Jacobite succession

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The Jacobite succession is the line through which the crown in pretence of England and Scotland and Ireland has descended since the flight of James II & VII from London at the time of the "Glorious Revolution". James and his Jacobite successors were traditionally toasted as "The King over the Water". Due to their descent from Charles I, as compared to the descent of Queen Elizabeth II from his sister Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia.

House of Stuart[edit]

The Stuarts who claimed the thrones of England, Scotland, Ireland and France after the Glorious Revolution of 1688 were, with the dates of their claim:

Descendant and Dates of Claim Portrait Birth Marriages Death
James II & VII
11 December 1688 (England & Ireland) / 14 March 1689 (Scotland) –
16 September 1701[1]
King James II and VII.jpg 14 October 1633
St. James's Palace
son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France[1]
Anne Hyde
3 September 1660
8 children

Mary of Modena
21 November 1673
7 children[1]

16 September 1701
Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye
aged 67[1]
James Francis Edward Stuart
("James III & VIII")
("The Old Pretender")
16 September 1701–
1 January 1766
James 10 June 1688[2]
St. James's Palace
son of James II of England and Mary of Modena
Clementina Sobieski
3 September 1719
2 children
1 January 1766
Palazzo Muti
aged 77
Charles Edward Stuart
("Charles III")
("The Young Pretender")
("Bonnie Prince Charlie")
1 January 1766–
31 January 1788
Charles 31 December 1720[3]
Palazzo Muti
son of James Francis Edward Stuart and Clementina Sobieski
Princess Louise of Stolberg-Gedern
28 March 1772
no children
(2 illegitimate children)
31 January 1788
Palazzo Muti
aged 67
Henry Benedict Stuart
("Henry IX & I")
("Cardinal Duke of York")
31 January 1788–
13 July 1807
Henry 11 March 1725[4]
Rome
son of James Francis Edward Stuart and Clementina Sobieski
never married 13 July 1807
Frascati
aged 82

Upon Henry's death, the succession passed to a different house, and none of the Jacobite heirs since has actually claimed the thrones of England and Scotland or incorporated the arms of England and Scotland in their coats-of-arms.

House of Savoy[edit]

Charles Emmanuel IV of Sardinia was a descendant of Charles I through his youngest daughter Henrietta Anne. Her daughter Anne Marie of Orléans married Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia, and Charles Emmanuel IV was great-grandson of Queen Anne Marie in the male line.

Descendent and Dates of Claim Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Charles Emmanuel IV of Sardinia
("Charles IV")
13 July 1807–
6 October 1819
Charles Emmanuel IV 24 May 1751
Turin
son of Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia and Maria Antonietta of Bourbon
Marie Clotilde of France
1775
No children
6 October 1819
Rome
aged 68
Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia
("Victor")
6 October 1819–
10 January 1824
Victor Emmanuel I 24 July 1759
Turin
son of Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia and Maria Antonietta of Bourbon
Maria Teresa of Austria-Este
21 April 1789
7 children
10 January 1824
Moncalieri
aged 65
Maria Beatrice of Savoy
("Mary III & II")[5]
10 January 1824–
15 September 1840
Maria Beatrice Vittoria of Savoy.jpg 6 December 1792
daughter of Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia and Maria Teresa of Austria-Este
Francis IV, Duke of Modena
20 June 1812
4 children
15 September 1840
aged 48

House of Austria-Este[edit]

Descendent and Dates of Claim Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Francis V, Duke of Modena
("Francis I")
15 September 1840–
20 November 1875
Francesco V d'austria este Duca Modena young.jpg 1 June 1819
Modena
son of Maria Beatrice of Savoy and Francis IV, Duke of Modena
Adelgunde of Bavaria
30 March 1842
1 child
20 November 1875
Vienna
aged 56
Maria Theresia of Austria-Este
("Mary IV & III")[5]
20 November 1875–
3 February 1919
MariaTheresiaAustriaEste.jpg 2 July 1849
Brno
daughter of Ferdinand of Austria-Este[6] and Elisabeth of Austria
Ludwig III of Bavaria
13 children
3 February 1919
Chiemgau
aged 69

House of Wittelsbach[edit]

Descendent and Dates of Claim Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria
("Robert I & IV")
3 February 1919–
2 August 1955
Rupprecht von Bayern.jpg 18 May 1869
Munich
son of Maria Theresia of Austria-Este and Ludwig III of Bavaria
Marie Gabrielle of Bavaria
10 July 1900
Munich
4 children

Antonia of Luxembourg
7 April 1921
Lenggries
6 children
2 August 1955
Schloß Leutstetten
aged 86
Albrecht, Duke of Bavaria
("Albert")
2 August 1955–
8 July 1996
Albrechtbavaria1922.jpg 3 May 1905
Munich
son of Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria and Marie Gabrielle of Bavaria
Countess Maria Draskovich of Trakostjan
1930
4 children

Countess Marie-Jenke Keglevich of Buzin
1971
No children
8 July 1996
Castle Berg
aged 91
Franz, Duke of Bavaria
("Francis II")
8 July 1996–
present
Prinz franz von bayern.jpg 14 July 1933
Munich
son of Albrecht, Duke of Bavaria and Countess Maria Draskovich of Trakostjan
not married

Future descent after the Duke of Bavaria[edit]

The heir presumptive of Franz, Duke of Bavaria, is his younger brother

Family tree[edit]

This is a family tree of the above Jacobite successors, the boldface names are successors, and the italic names are in line of succession.

 
 
 
 
1600-1649
Charles I
1625-1649
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1630-1685
Charles II
1660-1685
 
1633-1701
James II & VII
1685-(1688)-1701
 
1644-1670
Henrietta of England
 
 
 
 
 
1640-1701
Philippe I, Duke of Orléans
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1688-1766
James Francis Edward Stuart

as James III & VIII
1701-1766
 
 
 
1669-1728
Anne Marie d'Orléans
m. Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia
 
 
 
1674-1723
Philippe II, Duke of Orléans
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1720-1788
Charles Edward Stuart

as Charles III
1766-1788
 
1725-1807
Henry Benedict Stuart

as Henry IX & I
1788-1807
 
1701-1773
Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia
 
 
 
1700-1761
Charlotte Aglaé d'Orléans
m. Francis III, Duke of Modena
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1726-1796
Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia
 
 
 
1727-1803
Ercole III, Duke of Modena
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1750-1829
Maria Beatrice d'Este
m. Ferdinand, Duke of Breisgau
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1751-1819
Charles Emmanuel IV of Sardinia

as Charles IV
1807-1819
 
1759-1824
Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia

as Victor I
1819-1824
 
1773-1832
Maria Theresa of Austria-Este
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1792-1840
Maria Beatrice of Savoy

as Mary III & II
1824-1840
 
1779-1846
Francis IV, Duke of Modena
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1819-1875
Francis V, Duke of Modena

as Francis I
1840-1875
 
1821-1849
Ferdinand Karl Viktor
of Austria-Este
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1845-1921
Ludwig III of Bavaria
 
1849-1919
Maria Theresa of Austria-Este

as Mary IV & III
1875-1919
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1869-1955
Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria

as Robert I & IV
1919-1955
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1905-1996
Albrecht, Duke of Bavaria

as Albert I
1955-1996
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1933-
Franz, Duke of Bavaria

as Francis II
1996-
 
1937-
Prince Max, Duke in Bavaria
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1968-
Alois, Hereditary Prince of Liechtenstein
 
1967-
Duchess Sophie in Bavaria
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1995-
Prince Joseph Wenzel of Liechtenstein

Alternative successions[edit]

While Franz of Bavaria is recognized by Jacobites as the Stuart heir, arguments have been made by some people for other candidates.

Alicia[edit]

Maria Beatrice of Savoy married her uncle Francis IV, Duke of Modena. This marriage was concluded validly in Sardinia.[citation needed] However, it would have been illegal for them to marry in Britain, and therefore the Jacobite succession is considered by some[citation needed] to have passed from Maria Beatrice to her younger sister Maria Teresa, who married the Duke of Parma. Her representative today is HRH The Infanta Alicia (b. 1917), dowager Duchess of Calabria and mother of the heir of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.[7]

The succession from Maria Teresa is as follows.

Descendent Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Maria Teresa of Savoy
("Mary IV & III")
15 September 1840–
16 July 1879
Maria Teresa di Savoia.jpg 19 September 1803
Palazzo Colonna
daughter of Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia and Maria Teresa of Austria-Este
Charles II, Duke of Parma
5 September 1820
Lucca
(2 children)
16 July 1879
aged 75
Descendent Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Robert I, Duke of Parma
("Robert I and IV")
16 July 1879–
16 November 1907
Robert I duke of parma.jpg 9 July 1848
Florence
son of Charles III, Duke of Parma and Louise Marie Thérèse of France
Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies
5 April 1869
Rome
(12 children)
Maria Antonia of Portugal
15 October 1884
Schloß Fischhorn
(12 children)
16 November 1907
Viareggio
aged 59
Henry, Duke of Parma
("Henry X and II")
16 November 1907–
16 November 1939
Henry, Duke of Parma titular.png 13 June 1873
Wartegg
son of Robert I, Duke of Parma and Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies
never married 16 November 1939
Pianore
aged 66
Joseph, Duke of Parma
("Joseph")
16 November 1939–
7 January 1950
Joseph, Duke of Parma titular.png 30 June 1875
Biarritz
son of Robert I, Duke of Parma and Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies
never married 7 January 1950
Pianore
aged 74
Elias, Duke of Parma
("Elias")
7 January 1950–
27 June 1959
23 July 1880
Biarritz
son of Robert I, Duke of Parma and Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies
Maria Anna of Austria-Teschen
25 May 1903
Vienna
(8 children)
27 June 1959
Friedberg
aged 78
Robert II, Duke of Parma
("Robert II and V")
27 June 1959–
25 November 1974
Robert II, Duke of Parma.jpg 7 August 1909
Weilburg
son of Elias, Duke of Parma and Maria Anna of Austria-Teschen
never married 25 November 1974
Vienna
aged 65
Elisabetta of Bourbon-Parma
("Elizabeth II and I")
25 November 1974–
13 June 1983
17 March 1904
Vienna
daughter of Elias, Duke of Parma and Maria Anna of Austria-Teschen
never married 13 June 1983
Bad Ischl
aged 79
Maria Francesca of Bourbon-Parma
("Mary V & IV")
13 June 1983–
20 February 1994
5 September 1906
Weilburg
daughter of Elias, Duke of Parma and Maria Anna of Austria-Teschen
never married 20 February 1994
Fribourg
aged 87
Alicia, Duchess of Calabria
("Alice")
20 February 1994–
present
13 November 1917
Vienna
daughter of Elias, Duke of Parma and Maria Anna of Austria-Teschen
Infante Alfonso, Duke of Calabria
16 April 1936
Vienna
(3 children)

Victor Emmanuel[edit]

In the early twentieth century Frederick Rolfe claimed that King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy was the rightful King of England, as heir to the Kings of Sardinia.

In 1831 the male descendants of Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia and his wife Anne Marie d'Orléans, a niece of James II, died out and the Savoy succession – but not the Jacobite succession – passed to a distant cousin, because the succession in the Kingdom of Sardinia was governed by the Salic Law, which does not recognize claims by or through a female. England and Scotland have never been subject to the Salic Law (if they were, the succession could not have passed to the house of Savoy, nor in fact could the House of Stuart have inherited the thrones of either Scotland or England, as their claims in the two kingdoms derived, respectively, from Marjorie Bruce and Margaret Tudor). Rolfe may not have understood this.

Elizabeth[edit]

In his book The Highland Clans, Iain Moncreiffe of that Ilk claimed that Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom "is the lawful Jacobite sovereign of this realm". Moncreiffe made the following argument:

... by the fourteenth century it had become common law (in both England and Scotland) that a person who was not born in the liegeance of the Sovereign, nor naturalised, could not have the capacity to succeed as an heir .... In Scotland, this law was modified in favour of the French from the sixteenth century, but was otherwise rigorously applied until the Whig Revolution of 1688, after which it was gradually done away with by the mid-nineteenth century. It was precisely because of this law that Queen Anne found it necessary to pass a special Act of Parliament naturalising all alien-born potential royal heirs under her Act of Settlement of the throne. But, of course, from the Jacobite point of view, no new statute could be passed after 1688 .... The nearest lawful heir of the Cardinal York in 1807 was, in fact, curiously enough, King George III himself, who had been born in England (and therefore in the technical liegance of James VIII).

Under Moncreiffe's theory, however, James VI of Scotland could never have succeeded as James I of England in 1603. This problem, recognized in 1603, had been circumvented at the time of James's accession by the ahistorical assertion that Scotland and England had been "anciently but one" kingdom, and that the succession of the Scottish monarch to the throne of England was a "reuniting" of two parts of a single kingdom, i.e., that Scotland was not really a foreign country – a concept emphasized by James's insistence on the use of the name Great Britain for the united realms of England and Scotland.

It was not common law but a 15th-century statute that restricted the English crown to those in the liegeance of the Sovereign, and that statute was supplanted by the Acts of Succession passed in Henry VIII's reign. Additionally, Jacobites believe that the royal succession is determined by God and by hereditary right, not by Parliament. For instance, most Jacobites recognise Mary, Queen of Scots as having been the rightful Queen of England – a clear violation of the aforementioned law, which in their view is overridden by Mary's hereditary rights (as granddaughter of Margaret Tudor), and the illegitimacy[8] of Elizabeth I.[9][10][11]

Another interesting question raised by Moncreiffe's theory is that had the Act of Settlement not been passed, then George III would probably not have been born in Britain and so the House of Hanover as well as the House of Savoy would have had to be bypassed on Cardinal York's death, which would mean that he would have had different heirs to Scotland and England as all post-Union of the Crowns lines (i.e. Stuart, Savoy and Hanover) would either be extinct (Stuart) or barred from the succession on the grounds of being foreign (Savoy and Hanover). The logical thing to happen in this instance would have been for parliament to introduce legislation allowing the closest relatives (i.e. The House of Savoy, specifically Charles Emmanuel IV and his family) to be in the line of succession, as was actually done for the closest Protestant relatives of Queen Anne (The House of Hanover; Princess Sophia and her family) via the Sophia Naturalisation Act which ensured the succession as laid down by the Act of Settlement, and confirmed in the Treaty of Union.[citation needed]

Royal family tree[edit]

Family tree showing the ancestry of the Jacobite Pretenders and their relation to the UK monarchs descended from Sophia of Hanover

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "thePeerage.com – Person Page 10136". Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  2. ^ "Stuart, James Francis Edward, Duke of Cornwall". Directory of Royal Genealogical Data: University of Hull. Retrieved 2008-03-21. 
  3. ^ "Stuart, Charles Edward Louis Casimer, Prince of Wales". Directory of Royal Genealogical Data: University of Hull. Retrieved 2008-03-21. 
  4. ^ "Stuart, Henry Benedict Thomas Maria, Duke of York". Directory of Royal Genealogical Data: University of Hull. Retrieved 2008-03-21. 
  5. ^ a b Mary III & II and Mary IV & III were numbered in such a way because some Jacobites regard Elizabeth I of England as illegitimate, and therefore consider Mary, Queen of Scots, to have been the rightful Queen Mary II of England from the death of Mary I
  6. ^ Ferdinand was the second son of Francis IV
  7. ^ "The Infanta Alicia of Spain". Jacobite.ca. Retrieved 2008-07-19. 
  8. ^ Hibbert, Christopher (1992). The virgin queen: Elizabeth I, genius of the Golden Age. DaCapo Press. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-201-60817-5. 
  9. ^ Tudor Monarchs – Queen Elizabeth I: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources. Englishhistory.net. Retrieved on 2012-07-15.
  10. ^ http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0.9171,937040,00.html.  Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link]
  11. ^ Jenkins, Elizabeth (2000). Elizabeth the Great. Phoenix Press. ISBN 978-1-84212-162-7. 

External links[edit]