Masturbation is the sexual stimulation of one's own genitals for sexual arousal or other sexual pleasure, usually to the point of orgasm. The stimulation may involve hands, fingers, everyday objects, sex toys or combinations of these. Mutual masturbation, mutual manual stimulation of the genitals between partners, can be a substitute for sexual penetration.
Studies have found that masturbation is frequent in humans of both sexes and all ages, although there is variation. Various medical and psychological benefits have been attributed to a healthy attitude toward sexual activity in general and to masturbation in particular. No causal relationship is known between masturbation and any form of mental or physical disorder.
Masturbation has been depicted in art since prehistoric times and is mentioned and discussed in very early writings. In the 18th and 19th centuries, some European theologians and physicians described it as "heinous", "deplorable", and "hideous", but during the 20th century, these taboos generally declined. There has been an increase in discussion and portrayal of masturbation in art, popular music, television, films, and literature. Today, religions vary in their views of masturbation; some view it as a spiritually detrimental practice, some see it as not spiritually detrimental, and others take a situational view. The legal status of masturbation has also varied through history and masturbation in public is illegal in most countries.
In the West, masturbation in private or with a partner is generally considered a normal and healthy part of sexual enjoyment. Animal masturbation has been observed in many species, both in the wild and in captivity.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Terminology
- 3 Techniques
- 4 Mutual masturbation
- 5 Frequency, age, and sex
- 6 Evolutionary utility
- 7 Health and psychological effects
- 8 In history and society
- 9 Cultural views and practices
- 10 In popular culture
- 11 In other animal species
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
The English word masturbation was introduced in the 18th century, based on the Latin verb masturbari, alongside the more technical and slightly earlier onanism. The Latin verb masturbari is of uncertain origin. Suggested derivations include an unattested word for penis, *mazdo, cognate with Greek mézea μέζεα, "genitals", or alternatively a corruption of an unattested *manusturpare ("to defile with the hand"), by association with turbare "to disturb". There is a wide array of more recent slang synonyms, among the most notable being to jerk off (1896) and wank (1920s).
While masturbation is the formal word for this practice, many other expressions are in common use. Terms such as playing with yourself, pleasuring oneself and slang such as wanking, jerking off, and frigging are common. Self-abuse and self-pollution were common in early modern times and are still found in modern dictionaries. A large variety of other euphemisms and dysphemisms exist which describe masturbation. For a list of terms, see the entry for masturbate in Wikisaurus.
Masturbation involves touching, pressing, rubbing or massaging a person's genital area, either with the fingers or against an object such as a pillow; inserting fingers or an object into the vagina or anus (see anal masturbation); and stimulating the penis or vulva with an electric vibrator, which may also be inserted into the vagina or anus. It may also involve touching, rubbing, or pinching the nipples or other erogenous zones while masturbating. Both sexes sometimes apply lubricating substances to intensify sensation.
Some people get sexual pleasure by inserting objects, such as urethral sounds, into the urethra (the tube through which urine and, in men, semen, flows), a practice known as urethral play or "sounding". Other objects such as ball point pens and thermometers are sometimes used, although this practice can lead to injury and/or infection. Some people masturbate by using machines that simulate intercourse.
Men and women may masturbate until they are close to orgasm, stop for a while to reduce excitement, and then resume masturbating. They may repeat this cycle multiple times. This "stop and go" build-up, known as "edging," can achieve even stronger orgasms. Rarely, people quit stimulation just before orgasm to retain the heightened energy that normally comes down after orgasm.
Female masturbation involves the stroking or rubbing of a woman's vulva, especially her clitoris, with an index or middle fingers, or both. Sometimes one or more fingers may be inserted into the vagina to stroke its frontal wall where the G-spot may be located. Masturbation aids such as a vibrator, dildo or Ben Wa balls can also be used to stimulate the vagina and clitoris. Many women caress their breasts or stimulate a nipple with the free hand and anal stimulation is also enjoyed by some. Lubrication is sometimes used during masturbation, especially when penetration is involved, but this is not universal and many women find their natural lubrication sufficient.
Common positions include lying on back or face down, sitting, squatting, kneeling or standing. In a bath or shower a female may direct tap water at her clitoris and vulva. Lying face down one may use the hands, one may straddle a pillow, the corner or edge of the bed, a partner's leg or some scrunched-up clothing and "hump" the vulva and clitoris against it. Standing up, a chair, the corner of an item of furniture, or even a washing machine can be used to stimulate the clitoris through the labia and clothing. Some masturbate only using pressure applied to the clitoris without direct contact, for example by pressing the palm or ball of the hand against underwear or other clothing. In the 1920s, Havelock Ellis reported that turn-of-the-century seamstresses using treadle-operated sewing machines could achieve orgasm by sitting near the edge of their chairs.
Women can sexually stimulate themselves by crossing their legs tightly and clenching the muscles in their legs, creating pressure on the genitals. This can potentially be done in public without observers noticing. Thoughts, fantasies, and memories of previous instances of arousal and orgasm can produce sexual excitation. Some women can orgasm spontaneously by force of will alone, although this may not strictly qualify as masturbation as no physical stimulus is involved.
Male masturbation may differ between males who have been circumcised and those who are intact. Some techniques which may work for one individual can be difficult or uncomfortable for another.
The most common male masturbation technique is simply to hold the penis with a loose fist and then to move the hand up and down the shaft. This type of stimulation is typically all that is required to achieve orgasm and ejaculation. The speed of the hand motion will vary from person to person, although it is not uncommon for the speed to increase as ejaculation nears and for it to decrease during the ejaculation itself.
For intact males, stimulation of the penis in this way comes from the "pumping" of the foreskin, in which the foreskin is held and slid up and down over the glans, which depending on foreskin length, is completely or partially covered and then uncovered in a rapid motion. The outer foreskin glides smoothly over the inner foreskin. The glans itself may widen and lengthen as the stimulation continues, becoming slightly darker in colour, while the gliding action of the foreskin reduces friction. This technique is also used by some circumcised men who have excess skin left from circumcision.
For circumcised males, on whom the glans is mostly or completely uncovered, this technique creates more direct contact between the hand and the glans. To avoid friction irritation and soreness from this resulting friction, some may prefer to use a personal lubricant, masturbation cream or saliva during masturbation.
The shaft skin can also be slid back and forth with just the index finger and thumb wrapped around the penis. A variation on this is to place the fingers and thumb on the penis as if playing a flute, and then shuttle them back and forth. Lying face down on a comfortable surface such as a mattress or pillow, the penis can be rubbed against it. This technique may include the use of a simulacrum, or artificial vagina.
There are many other variations on male masturbation techniques. Men may also rub or massage the glans, the rim of the glans, and the frenular delta. Some men place both hands directly on their penis during masturbation, while others may use their free hand to fondle their testicles, nipples, or other parts of their body. The nipples are erogenous zones, and vigorous stimulation of them during masturbation usually causes the penis to become erect more quickly than it would otherwise. Some may keep their hand stationary while pumping into it with pelvic thrusts in order to simulate the motions of sexual intercourse. Others may also use vibrators and other sexual devices more commonly associated with female masturbation. A few extremely flexible males can reach and stimulate their penis with their tongue or lips, and so perform autofellatio.
The prostate gland is one of the organs that contributes fluid to semen. As the prostate is touch-sensitive, some directly stimulate it using a well-lubricated finger or dildo inserted through the anus into the rectum. Stimulating the prostate from outside, via pressure on the perineum, can be pleasurable as well. Some men also enjoy anal stimulation, with fingers or otherwise, without any prostate stimulation.
A somewhat controversial ejaculation control technique is to put pressure on the perineum, about halfway between the scrotum and the anus, just before ejaculating. This can, however, redirect semen into the bladder (referred to as retrograde ejaculation).
Mutual masturbation is a sexual act where two or more people stimulate themselves or one another sexually, usually with the hands. It is practiced by people of all sexual orientations, and can be part of a full repertoire of sexual activity. It may be used as foreplay, or as an alternative to sexual penetration. When used as an alternative to penile-vaginal penetration, the goal may be to preserve virginity or to prevent pregnancy. For some people, non-penetrative sex is the primary sexual activity of choice above all others. People may also find masturbating with friends helps lift the stigma they feel surrounding the act. This may help them develop their orgasm, increase its pleasure, and may inspire them to masturbate on a more frequent basis.
Mutual masturbation can be practiced by males or females in pairs or groups with or without actually touching another person as indicated by the following examples of contact versus non-contact scenarios:
- Non-contact mutual masturbation
- Two people masturbating in the presence of each other but not touching.
- Contact mutual masturbation
- One person touching another person to masturbate. The other person may do the same during or after.
- Non-contact group
- More than two people masturbating in the presence of each other in a group but not touching each other.
- Contact group
- More than two people physically touching each other to masturbate as a group.
- Mutual masturbation foreplay
- The manual stimulation of each other's genitals where the session eventually leads to sexual intercourse.
Frequency, age, and sex
Frequency of masturbation is determined by many factors, e.g., one's resistance to sexual tension, hormone levels influencing sexual arousal, sexual habits, peer influences, health and one's attitude to masturbation formed by culture; E. Heiby and J. Becker examined the latter. Medical causes have also been associated with masturbation.
Different studies have found that masturbation is frequent in humans. Alfred Kinsey's 1950s studies on US population have shown that 92% of men and 62% of women have masturbated during their lifespan. Similar results have been found in a 2007 British national probability survey. It was found that, between individuals aged 16 to 44, 95% of men and 71% of women masturbated at some point in their lives. 73% of men and 37% of women reported masturbating in the four weeks before their interview, while 53% of men and 18% of women reported masturbating in the previous seven days.
Masturbation is considered normal when performed by children, even in early infancy. In 2009, the UK Government joined the Netherlands and other European nations in encouraging teens to masturbate at least daily. An orgasm was defined as a right in its health pamphlet. This was done in response to data and experience from the other EU member states to reduce teen pregnancy and STIs (STDs), and to promote healthy habits.
In the book Human Sexuality: Diversity in Contemporary America, by Strong, Devault and Sayad, the authors point out, "A baby boy may laugh in his crib while playing with his erect penis". "Baby girls sometimes move their bodies rhythmically, almost violently, appearing to experience orgasm." Italian gynecologists Giorgio Giorgi and Marco Siccardi observed via ultrasound a female fetus possibly masturbating and having what appeared to be an orgasm.
Popular belief asserts that individuals of either sex who are not in sexually active relationships tend to masturbate more frequently than those who are; however, much of the time this is not true as masturbation alone or with a partner is often a feature of a relationship. Contrary to conventional wisdom, several studies actually reveal a positive correlation between the frequency of masturbation and the frequency of intercourse. A study has reported a significantly higher rate of masturbation in gay men and women who were in a relationship.
Masturbation may increase fertility during intercourse. A 2009 Australian study found daily ejaculation to be an important factor in sperm health and motility.
Female masturbation alters conditions in the vagina, cervix and uterus, in ways that can alter the chances of conception from intercourse, depending on the timing of the masturbation. A woman's orgasm between one minute before and 45 minutes after insemination favors the chances of that sperm reaching her egg. If, for example, she has had intercourse with more than one male, such an orgasm can increase the likelihood of a pregnancy by one of them. Female masturbation can also provide protection against cervical infections by increasing the acidity of the cervical mucus and by moving debris out of the cervix.
In males, masturbation flushes out old sperm with low motility from the male's genital tract. The next ejaculate then contains more fresh sperm, which have higher chances of achieving conception during intercourse. If more than one male has intercourse with a female, the sperm with the highest motility will compete more effectively.
Health and psychological effects
Sex therapists will sometimes recommend that female patients take time to masturbate to orgasm, for example to help improve sexual health and relationships, to help determine what is erotically pleasing to them, and because mutual masturbation can lead to more satisfying sexual relationships and added intimacy.
It is held in many mental health circles that masturbation can relieve depression and lead to a higher sense of self-esteem. Masturbation can also be particularly useful in relationships where one partner wants more sex than the other – in which case masturbation provides a balancing effect and thus a more harmonious relationship.
Mutual masturbation, the act by which two or more partners stimulate themselves in the presence of each other, allows a couple to reveal the "map to [their] pleasure centers". By watching a partner masturbate, one finds out the methods they use to please him- or herself, allowing each partner to learn exactly how the other enjoys being touched. Intercourse, by itself, is often inconvenient or impractical at times to provide sufficient sexual release for many people. Mutual masturbation allows couples to enjoy each other and obtain sexual release as often as they need but without the inconveniences and risks associated with sex.
In 2003, an Australian research team led by Graham Giles of The Cancer Council Australia found that males masturbating frequently had a lower probability to develop prostate cancer. Men who averaged five or more ejaculations weekly in their 20s had significantly lower risk. However they could not show a direct causation. The study also indicated that increased ejaculation through masturbation rather than intercourse would be more helpful as intercourse is associated with diseases (STDs) that may increase the risk of cancer instead. However, this benefit may be age related. A 2008 study concluded that frequent ejaculation between the ages of 20 and 40 may be correlated with higher risk of developing prostate cancer. On the other hand, frequent ejaculation in one's 50s was found to be correlated with a lower such risk in this same study.
A study published in 1997 found an inverse association between death from coronary heart disease and frequency of orgasm even given the risk that myocardial ischaemia and myocardial infarction can be triggered by sexual activity.
|“||The association between frequency of orgasm and all cause mortality was also examined using the midpoint of each response category recorded as number of orgasms per year. The age adjusted odds ratio for an increase of 100 orgasms per year was 0.64 (0.44 to 0.95).||”|
That is, a difference in mortality appeared between any two subjects when one subject ejaculated at around two times per week more than the other. Assuming a broad range average of between 3 to 5 ejaculations per week for healthy males, this would mean 5 to 7 ejaculations per week. This is consistent with a 2003 Australia article on the benefits against prostate cancer. The strength of these correlations increased with increasing frequency of ejaculation.
A 2008 study at Tabriz Medical University found ejaculation reduces swollen nasal blood vessels, freeing the airway for normal breathing. The mechanism is through stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system and is long lasting. The study author suggests "It can be done [from] time-to-time to alleviate the congestion and the patient can adjust the number of intercourses or masturbations depending on the severity of the symptoms."
Solo masturbation is a sexual activity that is free of risk of sexually transmitted infections. With two or more participants, the risk of sexually transmitted infections, while not eliminated, is much less than with most forms of penetrative sex. Support for such a view, and for making masturbation part of the American sex education curriculum, led to the dismissal of US Surgeon General Joycelyn Elders during the Clinton administration. Some EU Nations promote masturbation in their sex education curricula.
Sexual climax, from masturbation or otherwise, leaves one in a relaxed and contented state. This is frequently followed closely by drowsiness and sleep – particularly when one masturbates in bed.
Some professionals consider masturbation to function as a cardiovascular workout. Though research is still as yet scant, those suffering from cardiovascular disorders (particularly those recovering from myocardial infarction, or heart attacks) should resume physical activity (including sexual intercourse and masturbation) gradually and with the frequency and rigor which their physical status will allow. This limitation can serve as encouragement to follow through with physical therapy sessions to help improve endurance. In general, real sex slightly increases energy consumption, according a study published in the New England Journal of Medicine.
A rare condition experienced by men is the unpleasant physical and cognitive symptoms characterized as postorgasmic illness syndrome (POIS) after ejaculation, whether due to masturbation or partnered sex. This rare condition can lead to flu-like symptoms. Affected individuals should avoid sexual activity, or schedule it for times when they can rest and recover afterwards.
Those who insert objects as aid to masturbation risk them becoming stuck (e.g. as rectal foreign bodies). Men and women can fall prey to this problem. A woman went into a German hospital with two pencils in her bladder. She had inserted them into her urethra during masturbation.
Solo masturbation, or masturbation involving individuals of the same gender, cannot produce pregnancy. Masturbation involving both a man and a woman (see mutual masturbation) can result in pregnancy only if semen contacts the vulva.
Male masturbation may be used as a method to obtain semen for third party reproductive procedures such as artificial insemination and In vitro fertilisation which may involve the use of either partner or donor sperm.
At a sperm bank or fertility clinic, a special room or cabin may be set aside so that semen may be produced by male masturbation for use in fertility treatments such as artificial insemination. Most semen used for sperm donation, and all semen donated through a sperm bank by sperm donors, is produced in this way. The facility at a sperm bank used for this purpose is known as a masturbatorium (US) or men's production room (UK). A bed or couch is usually provided for the man, and pornographic films or other material may be made available.
Problems for males
A man whose penis has suffered a blunt trauma, severe bend or other injury during intercourse or masturbation may, rarely, sustain a penile fracture or suffer from Peyronie's disease. Phimosis is "a contracted foreskin (that) may cause trouble by hurting when an attempt is made to pull the foreskin back". In these cases, any energetic manipulation of the penis can be problematic.
There is no scientific evidence of a causative relationship between masturbation and any form of mental disorder. Excessive or compulsive sexual behavior is generally understood to be a symptom rather than a cause.
Masturbation among adolescents contributes to them developing a sense of mastery over sexual impulses, and it has a role in the physical and emotional development of prepubescents and pubescents. Babies and toddlers will play with their genitals in much the same way as they play with their ears or toes. If such play becomes all-consuming, it may be necessary to look for an underlying cause of this, such as the child being tense and in need of comfort, or that others may be overreacting and thus reinforcing the habit. It could be caused by a low-grade urinary tract or yeast infection, or the child may be overstimulated and in need of soothing, or indeed understimulated and bored. In each case, dealing with the cause will bring the behavior back to a level of enthusiasm that does not take away from other interests. Such a habit can also be addressed by distraction and providing other activities for the child to engage with. Alongside many other factors, such as medical evidence, age-inappropriate sexual knowledge, sexualized play or aggression, and precocious or seductive behavior, excessive masturbation may alternatively be an indicator of sexual abuse.
Compulsive masturbation and other compulsive behaviors can be signs of an emotional problem, which may need to be addressed by a mental health specialist. As with any "nervous habit", it is more helpful to consider the causes of compulsive behavior, rather than try to repress masturbation.
There is discussion between professionals and other interested parties as to whether such a thing as sexual addiction really exists. Compulsive masturbation is regarded as one of the symptoms of sexual addiction by proponents of that concept.
In history and society
There are depictions of male masturbation in prehistoric rock paintings around the world. Most early people seem to have connected human sexuality with abundance in nature. A clay figurine of the 4th millennium BC from a temple site on the island of Malta, depicts a woman masturbating. However, in the ancient world depictions of male masturbation are far more common.
Male masturbation became an even more important image in ancient Egypt. When performed by a god it could be considered a creative or magical act: the god Atum was believed to have created the universe by masturbating to ejaculation, and the ebb and flow of the Nile was attributed to the frequency of his ejaculations. Egyptian Pharaohs, in response to this, were at one time required to masturbate ceremonially into the Nile.
The ancient Greeks had a more relaxed attitude toward masturbation than the Egyptians did, regarding the act as a normal and healthy substitute for other forms of sexual pleasure. They considered it a safety valve against destructive sexual frustration. The Greeks also dealt with female masturbation in both their art and writings. One common term used for it was anaphlan, which roughly translates as "up-fire".
Diogenes, speaking in jest, credited the god Hermes with its invention: he allegedly took pity on his son Pan, who was pining for Echo but unable to seduce her, and taught him the trick of masturbation in order to relieve his suffering. Pan in his turn taught the habit to young shepherds.
As late as the seventeenth century in Europe the practice was commonly employed by nannies to put their young male charges to sleep. That tolerance was soon to change. The first use of the word "onanism" to consistently and specifically refer to masturbation appears to be Onania, an anonymous pamphlet first distributed in London in 1716. It drew on familiar themes of sin and vice, this time in particular against the "heinous sin" of "self-pollution". After dire warnings that those who so indulged would suffer impotence, gonorrhea, epilepsy and a wasting of the faculties (included were letters and testimonials supposedly from young men ill and dying from the effects of compulsive masturbation), the pamphlet then goes on to recommend as an effective remedy a "Strengthening Tincture" at 10 shillings a bottle and a "Prolific Powder" at 12 shillings a bag, available from a local shop.
One of the many horrified by the descriptions of malady in Onania was the notable Swiss physician Samuel-Auguste Tissot. In 1760, he published L'Onanisme, his own comprehensive medical treatise on the purported ill-effects of masturbation. Citing case studies of young male masturbators amongst his patients in Lausanne, Switzerland as basis for his reasoning, Tissot argued that semen was an "essential oil" and "stimulus" that, when lost from the body in great amounts, would cause "a perceptible reduction of strength, of memory and even of reason; blurred vision, all the nervous disorders, all types of gout and rheumatism, weakening of the organs of generation, blood in the urine, disturbance of the appetite, headaches and a great number of other disorders."
Though Tissot's ideas are now considered conjectural at best, his treatise was presented as a scholarly, scientific work in a time when experimental physiology was practically nonexistent. The authority with which the work was subsequently treated – Tissot's arguments were even acknowledged and echoed by luminaries such as Kant and Voltaire – arguably shifted the view of masturbation in Western medicine over the next two centuries into that of a debilitating illness.
This view persisted well into the Victorian era, where such medical censure of masturbation was in line with the widespread social conservatism and opposition to open sexual behavior common at the time. There were recommendations to have boys' pants constructed so that the genitals could not be touched through the pockets, for schoolchildren to be seated at special desks to prevent their crossing their legs in class and for girls to be forbidden from riding horses and bicycles because the sensations these activities produce were considered too similar to masturbation. Boys and young men who nevertheless continued to indulge in the practice were branded as "weak-minded." Many "remedies" were devised, including eating a bland, meatless diet. This approach was promoted by Dr. John Harvey Kellogg (inventor of corn flakes) and Rev. Sylvester Graham (inventor of Graham crackers). The medical literature of the times describes procedures for electric shock treatment, infibulation, restraining devices like chastity belts and straitjackets, cauterization or – as a last resort – wholesale surgical excision of the genitals. Routine neonatal circumcision was widely adopted in the United States and the UK at least partly because of its believed preventive effect against masturbation (see also History of male circumcision). In later decades, the more drastic of these measures were increasingly replaced with psychological techniques, such as warnings that masturbation led to blindness, hairy hands or stunted growth. Some of these persist as myths even today.
At the same time, the supposed medical condition of hysteria—from the Greek hystera or uterus—was being treated by what would now be described as medically administered or medically prescribed masturbation for women. Techniques included use of the earliest vibrators and rubbing the genitals with placebo creams.
Medical attitudes toward masturbation began to change at the beginning of the 20th century when H. Havelock Ellis, in his seminal 1897 work Studies in the Psychology of Sex, questioned Tissot's premises, cheerfully named famous men of the era who masturbated and then set out to disprove (with the work of more recent physicians) each of the claimed diseases of which masturbation was purportedly the cause. "We reach the conclusion", he wrote, "that in the case of moderate masturbation in healthy, well-born individuals, no seriously pernicious results necessarily follow."
Robert Baden-Powell, the founder of The Scout Association, incorporated a passage in the 1914 edition of Scouting for Boys warning against the dangers of masturbation. This passage stated that the individual should run away from the temptation by performing physical activity which was supposed to tire the individual so that masturbation could not be performed. By 1930, however, Dr. F. W. W. Griffin, editor of The Scouter, had written in a book for Rover Scouts that the temptation to masturbate was "a quite natural stage of development" and, citing Ellis' work, held that "the effort to achieve complete abstinence was a very serious error."
Austrian psychoanalyst Wilhelm Reich in his 1922 essay Concerning Specific Forms of Masturbation tried to identify healthy and unhealthy forms of masturbation. He tried to relate the way people masturbated to their degree of inclination towards the opposite sex and to their psycho-sexual pathologies. Masturbation by men was at one time believed to cause homosexuality.
The works of Sexologist Alfred Kinsey during the 1940s and 1950s said that masturbation was an instinctive behavior for both males and females, citing the results of Gallup Poll surveys indicating how common it was in the United States. Some critics of this theory held that his research was biased and that the Gallup Poll method was redundant for defining "natural behavior".
Thomas Szasz states the shift in scientific consensus as "Masturbation: the primary sexual activity of mankind. In the nineteenth century it was a disease; in the twentieth, it's a cure."
In 1994, when the Surgeon General of the United States, Dr. Joycelyn Elders, mentioned as an aside that it should be mentioned in school curricula that masturbation was safe and healthy, she was forced to resign, with opponents asserting that she was promoting the teaching of how to masturbate. Many[who?] believe this was the result of her long history of promoting controversial viewpoints and not due solely to her public mention of masturbation.
|This section requires expansion. (December 2013)|
Even though many medical professionals and scientists have found large amounts of evidence that masturbating is healthy and commonly practiced by males and females, stigma on the topic still persists today. On November 2013, Matthew Burdette, after being filmed masturbating, committed suicide.  
Proving that these ancient stigmas against masturbation are still alive and felt by women and men, researchers in 1994 found that half of the adult women and men who masturbate feel guilty about it (Laumann, et al., 1994 , 85). Another study in 2000 found that adolescent young men are still frequently afraid to admit that they masturbate (Halpern, et al., 2000, 327).—Planned Parenthood, Masturbation—From Stigma to Sexual Health
Religions vary broadly in their views of masturbation, from considering it completely impermissible (as in Roman Catholicism) to encouraging and refining it (see, for example Neotantra and Taoist sexual practices).
Immanuel Kant regarded masturbation as a violation of the moral law. In The Metaphysics of Morals (1797), he made the a posteriori argument that "such an unnatural use of one's sexual attribute" strikes "everyone upon his thinking of it" as "a violation of one's duty to himself", and suggested that it was regarded as immoral even to give it its proper name (unlike the case of the similarly undutiful act of suicide). He went on, however, to acknowledge that "it is not so easy to produce a rational demonstration of the inadmissibility of that unnatural use", but ultimately concluded that its immorality lay in the fact that "a man gives up his personality ... when he uses himself merely as a means for the gratification of an animal drive".
Subsequent critics of masturbation tended to argue against it on more physiological grounds, however.
The prosecution of masturbation in the sight of others has varied at different times, from virtually unlimited acceptance to complete illegality. In a 17th-century law code for the Puritan colony of New Haven, Connecticut "blasphemers, homosexuals and masturbators" were eligible for the death penalty.
Often, masturbation in the sight of others is prosecuted under a general law such as public indecency, though some laws make specific mention of masturbation. In the UK, masturbating in public is illegal under Section 28 of the Town Police Clauses Act 1847. The penalty may be up to 14 days in prison, depending on a range of circumstantial factors. In the US, laws vary from state to state. In 2010, the Supreme Court of Alabama upheld a state law criminalizing the distribution of sex-toys. In the city of Charlotte, North Carolina, masturbating in public is a class 3 misdemeanour. In 2013, a man found masturbating openly on a beach in Sweden was cleared of charges of sexual assault, the court finding that his activities had not been directed towards any specific person.
In many jurisdictions, masturbation by one person of another is considered digital penetration which may be illegal in some cases, such as when the other person is a minor.
There is debate whether masturbation should be promoted in correctional institutions. Restrictions on pornography, used to accompany masturbation, are common in American correctional facilities. Connecticut Department of Corrections officials say that these restrictions are intended to avoid a hostile work environment for correctional officers. Other researchers argue allowing masturbation could help prisoners restrict their sexual urges to their imaginations rather than engaging in prison rape or other non-masturbatory sexual activity that could pose sexually transmitted disease or other health risks.
Cultural views and practices
In the UK in 2009, a leaflet was issued by the National Health Service in Sheffield carrying the slogan, "an orgasm a day keeps the doctor away". It also says: "Health promotion experts advocate five portions of fruit and veg a day and 30 minutes' physical activity three times a week. What about sex or masturbation twice a week?" This leaflet has been circulated to parents, teachers and youth workers and is meant to update sex education by telling older school students about the benefits of enjoyable sex. Its authors have said that for too long, experts have concentrated on the need for "safe sex" and committed relationships while ignoring the principal reason that many people have sex. The leaflet is entitled Pleasure. Instead of promoting teenage sex, it could encourage young people to delay losing their virginity until they are certain they will enjoy the experience, said one of its authors.
The Spanish region of Extremadura launched a programme in 2009 to encourage "sexual self-exploration and the discovery of self-pleasure" in people aged from 14 to 17. The €14,000 campaign includes leaflets, flyers, a "fanzine", and workshops for the young in which they receive instruction on masturbation techniques along with advice on contraception and self-respect. The initiative, whose slogan is, "Pleasure is in your own hands" has angered local right-wing politicians and challenged traditional Roman Catholic views. Officials from the neighbouring region of Andalucia have expressed an interest in copying the programme.
The text book Palliative care nursing: quality care to the end of life states, "Terminally ill people are likely no different from the general population regarding their masturbation habits. Palliative care practitioners should routinely ask their patients if anything interferes in their ability to masturbate and then work with the patient to correct the problem if it is identified."
Rites of passage
The Sambia tribe of New Guinea has rituals and rites of passage surrounding manhood which lasts several years and involves ejaculation through fellatio often several times a day. Semen is valued and masturbation is seen as a waste of semen and is therefore frowned upon even though frequent ejaculation is encouraged. The capacity and need to ejaculate is developed or nurtured for years from an early age but through fellatio so that it can be consumed rather than wasted. Semen is ingested for strength and is considered in the same line as mothers' milk.[better source needed]
Other cultures have rites of passage into manhood that culminate in the first ejaculation of a male, usually by the hands of a tribal elder. In some tribes such as the Agta, Philippines, stimulation of the genitals is encouraged from an early age. Upon puberty, the young male is then paired off with a "wise elder" or "witch doctor" who uses masturbation to build his ability to ejaculate in preparation for a ceremony. The ceremony culminates in a public ejaculation before a celebration. The ejaculate is saved in a wad of animal skin and worn later to help conceive children. In this and other tribes, the measure of manhood is actually associated more with the amount of ejaculate and his need than penis size.
Masturbation marathons are global events that provide a supportive, encouraging environment where masturbation can be performed openly among young and old without embarrassment. Participants may speak openly with onlookers while masturbating to share techniques and describe the pleasure and benefits. Masturbate-a-thons are often charity events that are "intended to encourage people to explore safer sex, talk about masturbation and lift the taboos that still surround the subject." May is considered "Masturbation Month" by sex-positive organizations and activists, including Betty Dodson, Joani Blank, Susan Block, and Carol Queen.
In popular culture
Paintings and drawings
There are depictions of male masturbation in prehistoric rock paintings around the world. Most early people seem to have connected human sexuality with abundance in nature. A clay figurine of the 4th millennium BC from a temple site on the island of Malta depicts a woman masturbating. However, in the ancient world depictions of male masturbation are far more common.
In popular music, there are several notable songs that deal with masturbation. Some of the earliest examples are "My Ding-a-Ling" by Chuck Berry and "Mary Ann with the Shaky Hand" and "Pictures of Lily" by The Who.
More recent popular songs include "Rosie" by Jackson Browne, "I Touch Myself" by the Divinyls, "Very Busy People" by The Limousines, "Dancing With Myself" by Billy Idol, "Everyday I Die" by Gary Numan,"You're Makin' Me High" by Toni Braxton, "Holding My Own" by The Darkness, "Vibe On" by Dannii Minogue "Touch of My Hand" by Britney Spears, "Orgasm Addict" by the Buzzcocks, "Captain Jack" by Billy Joel, "Longview" by Green Day, "M+Ms" by Blink-182, "Wow, I Can Get Sexual Too" by Say Anything, "Fingers" and "U + Ur Hand" by P!nk, "So Happy I Could Die" by Lady Gaga, "Masturbating Jimmy" by The Tiger Lillies and "When Life Gets Boring " by Gob, and "Darling Nikki" by Prince. The 1983 recording "She Bop" by Cyndi Lauper, was one of the first fifteen songs ever required to carry Parental Advisory sticker for sexual content. In a 1993 interview on The Howard Stern Show, Lauper claimed she recorded the vocal track in the nude. Some have argued that Billy Joel's song "The Stranger" is about masturbation. The song "Masturbates" by rock group Mindless Self Indulgence also deals with the concept of auto-erotic activity in a punk framework.
In October 1972, an important censorship case was held in Australia, leading to the banning of Philip Roth's novel Portnoy's Complaint in that country due to its masturbation references. The censorship led to public outcry at the time.
Further portrayals and references to masturbation have occurred throughout literature, and the practice itself has even contributed to the production of literature among certain writers, such as Wolfe, Balzac, Flaubert and John Cheever.
In the Seinfeld episode "The Contest", the show's main characters enter into a contest to see who can go the longest without masturbating. Because Seinfeld's network, NBC, did not think masturbation was a suitable topic for prime time television, the word is never used. Instead, the subject is described using a series of euphemisms. "Master of my domain" became a part of the American lexicon from this episode.
Another NBC show, Late Night with Conan O'Brien, had a character known as the Masturbating Bear, a costume of a bear with a diaper covering its genitals. The Masturbating Bear would touch his diaper to simulate masturbation. Prior to leaving Late Night to become host of The Tonight Show, Conan O'Brien originally retired the character due to concerns about its appropriateness in an earlier time slot. The Masturbating Bear however made his Tonight Show debut during the final days of Conan O'Brien's tenure as host of the Tonight Show. It was clear by then that Conan O'Brien was being removed from the show and he spent his last shows pushing the envelope with skits that typically would not be appropriate for the Tonight Show, one of which was the Masturbating Bear. After much debate on whether or not he would be able to be used on Conan O'Brien's new TBS show, Conan, the Masturbating Bear made an appearance on the very first episode.
In March 2007 the UK broadcaster Channel 4 was to air a season of television programmes about masturbation, called Wank Week. (Wank is a Briticism for masturbate.) The series came under public attack from senior television figures, and was pulled amid claims of declining editorial standards and controversy over the channel's public service broadcasting credentials. However, its constituent films may yet be shown by the channel at a later date.
Depictions of male and female masturbation are common in pornography, including gay pornography. Am Abend (1910), one of the earliest pornographic films that have been collected at the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction, starts with a female masturbation scene. Solo performances in gay pornography have been described in 1985 as "either or both active (tense, upright) and/or passive (supine, exposed, languid, available)," whereas female solo performances are said to be "exclusively passive (supine, spread, seated, squatted, orifices offered, etc.)." Solo pornography recognized with AVN Awards include the All Alone series and All Natural: Glamour Solos.
In other animal species
Masturbatory behavior has been documented in a very wide range of species. Individuals of some species have been known to create tools for masturbation purposes.
- "Masturbation - Is Masturbation Normal or Harmful? Who Masturbates? Why Do People Masturbate?". WebMD. 2010-03-04. Retrieved 2011-08-17.
- Based on "masturbation" in Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition, Merriam-Webster, Inc., 2003
- Hallikeri, Vinay R.; Gouda, Hareesh S.; Aramani, Sunil C.; Vijaykumar, A.G.; Ajaykumar, T.S. (July–December 2010). "MASTURBATION—AN OVERVIEW". Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology (New Delhi: Medicolegal Society) 27 (2): 46–49. ISSN 0971-1929.
Today, masturbatory act is considered as a healthy practice when done in private and an offence if done in the public in most of the countries.
- "Breeding Soundness Examination of the Stallion". Petplace.com. Retrieved 2011-05-29.
- Bagemihl, Bruce (1999). Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-19239-8.
- For further references, see also the main article Animal sexuality#Autoeroticism (masturbation).
- Dally, Peter (1975). The Fantasy Factor. George Weidenfeld and Nicolson Limited. p. 135. ISBN 0-297-76945-6.
- OED, s.v. masturbation(login required)
- Darby, R. (2004). "Solitary Sex: A Cultural History of Masturbation". Journal of Social History.
- Shamans Sex Beasts and Abuse: Mother-Son Relationships in Popular and Cult Cinema. Charles Jason Lee. Film International, May 2005
- Dolphin, Lambert. "Masturbation and the Bible".
- "Go ask Alice!: Cock-stuffing". Columbia University, New York. 2005-02-18. Retrieved 2006-07-29.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- Various authors (2006-04-21). "Urethral Sound". Body Modification Ezine. Retrieved 2006-07-29.
- McPartlin, Daniel; Adam P. Klausner, MD; Tristan T. Berry, MD; Mulcahy, Maurice (2005-09-09). "Case report: A foreign body in the urethra". International Journal of Surgery Case Reports (Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants) 4 (11): 1052–4. doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2013.07.017. PMID 24055017.
- "Sex Editorials". 2004-03-16. Retrieved 2012-01-15. "The Stop-And-Go Masturbation Technique for Men and Women"
- "Masturbation, Tantra and Self-love" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-08-27.
- Keesling, Barbara (November/December 99 (Last Reviewed: 30 August 2004)). "Beyond Orgasmatron". Psychology Today. Retrieved 2006-07-29. Check date values in:
- Ellis, Havelock (1927), Studies in the Psychology of Sex (3rd edition), Volume I,; Auto-Eroticism: A Study of the Spontaneous Manifestations of the Sexual Impulse; section I; "The Sewing-machine and the Bicycle:" quotes one Pouillet as saying "it is a well-recognized fact that to work a sewing-machine with the body in a certain position produces sexual excitement leading to the orgasm. The occurrence of the orgasm is indicated to the observer by the machine being worked for a few seconds with uncontrollable rapidity. This sound is said to be frequently heard in large French workrooms, and it is part of the duty of the superintendents of the rooms to make the girls sit properly."
- Koedt, Anne (1970). "The Myth of the Vaginal Orgasm". Chicago Women's Liberation Union. Retrieved 2010-11-18.
- The Kinsey Institute Data from Alfred Kinsey's studies. Published online.
- "Advanced Masturbation". 2004-10-22. Retrieved 2009-07-11. "The Full Fist Masturbation Technique" and "The Thumb-Forefinger Masturbation Technique"
- See here  and pages 47-49 for views on what constitutes virginity loss and therefore sexual intercourse or other sexual activity; source discusses how gay and lesbian individuals define virginity loss, and how the majority of researchers and heterosexuals define virginity loss/"technical virginity" by whether or not a person has engaged in penile-vaginal sex. Laura M. Carpenter (2005). Virginity Lost: An Intimate Portrait of First Sexual Experiences. NYU Press. pp. 295 pages. ISBN 0-8147-1652-0. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
- Bryan Strong, Christine DeVault, Theodore F. Cohen (2010). The Marriage and Family Experience: Intimate Relationship in a Changing Society. Cengage Learning. p. 186. ISBN 0-534-62425-1. Retrieved October 8, 2011.
Most people agree that we maintain virginity as long as we refrain from sexual (vaginal) intercourse. ...But occasionally we hear people speak of 'technical virginity' ... Other research, especially research looking into virginity loss, reports that 35% of virgins, defined as people who have never engaged in vaginal intercourse, have nonetheless engaged in one or more other forms of heterosexual activity (e.g. oral sex, anal sex, or mutual masturbation). ... Data indicate that 'a very significant proportion of teens ha[ve] had experience with oral sex, even if they haven't had sexual intercourse, and may think of themselves as virgins'.
- "Mutual Masturbation". 2006-06-12. Retrieved 2010-08-07. — A biographical collection of data for a sociological repository on the topic of mutual masturbating to study changes on the activity over time.
- Heiby, E,; Becker JD (April 1980). "Effect of filmed modeling on the self-reported frequency of masturbation". Arch Sex Behav. 9 (2): 115–21. doi:10.1007/BF01542263. PMID 7396686.
- De Alwis AC, Senaratne AM, De Silva SM, Rodrigo VS; Senaratne; De Silva; Rodrigo (September 2006). "Bladder calculus presenting as excessive masturbation". Ceylon Med J 51 (3): 121–2. PMID 17315592.
- Ozmen M, Erdogan A, Duvenci S, Ozyurt E, Ozkara C; Erdogan; Duvenci; Ozyurt; Ozkara (February 2004). "Excessive masturbation after epilepsy surgery". Epilepsy Behav 5 (1): 133–6. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2003.10.009. PMID 14751219.
- Lopez-Meza E, Corona-Vazquez T, Ruano-Calderon LA, Ramirez-Bermudez J; Corona-Vazquez; Ruano-Calderon; Ramirez-Bermudez (December 2005). "Severe impulsiveness as the primary manifestation of multiple sclerosis in a young female". Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 59 (6): 739–42. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1819.2005.01446.x. PMID 16401253.
- Gerressu M, Mercer CH, Graham CA, Wellings K, Johnson AM (April 2008). "Prevalence of masturbation and associated factors in a British national probability survey". Arch Sex Behav 37 (2): 266–78. doi:10.1007/s10508-006-9123-6. PMID 17333329.
- Hansen, J.K.; Balslev, T. (Nov 2009) . "Hand activities in infantile masturbation: a video analysis of 13 cases". European Journal of Paediatric Neurology (Elsevier) 13 (6): 508–10. doi:10.1016/j.ejpn.2008.10.007. ISSN 1090-3798. PMID 19010071.
Infantile masturbation is considered a variant of normal behaviour.
- Treptow, C. (14 July 2009). "U.K. Government Encourages Teen Masturbation?". ABC News.
- Giorgi G, Siccardi M (September 1996). "Ultrasonographic observation of a female fetus' sexual behavior in utero". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 175 (3 Pt 1): 753. PMID 8828451.
- Heilborn, M.L., Cabral, C.S. (2006). "Sexual practices in youth: analysis of lifetime sexual trajectory and last sexual intercourse". Cad Saude Publica 22 (7): 1471–81. doi:10.1590/S0102-311X2006000700011. PMID 16791346.
- Menon A., McAllister R.H., Watson W., Watson S. (2006). "Increased libido associated with quetiapine". Journal of Psychopharmacology 20 (1): 125–7. doi:10.1177/0269881106059732. PMID 16354735.
- Burleson MH, Trevathan WR, Gregory WL (May 2002). "Sexual behavior in lesbian and heterosexual women: relations with menstrual cycle phase and partner availability". Psychoneuroendocrinology 27 (4): 489–503. doi:10.1016/S0306-4530(01)00066-X. PMID 11912001.
- "Daily sex good for sperm!". News-medical.net. Retrieved 2011-08-17.
- Baker, Robin (June 1996). Sperm Wars: The Science of Sex. Diane Books Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0788160042.
- Baker, Robin R.; Bellis, Mark A. (November 1993). "Human sperm competition: Ejaculate manipulation by females and a function for the female orgasm.". Animal Behaviour 46 (5): 87, 23p. doi:10.1006/anbe.1993.1272.
- Thomsen, Ruth (October 2000). "Sperm Competition and the Function of Masturbation in Japanese Macaques". Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München.
- Baker, Robin R.; Bellis, Mark A. (November 1993). "Human sperm competition: Ejaculate adjustment by males and the function of masturbation.". Animal Behaviour 46 (5): 861, 25p. doi:10.1006/anbe.1993.1271.
- Shackelford, Todd K.; Goetz, Aaron T. (February 2007). "Adaptation to Sperm Competition in Humans.". Current Directions in Psychological Science 16 (1): 47–50. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00473.x.
- Porter, Robert S.; Kaplan, Justin L., eds. (2011). "Chapter 165. Sexuality and Sexual Disorders". The Merck Manual of Diagnosis & Therapy (19th ed.). Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., A Subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc. ISBN 978-0-911910-19-3.
- Patton, Michael S. (June 1985). "Masturbation from Judaism to Victorianism". Journal of Religion and Health (Springer Netherlands) 24 (2): 133–146. doi:10.1007/BF01532257. ISSN 0022-4197. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
Social change in attitudes toward masturbation has occurred at the professional level only since 1960 and at the popular level since 1970.  ... onanism and masturbation erroneously became synonymous...  ... there is no legislation in the Bible pertaining to masturbation. 
- Jack Boulware (2000-05-09). "Sex educator says most people masturbate". Salon.com. Retrieved 2014-08-27. apud "Masturbation: Current medical opinions". Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. Retrieved 2014-08-27.
- Szasz, Thomas S. (1974) . "Sex". The Second Sin. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd. p. 10. ISBN 0-7100-7757-2. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
Masturbation: the primary sexual activity of mankind. In the nineteenth century it was a disease; in the twentieth, it's a cure.
- Shpancer, Noah (2010-09-29). "The Masturbation Gap. The pained history of self pleasure". Psychology Today. New York City: Sussex Publishers. Retrieved 2013-06-27.
The publication of Kinsey's and Masters and Johnson's research revealed that masturbation was both common and harmless. Many studies have since confirmed this basic truth, revealing in addition that masturbation is neither a substitute for "real" sex nor a facilitator of risky sex.
- Coon, Dennis; Mitterer, John O. (2010) . "11. Gender and Sexuality". Introduction to Psychology. Gateways to Mind and Behavior (12th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. p. 371. ISBN 978-0-495-59911-1. Retrieved 2013-06-27.
Fifty years ago, a child might have been told that masturbation would cause insanity, acne, sterility, or other such nonsense. "Self-abuse," as it was then called, has enjoyed a long and unfortunate history of religious and medical disapproval. The modern view is that masturbation is a normal sexual behavior (Bockting & Coleman, 2003). Enlightened parents are well aware of this fact. Still, many children are punished or made to feel guilty for touching their genitals. This is unfortunate because masturbation itself is harmless. Typically, its only negative effects are feelings of fear, guilt, or anxiety that arise from learning to think of masturbation as "bad" or "wrong." In an age when people are urged to practice "safer sex," masturbation remains the safest sex of all.
- Sigel, Lisa Z. (Summer 2004). "Masturbation: The History of the Great Terror by Jean Stengers; Ann Van Neck; Kathryn Hoffmann". Journal of Social History (Oxford: Oxford University Press) 37 (4): 1065–1066. doi:10.1353/jsh.2004.0065. ISSN 0022-4529. JSTOR 3790078.
Stengers and Van Neck follow the illness to its fairly abrupt demise; they liken the shift to finally seeing the emperor without clothes as doctors began to doubt masturbation as a cause of illness at the turn of the twentieth century. Once doubt set in, scientists began to accumulate statistics about the practice, finding that a large minority and then a large majority of people masturbated. The implications were clear: if most people masturbated and did not experience insanity, debility, and early death, then masturbation could not be held accountable to the etiology that had been assigned it. Masturbation quickly lost its hold over the medical community, and parents followed in making masturbation an ordinary part of first childhood and then human sexuality.
- Wood, Kate (Mar 2005). "Masturbation as a Means of Achieving Sexual Health by Walter Bockting; Eli Coleman". Culture, Health & Sexuality (London: Taylor and Francis, Ltd.) 7 (2): 182–184. ISSN 1369-1058. JSTOR 4005453.
In the collection's introductory chapter, Eli Coleman describes how Kinsey's research half a century ago was the first in a series of studies to challenge widely prevalent cultural myths relating to the 'harmful' effects of masturbation, revealing the practice to be both common and non-pathological. Subsequent research, outlined by Coleman in this chapter, has shown masturbation to be linked to healthy sexual development, sexual well-being in relationships, self-esteem and bodily integrity (an important sexual right). As such, the promotion and de-stigmatization of the practice continue to be important strategies within sexology for the achievement of healthy sexual development and well-being.
The collection concludes with two surveys among US college students. The first of these was based on limited quantitative questions relating to masturbation. The findings suggest that masturbation is not a substitute for sexual intercourse, as has often been posited, but is associated with increased sexual interest and greater number of partners. The second of these surveys asks whether masturbation could be useful in treating low sexual desire, by examining the relationship between masturbation, libido and sexual fantasy.
- Shuman, Tracy (February 2006). "Your Guide to Masturbation". WebMD, Inc./The Cleveland Clinic Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Retrieved 2006-07-29.
- Knowles, Jon (November 2002). "Masturbation — From Stigma to Sexual Health". Katharine Dexter McCormick Library/Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc. Retrieved 2006-07-29.
- "Masturbation Information on Healthline". Healthline.com. Retrieved 2011-08-17.
- "Masturbation key to healthy, functional sexual relationships". The Badger Herald, Daily campus newspaper. Madison, Wisconsin, USA: Badger Herald, Inc. April 19, 2007. Retrieved July 2007.
- Giles, G.G.; G. Severi, D.R. English, M.R.E. McCredie, R. Borland, P. Boyle and J.L. Hopper (2003). "Sexual factors and prostate cancer". BJU International. doi:10.1046/j.1464-410X.2003.04319.x.
- Dimitropoulou, Polyxeni; Artitaya Lophatananon, Douglas Easton, Richard Pocock, David P. Dearnaley, Michelle Guy, Steven Edwards, Lynne O'Brien, Amanda Hall, Rosemary Wilkinson, Rosalind Eeles, Kenneth R. Muir (November 11, 2008). "Sexual activity and prostate cancer risk in men diagnosed at a younger age". BJU International 103 (2): 178–185. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2008.08030.x. PMID 19016689.
- Smith, George Davey; F; Y (December 20, 1997). "Sex and death: are they related? Findings from the Caerphilly cohort study". BMJ 315 (7123): 1641–4. doi:10.1136/bmj.315.7123.1641. PMC 2128033. PMID 9448525. Retrieved July 2007.
- "Masturbation could bring hay fever relief for men". April 2008. Retrieved August 2009.
- Sutherland, Tammy. "Six healthy reasons to masturbate". Best Health Magazine. Reader's Digest Magazines (Canada). Retrieved 4 July 2013.
Just as people fall into a deep sleep after sex with a partner, because blood pressure is lowered and relaxation is increased through the release of endorphins, masturbation is a good sleeping pill," says Golden. "It is relied on by many as a nightly occurrence.
- "Five Things You Didn't Know About Masturbation". WebMD. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
Masturbation can help you relax.
- Wenner, Melinda (2006). "Why do guys get sleepy after sex?". NYU Journalism (New York University). Retrieved 4 July 2013.
The bottom line is this: there are many potential biochemical and evolutionary reasons for post-sex sleepiness, some direct and some indirect
- Graber, Benjamin; Balogh, Scott; Fitzpatrick, Denis; Hendricks, Shelton (June 1991). "Cardiovascular changes associated with sexual arousal and orgasm in men". Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment (Springer Netherlands) 4 (2): 151–165. doi:10.1007/BF00851611. ISSN 1079-0632.
- Kevin Charles Redmon (2013-02-01). "Bad news: Sex doesn’t burn that many calories". Salon.com. Retrieved 2014-08-27.
- Krista Casazza et. al (January 31, 2013). "Myths, Presumptions, and Facts about Obesity". N Engl J Med 2013 368: 446–454. doi:10.1056/NEJMsa1208051. Retrieved 2014-08-27.
- Brody S (February 2006). "Blood pressure reactivity to stress is better for people who recently had penile-vaginal intercourse than for people who had other or no sexual activity". Biol Psychol 71 (2): 214–22. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2005.03.005. PMID 15961213.
- Levin, Roy J. "Physiology of Orgasm." In Cancer and Sexual Health, edited by John P. Mulhall, Luca Incrocci, Irwin Goldstein, and Ray Rosen, 35–49. Current Clinical Urology. Humana Press, 2011. http://link.springer.com.proxy.library.uu.nl/chapter/10.1007/978-1-60761-916-1_4.
- Waldinger MD, Meinardi M, Zwinderman A, Schweitzer, D. (April 2011). Postorgasmic Illness Syndrome (POIS) in 45 Dutch Caucasian Males: Clinical Characteristics and Evidence for an Immunogenic Pathogenesis (Part 1). The Journal of Sexual Medicine. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.02166.x
- Waldinger MD, Schweitzer DH (2002). "Postorgasmic illness syndrome: two cases". J Sex Marital Ther 28 (3): 251–5. doi:10.1080/009262302760328280. PMID 11995603.
- Richard Balon, R. Taylor Segraves (2005). Handbook of sexual dysfunction. Informa Health Care. ISBN 978-0-8247-5826-4. Retrieved 2009-05-11.
- Wegner, HE; Franke M; Schick V. (May 1997). "Endoscopic removal of intravesical pencils using percutaneous nephrolithotomy sheath and forceps.". J Urol. 157 (5): 1842. doi:10.1016/s0022-5347(01)64878-x. PMID 9112540.
- "Donor insemination - how does it work?". Hfea.gov.uk. 2009-04-14. Retrieved 2014-08-27.
- "Sperm donation Definition - Tests and Procedures". Mayo Clinic. 2012-07-20. Retrieved 2014-08-27.
- OHasan. "What Does Sperm Donation Involve?". Web.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2014-08-27.
- Penile Fracture and Trauma at eMedicine
- El Atat, R.; Sfaxi, M.; Benslama, R.; Amine, D.; Ayed, M.; Mouelli, B.; Chebil, M.; Zmerli, S. (Jan 2008). "Fracture of the penis: management and long-term results of surgical treatment. Experience in 300 cases". The Journal of trauma 64 (1): 121–125. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e31803428b3. ISSN 0022-5282. PMID 18188109.
- Asgari, S.; Roshani, A.; Falahatkar, S.; Mokhtari, G.; Pourreza, F. (2007). "MP-21.01: Report on the early and late complications of 169 penile fractures". Urology 70 (3): 160–161. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2007.06.119.
- Fitkin J, Ho GT (August 1999). "Peyronie's disease: current management". Am Fam Physician 60 (2): 549–52, 554. PMID 10465229.
- "article on Foreskin contraction (phimosis)". Netdoctor.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-05-29.
- Levine M. P., Troiden R. R. (1988). "The myth of sexual compulsivity". Journal of Sex Research 25 (3): 347–363. doi:10.1080/00224498809551467.
- Giles J (2006). "No such thing as excessive levels of sexual behavior". Archives of Sexual Behavior 35 (6): 641–2. doi:10.1007/s10508-006-9098-3. PMID 17109229.
- Parul Datta (2007). Pediatric Nursing. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers. p. 189. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
- Greene, Alan (1998). "Masturbation in Young Children". Greene Ink. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
- John E. B. Myers (2005). Myers on Evidence in Child, Domestic and Elder Abuse Cases, Volume 1. Aspen Publishers. p. 385. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
Jon Conte and his colleagues were interested to learn what factors are important to mental health professionals who regularly evaluate children for sexual abuse. The evaluators were asked to rank the importance of forty-one indicators of sexual abuse. The following indicators were thought important by more than ninety percent of evaluators: medical evidence of abuse, age-inappropriate sexual knowledge, sexualized play during the interview, precocious or seductive behavior, excessive masturbation, child's description is consistent over time, child's description reveals pressure or coercion.
- Kathleen Coulborn Faller (2003). Understanding and Assessing Child Sexual Maltreatment. Sage Publications. p. 39. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
Six different types of sexual behavior that signal possible sexual abuse will be described in this section: (a) excessive masturbation, (b) sexual interaction with peers, (c) sexual aggression toward younger or more naive children, (d) sexual accosting of older people or adults, (e) seductive behavior, and (f) promiscuity.
- "University of Pennsylvania Office of Health Education article on masturbation". Vpul.upenn.edu. Archived from the original on 2010-08-20. Retrieved 2011-05-29.
- "Children's Medical Office of North Andover, P.C. article on Masturbation in Early Childhood". Chmed.com. Retrieved 2011-05-29.
- Patricia Fawver Ph.D (01/10/2006). "Sexual health". The Sexual Health Network. Archived from the original on 2011-07-18. Check date values in:
- Briken, P.; Habermann, N.; Berner, W.; Hill, A. (2007). "Diagnosis and Treatment of Sexual Addiction: A Survey among German Sex Therapists". Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity 14 (2): 131–045. doi:10.1080/10720160701310450.
- "BBC Relationships: Addicted to sex". Bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2009-02-13. Retrieved 2011-05-29.
- Taylor, Timothy (June 1996). "Uncovering the prehistory of sex". British Archaeology (15).
The Ħaġar Qim woman is... masturbating, with one hand languidly supporting her head.
- Dening, Sarah (1996). "Chapter 3". The Mythology of Sex. Macmillian. ISBN 9780028612072. Retrieved 2013-11-08.
- Margolis, Johnathan (2003). O: The intimate history of the orgasm. p. 134.
- Dio Crysostom, Discourses, iv.20
- The tyranny of pleasure, Jean Claude Guillebaud, Keith Torjoc; p.22
- "The Ritual of Circumcision". Noharmm.org. 2005-09-06. Retrieved 2013-11-08.
- Stengers, Jean; van Neck, Anne (2001). Masturbation: the history of a great terror. New York: Palgrave. ISBN 0-312-22443-5.
- Surgical Appliance
- Rachel P. Maines (1999). The Technology of Orgasm: "Hysteria", the Vibrator, and Women's Sexual Satisfaction. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6646-4.
- The Life Cycle Library for Young People, Book 3. Chicago: Parent and Child Institute. 1969. p. 322. LCCN 70-90267.
- Ornella Moscucci, "Male masturbation and the offending prepuce," at: http://www.cirp.org/library/history/moscucci/ (It is an excerpt from "Sexualities in Victorian Britain.") apud Masturbation: Current medical opinions Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. New URL: http://sites.google.com/site/completebaby/repression
- "JackinLibrary: Joycelyn Elders". Jackinworld.com. Retrieved 2011-05-29.
- Planned Parenthood, Masturbation—From Stigma to Sexual Health
- "Catechism of the Catholic Church". Retrieved 2007-10-08.
Both the Magisterium of the Church, in the course of a constant tradition, and the moral sense of the faithful have been in no doubt and have firmly maintained that masturbation is an intrinsically and gravely disordered action."The deliberate use of the sexual faculty, for whatever reason, outside of marriage is essentially contrary to its purpose". For here sexual pleasure is sought outside of "the sexual relationship which is demanded by the moral order and in which the total meaning of mutual self-giving and human procreation in the context of true love is achieved".
- Kant, Emmanuel. Mary J. Gregor, ed. The Metaphysics of Morals. Cambridge University Press. p. 179. ISBN 0521566738. Retrieved 2013-12-28.
- James, Lawrence (September 15, 1997). The Rise and Fall of the British Empire. St. Martin's Griffin. p. 41. ISBN 978-0312169855. The context is a discussion of the social habits of the early North American colonists.
- "Masturbation laws around the world: the penal code". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "1568 MONTGOMERY HIGHWAY INC v. CITY OF HOOVER". 2010-03-05. Retrieved 2014-05-20.
- Withnall, Adam (2013-09-19). "Swedish court rules that it is ‘okay’ to masturbate in public". London: The Independent. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- Eaton-Robb, Pat (8 October 2011). "Connecticut Prisoners Express Anger Over Porn Ban". Associated Press.
- Johns, David Merritt (10 January 2012). "Free Willy". Slate.
- Nikkhah, Roya (12 Jul 2009). "NHS tells school children of their 'right' to 'an orgasm a day'". London: Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 2009-10-06.
- Grimston, Jack (12 Jul 2009). "Pupils told: Sex every day keeps the GP away". London: Times Newspapers. Retrieved 2009-10-06.
- Giles Tremlett (12 November 2009). "Spanish region takes hands-on approach to sex education". London: Guardian News and Media. Retrieved 2009-11-12.
- Matzo, Marianne; Deborah Witt Sherman (2006). Palliative care nursing: quality care to the end of life. Springer Publishing. p. 70. ISBN 978-0826157911. Retrieved 26 May 2010.
- "The Sambia". Faculty.mdc.edu. 1999-10-04. Archived from the original on 2011-09-07. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
- Hewlett, B.S. (1996). "Diverse contexts of human infancy". In Ember, C., Ember, M. Cross-Cultural Research for Social Science. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice Hall.
- "article on Masturbation Marathon London". Viewlondon.co.uk. 2006-08-05. Retrieved 2011-05-29.
- Leslie Vella. "Malta's prehistoric statues and sexuality". Maltainsideout.com. Retrieved 2014-08-27.
- Pete Townshend (1971). "Meaty Beaty Big and Bouncy". Printed article. "Rolling Stone or one of the similar magazines (Melody Maker, NME, etc.)". Retrieved 2009-01-09. "Merely a ditty about masturbation and the importance of it to a young man. I was really diggin' at my folks who, when catching me at it, would talk in loud voices in the corridor outside my room. 'Why can't he go with girls like other boys?'"
- McLean, Craig (25 March 2006). "Pink: The outspoken pop star on fame and growing up". The Independent (London). Retrieved 16 March 2010.
- Macdonald, Cameron (2006-01-23). "Treating Dandruff by Decapitation — Playing God". Stylus Magazine.
- "Cyndi Lauper Biography". Monsters and Critics. Retrieved 2013-11-08.
- "Meaning of Song Lyrics: The Stranger". Songmeanings.net. Retrieved 2011-08-17.
- "Don Chipp: larrikin, censor, and party founder". Crikey. August 2006.
- Currey, Mason (30 April 2013). "Daily Rituals". Slate.com. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- Chaney, Jen (17 May 2005). "'Seinfeld,' Four: It's Real and It's Spectacular". The Washington Post.
- "The masturbating bear is coming back!!!". warmingglow.uproxx.com. Retrieved 2013-11-08.
- Stableford, Dylan (2010-01-21). "'Conan Finally Unleashes 'Masturbating Bear''". Thewrap.com. Retrieved 2011-05-29.
- "'Conan: Masturbating Bear Gets a New Job'". Tbs.com. Retrieved 2011-05-29.
- Jason Deans (2007-02-02). "'Wank week' postponed". Media Guardian (London). Retrieved 2007-11-02.
- Jon Lewis, Hollywood V. Hard Core, NYU Press, 2002, ISBN 978-0-8147-5143-5, p.196
- Janet Staiger, Bad women: regulating sexuality in early American cinema, U of Minnesota Press, 1995, ISBN 978-0-8166-2625-0, p.15
- Tom Waugh, "Men's Pornography: Gay vs. Straight," Jump Cut, no. 30, March 1985, pp. 30-35.
- "2010 Winners," AVN Awards, URL accessed 25 November 2012.
- AVN - AVN Announces the 2012 AVN Award Winners. Retrieved April 9, 2012.
- Brody, Stuart (July–September 2004). "Slimness is associated with greater intercourse and lesser masturbation frequency". J Sex Marital Ther 30 (4): 251–61. doi:10.1080/00926230490422368. PMID 15205063.
- DeMartino, Manfred F. (1979). Human Autoerotic Practices. New York: Human Sciences Press. ISBN 0-87705-373-1.
- Marcus, Irwin M. (1975). Masturbation: From Infancy to Senescence. New York: International Universities Press. ISBN 0-8236-3150-8.
- Hurlbert David Farley, Karen Elizabeth Whittaker (1991). "The Role of Masturbation in Marital and Sexual Satisfaction: A Comparative Study of Female Masturbators and Nonmasturbators". Journal of Sex Education & Therapy 17 (4): 272–282.
|Look up masturbation or onanism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
- "Masturbating may protect against prostate cancer". New Scientist. 16 July 2003.
- "Masturbation could bring hay fever relief for men". New Scientist. April 2009.