Jackalope

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This article is about the mythical animal. For other uses, see Jackalope (disambiguation).
Jackalope
Jackalope 101.jpg
Jackalope in a restaurant near Death Valley
Grouping Mythological hybrids
Similar creatures Wolpertinger

The jackalope is a mythical animal of North American folklore (a so-called "fearsome critter") described as a jackrabbit with antelope horns or deer antlers and sometimes a pheasant's tail. The word "jackalope" is a portmanteau of "jackrabbit" and "antelope".

The story of the jackalope was popularized in Wyoming in the 1930s after a local hunter used taxidermy skills to graft deer antlers onto a jackrabbit carcass, selling the creature to a local hotel. It is possible that the tales of jackalopes were inspired by sightings of rabbits infected with the Shope papilloma virus, which causes the growth of horn- and antler-like tumors in various places on the rabbit's head and body.[1][2] The concept of an animal hybrid, such as the griffin or the chimera, occurs in many cultures. Horned hares were described in medieval and early Renaissance texts.

Myth

Plate XLVII of Animalia Qvadrvpedia et Reptilia (Terra) by Joris Hoefnagel, circa 1575, showing a "horned hare"

The jackalope is subject to many outlandish and largely tongue-in-cheek claims as to its habits. Given the pseudo-taxonomic descriptor Lepus temperamentalus,[3] it is said to be a hybrid of the pygmy-deer and a species of "killer rabbit". Reportedly, jackalopes are extremely shy unless approached, and, if approached, they are dangerous. Legend also has it that female jackalopes can be milked—as they sleep belly up—and that the milk can be used for a variety of medicinal purposes.[4] One of the few ways a jackalope can be caught is by leaving out a bottle of whiskey, as it is the jackalope's sustenance of choice.[5] It has also been said that the jackalope can convincingly imitate any sound, including the human voice. It uses this ability to elude pursuers, chiefly by using phrases such as "There he goes! That way!" During days of the Old West, when cowboys gathered by the campfires singing at night, jackalopes could often be heard mimicking their voices.[6] It has also been said that jackalopes will only breed during winter electrical storms, explaining their rarity.

The New York Times attributes the story's origin to a 1932 hunting outing involving Douglas Herrick (1920–2003) of Douglas, Wyoming.[7] Herrick and his brother had studied taxidermy by mail order as teenagers, and when the brothers returned from a hunting trip for jackrabbits, Herrick tossed a carcass into the taxidermy store, where it came to rest beside a pair of deer antlers. The accidental combination of animal forms sparked Herrick's idea for a jackalope.[8] The first jackalope the brothers put together was sold for $10 to Roy Ball, who displayed it in Douglas' La Bonte Hotel. The mounted head was stolen in 1977.[9] The jackalope became a popular local story, and Douglas Chamber of Commerce has issued thousands of Jackalope Hunting Licenses to tourists. The tags are good for hunting only during official jackalope season, which occurs for only one day: June 31 (a nonexistent date as June has 30 days), from midnight to 2 a.m. The hunter may not have an IQ greater than 72.[7] In Herrick's home town of Douglas, there is an 8-foot (2.4 m) statue of a jackalope,[8] and the town hosts an annual Jackalope Days Celebration in early June.[10]

Rabbit with Shope papilloma virus infection

Mythological references to a horned rabbit creature can be found in Huichol legends. The Huichol oral tradition has passed down tales of the sharing of horns between the deer and the horned rabbit.[citation needed] This folklore may originate in sightings of rabbits affected by the papilloma viral infection, which was reported in the Western United States and Mexico from the 1880s through the 1930s.[11] The rabbit and deer have also been paired up as far back as the Mesoamerican period of the Aztecs[12] as twins, brothers, even the sun and moon.[13]

Stories about similar hybrid rabbits exist in alpine and Scandinavian regions of Europe. Such creatures include the Wolpertinger (Bayern, Germany), the Blutschink (Tirol, Austria), the Dahu (Switzerland, France), the Dilldapp (some specific regions), the Elwetritsch (Pfalz, Germany), the Hanghuhn (Thüringen, Germany), the Raurakl (Schwarzau im Gebirge, Austria), the Rasselbock (Thüringen and Sachsen, Germany) and the Skvader (Medelpad in northern Sweden).

Official recognition

In 2005, the state legislature of Wyoming considered a bill to make the jackalope the state's official mythological creature.[14] It passed the house by a 45–12 margin, but the session ended before the senate could take up the bill, and so it died. In 2013, following the death of the bill's sponsor, Dave Edwards, the state legislature reintroduced the bill.[15] It again passed the House but died in the rules committee of the senate.[16]

In popular culture

Jackalope statue in Douglas, Wyoming
Jackalope statue outside of Wall Drug in South Dakota

Since Herrick and his brother began selling manipulated taxidermy heads in the 1930s, such trophies—as well as jackalope postcards and related gift-shop items—can be found in many places beyond Douglas.[17] The student magazine of the Santa Fe University of Art and Design in New Mexico is called The Jackalope.[18] On the other side of the world, The Hop Factory craft beer cafe in Newcastle, Australia, uses a leaping jackalope as its logo.[19] In 1986, James Abdnor, a senator from South Dakota, gave U.S. President Ronald Reagan a stuffed jackalope (rabbit head with antlers) during a presidential campaign stop in Rapid City.[20]

Many books, including a large number written for children, feature the jackalope. A search for "jackalope" in the WorldCat listings of early 2015 produced 225 hits, including 57 for books.[21] Among them is Juan and the Jackalope: A Children's Book in Verse by Rudolfo Anaya. The WorldCat summary of Anaya's book says: "Competing for the hand of the lovely Rosita and her rhubarb pie, Juan rides a Jackalope in a race against Pecos Bill."[22]

Musicians have used the jackalope in various ways. R. Carlos Nakai, a Native American flute player, formerly belonged to a group called Jackalope. In the late 1980s, it performed what Nakai called "synthacousticpunkarachiNavajazz", which combined "improvisation, visual art, storytelling, dance and dramatic theatrical effects."[23] Nakai said he wanted people to dream as they listened to the music.[23] Jakalope is a Canadian alternative pop/rock group formed in 2003 by industrial musician and producer Dave "Rave" Ogilvie.[24] The band Miike Snow uses the jackalope as its logo. Band member Andrew Wyatt said during an interview in 2012 that the logo was meant to signify experiment and adventure.[25] Of the 225 Worldcat hits resulting from a search for "jackalope", 95 were related to music.[21]

Jackalopes have appeared in movies and on television. A jackalope named "Jack Ching Bada Bing" was a recurring character in a series of sketches on the television show America's Funniest People. The show's host, Dave Coulier, voiced the rascally hybrid.[26] In 2003,[27] Pixar featured a jackalope in the short animation Boundin'. The jackalope gave helpful advice to a lamb who was feeling sad after being shorn.[28] In the animated television series Gravity Falls, jackalopes occasionally appear in the opening sequence and photos.

Jackalopes have appeared in video games. In Red Dead Redemption, the player is able to hunt and skin jackalopes.[29] In Redneck Rampage, jackalopes, including one the size of a bus, are enemies.[30] Jackalopes are part of the action in Guild Wars 2.[31]

Beginning in 1997, the Central Hockey League included a team called the Odessa Jackalopes.[32] The team joined the South Division of the North American Hockey League before the 2011–12 season.[32][33]

Scholarly interpretations

Folklorist John A. Gutowski sees in the Douglas jackalope an example of an American tall tale publicized by a local community that seeks wider recognition. Through a combination of hoax and media activity, the town or other community draws attention to itself for social or economic reasons. A common adjunct to this activity involves the creation of an annual festival to perpetuate the town's association with the local legend.[34]

Gutowski finds evidence of what he calls the "protofestival" pattern throughout the United States. In addition to the jackalope, his examples include the sea serpent of Nantucket, which in 1937 led to "stories of armadas hunting the monster, and footprint discoveries by local businessmen", accompanied by wide publicity. In similar fashion, Newport, Arkansas, publicized its White River Monster, and Algiers, Louisiana, claimed to be home to a flying Devil Man. Ware, Massachusetts, drew media attention to its local reputation for alligator sightings. Perry, New York, held Silver Lake Sea Serpent Festivals based on a local hoax. The Hodag Festival in Rhinelander, Wisconsin, celebrates "discovery" of a prehistoric creature in a nearby pit. Willow Creek, California, hosts an annual Bigfoot Festival. Since 1950, Churubusco, Indiana, has celebrated Turtle Days, based on a story, part real and part invented, about the hunt for the Beast of Busco, a 500-pound (230 kg) snapping turtle said to be living in a nearby lake.[34]

Common to these myths, Gutowski says, is the recurring motif of the quest for the mythical animal, often a monster. The same motif, he notes, appears in American novels such as Moby Dick and Old Man and the Sea and in monster movies such as King Kong and Jaws and in world literature such as Beowulf. The monster motif also appears in tales of contemporary places outside the United States, such as Scotland, with its Loch Ness Monster. What is not global, Gutkowski says, is the embrace of local monster tales by American communities that put them to use through "public relations hoaxes, boisterous boosterism, and [a] carnival atmosphere... ".[34]

See also

References

  1. ^ Holliday, Chuck. "Real "jackalopes": rabbits infected with the Shopes papillomavirus". Lafayette College. Retrieved 2014-06-16. 
  2. ^ Eberhart, George M. "Mysterious Creatures: Creating A Cryptozoological Encyclopedia." 2005. Journal of Scientific Exploration. Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 103-113
  3. ^ "The Jackalope Conspiracy". Sudftw.com. Retrieved 2011-11-17. 
  4. ^ "Jackalope, The Legend « Kristal Lee". Kristalleeromances.com. 2011-04-11. Retrieved 2011-11-17. 
  5. ^ "Ghost Knight" Karen Coats From: Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books Volume 65, Number 10, June 2012 pp. 509-510
  6. ^ "The Jackalopes of Wyoming - Myth or Reality?". Legendsofamerica.com. 2006-11-16. Retrieved 2011-11-17. 
  7. ^ a b Martin, Douglas (2003-01-19). "Douglas Herrick, 82, Dies". The New York Times. p. 23. Retrieved 2011-11-17. 
  8. ^ a b "The Origin of the Jackalope". Douglas [Wyoming] Chamber of Commerce. 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-05-13. Retrieved 2014-06-16. 
  9. ^ Oliver, Myrna (2008-11-06). "Douglas Herrick, 82; on a Whim He Created 'Jackalope'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2011-11-17. 
  10. ^ "Jackalope Days". City of Douglas. Retrieved 2015-01-26. 
  11. ^ Barbour, Erwin H. 1901 "A Peculiar Disease of Birds' Feet Observed in Central Nebraska." Proceedings of the Nebraska Ornithological Union 2:61–63
  12. ^ Codex Borgia 1976:33
  13. ^ Furst, J.L. "Horned Rabbit: Natural History and Myth in West Mexico." Journal of Latin American Lore 15:1 (1989), 137–149
  14. ^ "H.B. No. 0004: Jackalope – Official Mythical Creature". State of Wyoming Legislature. 2005. Retrieved 2014-07-12. 
  15. ^ Hancock, Laura (2013-01-12). "Wyoming Lawmakers Consider Declaring Jackalope State's Official Mythical Creature". Casper Star-Tribune (Casper, Wyoming). Retrieved 2014-03-14. 
  16. ^ "House Bill 149". Casper Star-Tribune. 2013-02-26. Retrieved 2014-03-14. 
  17. ^ "Legend of the Jackalope". City of Douglas (photocopied from The New York Times). Retrieved 2015-01-26. 
  18. ^ "About". Jackalope Magazine. 2015. Retrieved 2015-01-24. 
  19. ^ Weber, Max (2013-08-20). "New Craft Beer Digs in Newcastle". Beer & Brewer. Retrieved 2014-03-14. 
  20. ^ "President Takes Campaign Westward". The Dispatch (Lexington, North Carolina). 1986-10-30. p. 24. Retrieved 2015-01-26. 
  21. ^ a b "Jackalope". OCLC. 2015. Retrieved 2015-01-26. 
  22. ^ "Juan and the Jackalope: A Children's Book in Verse". OCLC. Retrieved 2015-01-26. 
  23. ^ a b Conlon, Paula (2010). "The Native American Flute: Convergence and Collaboration as Exemplified by R. Carlos Nakai"". The World of Music 52 (1/3): 125. 
  24. ^ "Jakalope". Jakalope.ca. Retrieved 2014-04-14. 
  25. ^ Madison, Lucy. "Putting the I's in Miike Snow". Interview. Retrieved 2012-11-25. 
  26. ^ Ryan, Mike (2010-09-22). "Hollywood Hybrids: The Best Chimeras on the Big (and Small) Screen". Popular Mechanics (Hearst Communication). Retrieved 2015-01-26. 
  27. ^ "Boundin'". IMDb. Retrieved 2015-01-26. 
  28. ^ "Boundin'". Pixar. Retrieved 2014-04-25. 
  29. ^ "Free Hunting and Trading Outfit Packs for Red Dead Redemption Coming October 12th". Rockstar Newswire. 2010-10-05. Retrieved 2015-01-25. 
  30. ^ "Video Game: Redneck Rampage". TV Tropes Foundation. Retrieved 2015-01-25. 
  31. ^ "Guild Wars 2: Impressions". Gamematics. Retrieved 2015-01-26. 
  32. ^ a b "Odessa Jackalopes History". NAHL Odessa Jackalopes. 2015. Retrieved 2015-01-25. 
  33. ^ "Odessa Jackalopes". North American Hockey League. 2015. Retrieved 2015-01-25. 
  34. ^ a b c Gutowski, John A. "The Protofestival: Local Guide to American Folk Behavior" (subscription required). Indiana University Press 15 (2 (May/August 1978): 113–32. Retrieved 2015-01-28. 

External links