanted to relate a tradition from him to say "the Learned One informed us". Malik ibn Anas, when quoting anything from al-Sadiq would say "The Thiqa (truthful) Ja'far b. Muhammad himself told me that…" the same is reported from Abu Hanifa.[14][11] Shiite thought starting with Sayyid Haydar Amuli, and leading to Safavid philosophers like Mir Damad, Mulla Sadra and Qazi Sa’id Qumi continuing to the present day is based on Shiite imam's tradition specially al-Sadiq.[7]

Ja'fari school of law[edit]

Shiite jurisprudence became known as Ja'fari jurisprudence after Ja'far al-Sadiq whose legal dicta was the most important source of source of Shiite law which gives weight to both traditions of the imams and reasoning. Like the sunni law, therefore, Ja'fari jurisprudence is based on Quran and Hadith, and also based on the consensus (Ijma), however unlike the sunnis' Shiites give more weight to reasoning ('Aql) while while sunnis only allow for a kind of analogical reasoning (Qiyas).[4][27] [28]

Theology[edit]

As an example of al-Sadiq's teaching in theology, Abu Basir relates that he said to al-Sadiq "Tell me about God, the Mighty and Majestic. Will believers see Him on the Day of Resurrection?" He answered, "Yes, and they have already seen Him before the Day of Resurrection." Abu Basir asked, "When ?" al-Sadiq replied, "When He said to them, Am I not your Lord?' They said: Yea, verily."[e] Then he was quiet for a time. Then said,"Truly the believers see him in this world before the Day of Resurrection. Doest thou not see Him now?" Abu Basir then said to him, "That I might be made thy sacrifice! Shall I relate this (to others) from thee?" He answered, "No, for if thou relatest it, a denier ignorant of the meaning of what thou sayest will deny it. Then he will suppose that it is comparison and unbelief. But seeing with the heart is not like seeing with the eyes. High be God exalted above what the compares and heretics describe!"[7]

Tafsir[edit]

"Ketāb al-jafr", an early mystical commentary of Quran (Tafsir) is attributed to al-Sadiq,[11][4] which according to Ibn Khaldun was originally written on the skin of a young bull allowed the imam to reveal the hidden meaning of the Quran.[29] Al-Sadiq is said to have proposed a fourfold model of Quran interpretation as he said "The Book of God comprises four things: the statement set down ('ibarah), the implied purport (isharah), the hidden meanings, relating to the supra-sensible world (lata'if), and the exalted spiritual doctrines (haqa'iq)." The plain meanings, he says, is for the common peoples. The implied meaning is for the elite. The hidden meanings concerns the Friends of God. The "exalted spiritual doctrines" he says "are the province of the prophets."[15] it is known from him as asserting that Hadith (traditional sayings of the Prophet), if opposed to the Quran, should be rejected.[5]

Al-Sadiq would interpret a verse of Quran by other verses, an example of which could be seen from the following story which is told in his own words, when he went on following a man who stole two loaves of bread and two pomegranates to give them to a sick person:[30]

"Then I (al- Sadiq) asked him (the thief) about his act. He said: 'perhaps, you are Ja'far b. Mohammed?' 'Yes,' I said. He said to me:'What does your noble origin avail you while you are ignorant?' 'Which verse of the Quran am I ignorant at?' I asked. He said these Words of Allah, the Great and Almighty:Whoever brings a good deed, he shall have ten like it, and whoever brings and evil deed he shall be recompensed only with the like of it.[f] 'When I stole the two loaves of bread, they were two evil deeds. And When I stole the two pomegranates, they were two evil deeds, too. So these are four evil deeds. When I gave each one of them as alms, Allah has subtracted 4 evil deeds from 40 good deeds. So, I have 36 good deeds.' I (al- Sâdiq) said: 'May your mother loses you! It is you who are ignorant at the Book of Allah. Have you not heard that Allah said: (Allah) accepts-(deeds) from the pious only.[g] When you stole the two loaves of bread, they were two evil deeds. And when you stole the two pomegranates, they were two evil deeds, too. And when you gave them to other than their owner without the permission of their owner, you have added four evil deeds to the four evil deeds, and you have not added four evil deeds to forty good deeds. So, he began looking at me. Then I left him and went away."[30]

The question of the free will[edit]

On the question of the free will, which was a controversial issue at the time, al-Sadiq asserted a middle way which was neither compulsion (Jabr) nor giving the choice to man (Tafviz), but a position which was between these two, meaning God decreed some things absolutely but left some others to human agency. This assertion was widely adopted afterwards and was called "al-amr bayn al-amrayn" which meant" neither predestination nor delegation but a position between the two."[5][17] It is recorded from him as saying:"God the Most High has decreed some things for us and he has likewise decreed some things through our agency: what he has decreed for us or on our behalf he has concealed from us, but what he has decreed through our agency he has revealed to us. We are not concerned, therefore, so much with what he has decreed for us as we are with what he has decreed through our agency."[h][i][17]

Imami theological and philosophical activity in the matter was so fruitful that Shiite thinkers wrote hundreds of books on the subjects among which were Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid, Al-Hilli, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi and Mulla Sadra works on the subject.[31]

With Abuhanifa[edit]

Al-Sadiq and Abū Ḥanīfa, one in Medina and the other in Kufa were famous for knowing nearly everything, and were in friendly terms.[j][17] However, they were not in agreement on everything. It is said that once Abu Hanifa pronounced that if al-Sadiq did not teach three things he would accept him. The first was that the good is from God and evil is from His slaves, "whereas I say that the slave has no choice, but both good and evil are from God." The second was that in the other world the Satan would suffer the fire, "whereas I say that the fire will not burn him, in so much as the same material will not injure itself."[l] The third was that it is not possible to see God in this world or the other world "whereas I say that anyone who has existence may be seen, if not in this world, then in the next." It is narrated that at this point Buhlul who was a companion of al-Sadiq picked a clod and throw it at Abu Hanifa while rushing out declaring "All three points are refuted." Abu Hanifa took his complaint to the Caliph who called Buhlul to his presence and asked, "Why did you throw the clod of earth at Abu Hanifa?" He replied, "I did not throw it." Abu Hanifa objected, "You did throw it." But Buhlul answered, "You yourself have maintained that evil is from God and that his slave has no choice, so why do you upbraid me? And you have said also that the same material will not injure itself. Accordingly, therefore, as you are from the dust of the earth[m] and also the clod that struck you was from the dust of the earth, tell me how it could injure you? You have claimed also that you can see God, affirming that anything that has existence may be seen. Show me, I pray thee, this pain that has existence in your head?"[17]

Nevertheless, Abu Hanifa was very respected by those who sympathized with the cause of Shiite, for he suffered the last years of his life in prison of Al-Mansur on account of his remark against the tyranny of Abbasid Caliphs.[n][17]

Works[edit]

It is said that manuscripts of half a dozen religious works bear al-Sadiq's name as author, though none of them can be firmly described as written by al-Ṣadiq. It is probable, however, that al-Sadiq was an author who left the writing to his students. The alchemist, Geber, for example, suggested that some of his works are "little more than records of Jaʿfar's teaching or summaries of hundreds of monographs written by him."[5][32][29] Ja'far Al-Sadiq is also cited in a wide range of historical sources, including al-Tabari, al-Yaqubi and Al-Masudi. Al-Dhahabi recognizes his contribution to Sunni tradition and Isma'ili scholars such as Qadi al-Nu'man.[33] recorded his traditions in their work.[34]

Ketāb al-jafr is a commentary on Quran which According to Ibn Khaldun was first written on the skin of a young bull, which allowed al-Sadiq to reveal the hidden meaning of the Quran.[29] various versions of his will, and a number of collections of legal dicta are attributed to him as well. Also there are many reports attributed to him in the early Shiite Hadith collections such as Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni's Kitab al-Kafi which feature as central sources of Imami doctrine.[4] "Al-haft wa'l-aẓella" and "Ketāb al-ṣerāṭ" which are containing "secret revelations" to Mofażżal are also attributed to al-Sadiq and had an important role in the elaboration of the esoteric doctrine of the Nosayris who regards al-Ṣadiq as one of their main figures.[4]

Selected sayings[edit]

  • "The most perfect of men in intellect is the best of them in ethics."[30]
  • "Whoever attacks a matter without knowledge cuts off his own nose."[30]
  • "To forbid generosity is mistrust in Allah."[30]
  • "Three (things) with which Allah does not increase the Muslim person but glory: To forgive him who wrongs him; to give him who deprives him, to visit him who abandons him."[30]
  • "(Religious) scholars are the trustees of prophets unless they come to the doors of supreme rulers."[30]
  • "The richest riche is he who is not captive for greed."[30]
  • "Nothing is better than silence, no enemy is more harmful than ignorance, and no illness is more dangerous than telling lies."[30]
  • "Verily, envy eats belief as fire eats wood."[30]
  • "Three (things) cause affection: Religion, modesty, and generosity … three (things) cause hatred: hypocrisy, self-admiration, and oppression."[30]
  • "Charity is the Zakat (alms) of blessings, intercession is the Zakat of dignity, illnesses are the Zakat of bodies, forgiveness is the Zakat of victory, and the thing whose Zakat is paid is safe from taking (by Allah)."[30]
  • "If the ill- natured (person) knows that he tortures himself, he will be tolerant in his manners."[30]
  • "He who answers all that he is asked, surely is mad."[30]
  • "Whomsoever God removes from the degradation of sin to the exaltation of piety, he it is whom God makes rich without property and noble without the help of family." [17]
  • "Whoever fears God, God makes all things fear him; and whoever does not fear God, God makes him fear all things."[17]

Family life[edit]

Ja'far married Fatima Al-Hasan, a descendant of Hasan ibn Ali, with whom he had sons, Isma'il ibn Jafar (the Ismaili sixth Imām) and Abdullah al-Aftah. Following his wife's death, Al-Sadiq purchased a Berbery or Andalusian slave named Hamidah Khātūn (Arabic: حميدة خاتون‎), freed her, trained her as an Islamic scholar, and then married her. She bore Musa al-Kadhim (the seventh Twelver imam) and Muhammad al-Dibaj and was revered by the Shiites, especially by women, for her wisdom. She was known as Hamidah the Pure. Ja'far al-Sadiq used to send women to learn the tenets of Islam from her, and used to remark about her, "Hamidah is pure from every impurity like the ingot of pure gold."[35]

Death[edit]

The historical tomb of Al-Baqi' has been destroyed in 1926. Ja'far al-Sadiq was one of four shia imams buried here.

Al-sadiq was arrested several times by Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs Hisham, Saffah, and Mansur Until, according to some sources[o] he was poisoned through the intrigue of Mansur in 148/765 at the age of 64 or 65, and left behind him uncertainty about the future of the Imamate.[8][4] He was buried in Medina, in the famous Jannatul Baqee cemetery, and his tomb was an object of pilgrimage until destroyed when the Wahhabis conquered Medina in 1818 and again in 1925, they razed the graves and tombs, except the one of the Prophet.[36] It is said that upon hearing the news of al-Sadiq's death, Mansur further wanted to put an end to the whole question of Imamate so he wrote to the governor of Medina commanding him to go to the house of the deceased imam on the pretext of expressing condolences to the family, and to ask for the imam's testament and read it. Whoever was chosen by the imam as his successor should be beheaded. Reading the testament, however, the governor of Medina saw that the imam had chosen four people rather than one: the caliph himself, the governor of Medina, the imam's older son Abdullah al-Aftah, and Musa, his younger son. Accordingly the plot of al-Mansur failed.[8]

Succession[edit]

Up to the era of al-Sadiq the two major Shiite sects, twlevers and Ismailis (followers of Ismāʿīl) adopted the same Imamic line, however the separation started with the death of the eldest son of al-Sadiq, Ismail, who Ismailis believe was designated by al-Sadiq as the next imam. The problem however was that Ismail died during the lifetime of al-Sadiq who summoned witnesses to his death including the governor of Medina. Some Ismailis, however, believe that Ismail did not die but went into occultation and that would appear later on as the promised Mahdi. They interpret al-Sadiq's summoning for Ismail's death as a way of hiding him from Abbasid caliphs who wanted to kill him. Another Ismaili group believed that Ismail really died but as he had been designated as the next imam, his death meant that Imamate was transferred to his son Muhammad and his descendants. The first group soon became extinct, the second group, however, resisted to exist to present time as the second major Shiite group after the twelver Shiites who believe Musa al-Kadhim, the younger brother of Ismail was designated by al-Sadiq as the seventh imam. The designation of each imam by previous imam and divine order was an accepted doctrine among twelvers who believed this process continued till the twelfth imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi, who went into occultation after his father's death.[5][12][4][11][37]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Among the sects which separated from the majority of Shiites only Zaidiyyah and Ismaili continue to exist till now.[8]
  2. ^ Sunni sources, however, claim that doctrines such as the Imamate were formulated many years after al-Sadiq and wrongly ascribed to him.[18]
  3. ^ Quran, 21:69
  4. ^ The Shiites consider this event as a miraculous escape from the fire by their Imam, who is said "boldly stamped on the flames, exclaiming "I am of the sons of Isma'il. I am a son of Ibrahim, the Friend of God,"whom the Quran represents as having escaped the fire in safety.[c][17]
  5. ^ Quran, 7:172
  6. ^ Quran, 6:160
  7. ^ Quran, 5:27
  8. ^ The following question and al-Sadiq reply relates the same notion: "May I be made your ransom! Has Allah coerced his bondsmen to sin?" asked the man. "Allah is more just than to make them commit misdeeds then chastise them for what they have done." Replied al-Sadiq. The man further asked, "Has he empowered them with their actions?" al-Sadiq said, "If He had delegated it to them, He would have not confined them to enjoining good and forbidding evil." The man further asked, "Is there a station or a position between the two?" The Imam said, "Yes, wider than [the space] between the heaven and the earth."[31]
  9. ^ He used to say in his prayer, "0 God, thine is the praise that I give thee, and to thee is the excuse if I sin against thee. There is no work of merit on my own behalf or on behalf of another, and in evil there is no excuse for me or for another." [17]
  10. ^ Ibn Khallikan relates a joke which al-Sadiq made on his rival when he asked him, "What would you say is the proper fine for one who breaks the front molars of a deer?" Abu Hanifa answered, "O son of the Apostle of God, I do not know about that." To this al-Sadiq respond, "Can you then pretend to learning when you do not know that a deer has no front molars, but only the incisors (thanaya)?"[17]
  11. ^ Quran, 38:76
  12. ^ that Satan is created from fire is a Quranic verse which says [Iblis (Satan)] said: "I am better than he, You created me from fire, and You created him from clay."[k]
  13. ^ This belief is based on the verse Quran, 38:76
  14. ^ He had said "if the Caliphs would made a masjid (Moslem house of prayer) and command him to the simple task of counting the bricks he would not do it, for they are dissolute (Fasiq), and the dissolute are not worthy of the authority of leadership."[17]
  15. ^ al-Fusul al-muhimmah, p.212; Dala’il al-imamah, p.lll: Ithbat al-wasiyah, p.142.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Shabbar, S.M.R. (1997). Story of the Holy Ka’aba. Muhammadi Trust of Great Britain. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c A Brief History of The Fourteen Infallibles. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. 2004. p. 123. ISBN 964-438-127-0. 
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