Temporal range: Eocene to Present
|Japanese horse mackerel, Trachurus japonicus|
Jack mackerels are marine fishes in the Trachurus genus of the Carangidae family. The name of the genus is derived from the Greek words trachys, meaning "rough", and oura, meaning "tail". Some species, such as T. murphyi, are harvested in purse seine nets, and in some cases overfishing occurs (i.e. harvesting beyond sustainable levels).
It is often used in Japanese cuisine, where it is called aji.
The genus Trachurus was defined in 1810 by Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz, who called the type species Trachurus saurus. Taxonomists later determined that T. saurus was in fact the same species as one described earlier as Scomber trachurus, defined in 1758 by Carolus Linnaeus. Under the rules of binomial nomenclature, that species is now known as Trachurus trachurus, commonly known as the Atlantic horse mackerel.
The currently recognized species in this genus are:
- Trachurus aleevi Rytov & Razumovsya, 1984
- Trachurus capensis Castelnau, 1861 (Cape horse mackerel)
- Trachurus declivis (Jenyns, 1841) (greenback horse mackerel)
- Trachurus delagoa Nekrasov, 1970 (African scad)
- Trachurus indicus Nekrasov, 1966 (Arabian scad)
- Trachurus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1844) (Japanese jack mackerel)
- Trachurus lathami Nichols, 1920 (rough scad)
- Trachurus longimanus (Norman, 1935) (Crozet scad)
- Trachurus mediterraneus (Steindachner, 1868) (Mediterranean horse mackerel)
- Trachurus murphyi Nichols, 1920 (Chilean jack mackerel)
- Trachurus novaezelandiae J. Richardson, 1843 (yellowtail horse mackerel)
- Trachurus picturatus (S. Bowdich, 1825) (blue jack mackerel)
- Trachurus symmetricus (Ayres, 1855) (Pacific jack mackerel)
- Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Atlantic horse mackerel)
- Trachurus trecae Cadenat, 1950 (Cunene horse mackerel)
- Fitch JE (1956) "Jack mackerel" CalCOFI Reports, 5: 27–28.
- Sepkoski, Jack (2002). "A compendium of fossil marine animal genera". Bulletins of American Paleontology 364: p.560. Retrieved 2008-01-08.
- "Trachurus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
- "Trachurus saurus Rafinesque 1810". Universal FishWise Catalog. fishwise.co.za. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
- C.Michael Hogan. 2010. Overfishing. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment. eds. Sidney Draggan and C.Cleveland. Washington DC.
- Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2013). Species of Trachurus in FishBase. February 2013 version.