Kadango Village, Mangochi District, Malawi
|Known for||poetry, 1987-1991 imprisonment|
|Awards||Rotterdam Poetry International Award (1988)
PEN/Barbara Goldsmith Freedom to Write Award (1990)
Jack Mapanje (born 1944) is a Malawian writer and poet. He was the head of English at the University of Malawi before being imprisoned in 1987 for his collection Of Chameleons and Gods, which indirectly criticized the administration of President Hastings Banda. He was released in 1991 and emigrated to the UK, where he worked as a teacher.
The child of Nyanja and Yao parents, Mapanje was born in Kadango Village, Mangochi District, Malawi. He received his BA in education from the University of London and worked for a time as a lecturer in Malawi before returning to the UK to study linguistics at University College, London in the early 1980s.
During the rule of President Hastings Banda, Mapanje was jailed without charge in 1987, apparently for publishing his poem collection Of Chameleons and Gods. The collection obliquely criticized Banda's government, and the 'chameleon' of the title refers to the disguise of personal voice Mapanje deemed necessary in order to mount a criticism of the politics at the time. The book received no official ban, but was "withdrawn from circulation". Amnesty International declared him a prisoner of conscience and campaigned for his release. Its protests included a reading of selections from Of Chameleons and Gods outside the Malawian High Commission in London by UK Nobel laureate Harold Pinter. Mapanje was also awarded the 1990 PEN/Barbara Goldsmith Freedom to Write Award during his imprisonment, which carried a US$3,000 cash award. PEN's president, US novelist Larry McMurtry, stated that "the point [of the award] is to generate enough heat so Mapanje gets out of jail". Nigerian Nobel laureate Wole Soyinka and UK playwright Ronald Harwood also campaigned for his release.
Mapanje was held for three-and-a-half years before being released in 1991. After his release, he was told he needed to reapply for his previous professorship at the University of Malawi. After a lengthy delay in his application, he instead emigrated to the UK. He later wrote a memoir about the experience, And Crocodiles Are Hungry At Night, which was also adapted into a play.
He is credited for applying the term, "Chameleon Politics" to describe a political environment where politician switch and forge alliances without transparency or notice in his extended metaphor which compares political shifting to chameleons that change color and rapidly changing political environments where party switching, floor crossing, and coalition formations are rampart.  The notion is described in stems in his 1981 book, "Of Chameleons and Gods". 
- Of Chameleons and Gods, 1981
- The Chattering Wagtails of Mikuyu Prison, 1993
- The Last of the Sweet Bananas: New and Selected Poems, 2004
- The Beasts of Nalunga, 2007
- 1988 Rotterdam Poetry International Award
- 1990 PEN/Barbara Goldsmith Freedom to Write Award
- 2002 African Literature Association (USA) Fonlon-Nichols Award
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Jack Mapanje|
- "2002: Jack Mapanje". Fonlon-Nicholas Award. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
- Susan Heller Anderson (30 March 1990). "Chronicle". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
- Adrian Turpin (7 November 1995). "'I had never come to a Western country before. It is good for my writing'". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
- "Poetic injustice". The Economist. 9 October 1997. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
- Mapanje, Jack (1981). Of Chameleons and Gods. Johannesburg: Heinemann. p. vii. ISBN 0-435-91194-5.
- "And Crocodiles Are Hungry At Night - a memoir by Jack Mapanje". Amnesty International. 2011. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
- Vail, Leroy; Landeg White (1991). Power and the Praise Poem: Southern African Voices in History. University of Virginia Press. pp. 278–285.
- Mark Cook, Lyn Gardner & Judith Mackrell (27 July 2012). "This week's new theatre & dance". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
- Christopher J. Lee - A Democracy of Chameleons: Politics and Culture in the New Malawi (review) - African Studies Review 48:1
- H-Net Reviews
- Englund Harry, 1995 - A Democracy of Chameleons: Politics and Culture in the New Malawi