According to historians, the beginnings of Jablunkov are to be found in the place where the present-day village of Hrádek is located. It was first mentioned in a written document in 1435. This settlement was primordially named Jablonka and as such it was mentioned as a seat of a Catholic parish in the register of Peter's Pence payment from 1447 among 50 parishes of Teschen deaconry. In the same year Magyars completely destroyed the settlement. In 1560 Wacław III, Duke of Cieszyn, granted town rights to the town. It continuously developed and by the end of the 16th century it had a mayor and a city council. The town profited from its location in the Jablunkov Pass. It was located on an ancient trade route going from the Mediterranean Sea to the Baltic Sea. The route was used by merchants of ancient Rome; frequent discoveries of Roman coins confirm that. Important trading routes to Kraków (north) and to Upper Hungary (east) also run through the town. It became more and more important and also rich, as many citizens lived by trading. In the middle of the 17th century, it had, together with a suburb and a village of Pioseczna, 750 inhabitants. In the 18th century most of citizens worked in trade, craftsmanship and farming. At the end of the 19th century, many new buildings were built. A new Art Nouveau town hall was built in 1905. After the division of Cieszyn Silesia in 1920 it became a part of Czechoslovakia. In October 1938 it was annexed by Poland together with whole region known as Zaolzie, and during World War II was a part of Nazi Germany. After the war it once again became part of Czechoslovakia.
The most important landmarks are the historic town square with a fountain and statue of the Virgin Mary from 1655, the Roman Catholic church built in 1620, and the Elizabethan Monastery. The latter was established by the priest Wawrzyniec Piontek, who wanted to improve medical treatment in the town: the nearest hospital was located in Ostrava. The Elizabethan hospital was built in 1856. It was located near the Olza River and was frequently flooded. A decision was taken to build a new one, which began operating in 1932. In 1948 the monastery and its properties were seized by the Communists, who forbade the further induction of new sisters. Former Elizabethan sisters were ordered to work in a state farm (JZD) with cattle. In 1989, after the fall of communism, it was returned to the Elizabethan sisters. The monastery in Jablunkov is one of only three Elizabethan monasteries in the Czech Republic, the other two being in Prague and Brno. There is also a sanatorium in Jablunkov. It was built in 1933-1935 and is a valuable landmark of modern architecture. It is surrounded by a park planted in 1936-1938. There are more than 500 species of trees and shrubs in the park. Several sculptures are also located in the park.
Cicha, Irena; Kazimierz Jaworski, Bronisław Ondraszek, Barbara Stalmach and Jan Stalmach (2000). Olza od pramene po ujście. Český Těšín: Region Silesia. ISBN80-238-6081-X.Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
Szpyrc, Antoni. "Perła w koronie". Zwrot7 (2007): 8–9.
* More than 10% of total population; 2001 census data. **Karviná fell under 10% in the 2001 census.
Villages with significant Polish population under the administration of another municipality are not listed.