Jack D. Forbes
Jack D. Forbes (January 7, 1934, Long Beach, CA – February 23, 2011, Davis, CA) was a Native American writer, scholar and political activist. He is best known for his role in establishing one of the first Native American Studies programs (at University of California Davis). In addition, he founded D-Q University, the first Native American college located outside a reservation.
Life and career
Jack D. Forbes was born in 1934 in Long Beach, California, to parents of Powhatan-Renapé and Lenape descent from New Jersey. These were both historically Algonquian-speaking peoples of the Atlantic coastal areas. Forbes was raised in neighboring El Monte and Eagle Rock, where he began his writing career at the high school newspaper. He received his Bachelor's degree in Philosophy from University of Southern California in 1953, going on to a Masters in 1955 and a Ph.D. in History and Anthropology (1959).
In the early 1960s, Forbes became active as an organizer in the Native American movement, which asserted the rights to sovereignty and resisting assimilation into the majority culture. Native Americans on the West Coast were active, gaining national attention with such demonstrations as the occupation of Alcatraz Island. They pushed for better education, and departments of Native American studies to be established at major universities, as well as civil rights. In this same era, various tribes filed land claim suits against the federal government or states over long-contested issues.
Forbes first taught at San Fernando Valley State College and the University of Nevada, Reno. He joined the University of California, Davis in 1969, where he helped found a program in Native American studies, one of the first at a major university. Later he developed this subject as a full department and served as its chairman. With an emphasis on interdisciplinary studies, he explored the confluence of African American and Native American histories, as well as multicultural people of Indian and European ancestry. He extended his work into African American and Latin American history. After gaining professor emeritus status in 1994, Forbes continued to teach at the university until 2009.
In 1971 Forbes was among the founders of the Deganawidah-Quetzalcoatl University (commonly referred to as D-Q University), a two-year college located near Davis, California. It was the first tribal college in California and closed for classes in 2005. Forbes taught there for 25 years and served on the board. In 2015 it is continuing to work to re-open.
He was a visiting Fulbright Professor at the University of Warwick in England, where he also spent time at Oxford and the University of Essex. Additionally, he held the Tinbergen Chair at the Erasmus University of Rotterdam.
In the early 1990s, Forbes was involved with David Risling and others in the making of A Free People, Free To Choose, a film by Jan Crull, Jr.. It was conceived as a feature-length documentary based on D-Q University's history and an alleged campaign by the federal government to suppress it. Crull was forced to abandon the project when Morrison & Foerster, a law firm closely linked to D-Q U's legal battles, withdrew from the project after the film's subjects filed lawsuits against each other. The hundred-plus hours of footage assembled includes a lengthy interview with Forbes.
Near his retirement, he published Africans and Native Americans: The Language of Race and the Evolution of Red- Black Peoples (1993), considered by many to be "his signature work", the product of two decades of study. He studied the fluidity of race in the United States as people came together in colonial times and after the Revolution, remarking on the fact that Native Americans who were part black often lost their culture and were classified arbitrarily as black, while identifying as Indian.
Marriage and family
He married and had two children, Kenneth Forbes and Nancy (Forbes) O’Hearn. After he and his wife divorced, he later married again. His second wife Carolyn Forbes, children and grandson survived him.
Awards and honors
- Before Columbus Foundation: American Book Award for Lifetime Achievement (1997)
- Wordcraft Circle: Writer of the Year (Prose - Non-Fiction) award (1999)
- 2009 Lifetime Achievement Award, Native Writers' Circle of the Americas
- Columbus and Other Cannibals, Seven Stories Press (2008) ISBN 1-58322-781-4
- The American Discovery of Europe, University of Illinois Press (2007) ISBN 0-252-03152-0
- Apache, Navaho and Spaniard, University of Oklahoma Press (1994) ISBN 0-8061-2686-8
- Africans and Native Americans: : The Language of Race and the Evolution of Red- Black Peoples, University of Illinois Press (1993) ISBN 0-252-06321-X
- Red Blood (Novel), Theytus Press (1997) ISBN 0-919441-65-3
- Only Approved Indians: Stories, University of Oklahoma Press (1995) ISBN 0-8061-2699-X
- Cunnane, Sarah (17 March 2011). "Jack Forbes, 1934-2011". The Times. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- Seven Stories Press
- Arica L. Coleman, Ph.D., "The Red and the Black: Remembering the Legacy of Jack D. Forbes", Indian Country Today, 23 February 2014, accessed 12 May 2015
- Bailey, Pat (February 25, 2011). "UC Davis scholar Jack Forbes advocated for indigenous peoples". Davis News. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- Biographical sketch], Jack Forbes' blog
- W.G.A.W. Reg. No. 513853
- Obituary on the Indian Country Media Today Network
- Did Native Americans Discover Europe First?, a brief interview with Forbes on YouTube.
- Forbes' comments on his Columbus and Other Cannibals at the Wayback Machine (archived July 20, 2011)
- Jack Forbes Collection at Special Collections Dept., University Library, University of California, Davis
- "Jack D. Forbes (Powhatan-Renape, Delaware-Lenape), 1934-2011", University of California, Davis