Jacques-Louis Monod (born February 25, 1927) is an influential French-born, American domiciled composer, pianist and conductor of 20th century and contemporary music, particularly in the advancement of the music of Arnold Schoenberg and uptown music in New York City.
- 1 Biography
- 1.1 Paris 1940s: early years under Messiaen and Leibowitz
- 1.2 New York City 1950s: pianist and the Dial recordings
- 1.3 New York City 1950s: conductor of Webern and New York serialism
- 1.4 London 1960s: conductor at the BBC and the British serial movement
- 1.5 New York City 1970s–1990s: the Guild of Composers and music from uptown
- 2 Music
- 3 Theorist and editor of Schoenberg, Webern and Ives
- 4 Teacher at Columbia and Juilliard
- 5 Association for the Promotion of New Music
- 6 Personal life and close associates
- 7 Notable relatives
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Paris 1940s: early years under Messiaen and Leibowitz
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Monod was born in Asnières (now Asnières-sur-Seine), a northwestern suburb of Paris, to an affluent family of privilege and of French Protestant affiliation. Early indications of his musical prowess came when he enrolled in 1933 at the Paris Conservatoire National Supérieur de Musique as a child prodigy at the age of six, under the official minimum age of nine. Monod would attend the Paris Conservatoire intermittently but remain registered for nearly 20 years, obtaining his Doctorat from the Paris Conservatoire in 1952. Monod's teachers at the Conservatoire were Yves Nat and Olivier Messiaen; including master classes under the visiting conductor, Herbert Von Karajan; he also studied with his godfather, Paul-Silva Hérard, the organist at Paris's St. Ambroise Church.
Although impressed by Messiaen's technical prowess as a teacher of the Classical repertoire; Monod did not accept Messiaen's vision of the New Music, imbued with Catholic mysticism combined with a tinge of Orientalism. Yet it would be in Messiaen's classes on harmony and analysis where Monod would encounter the many composers who would eventually comprise the New Music movement in post-WWII Europe, including Pierre Boulez, Jean Barraqué, Iannis Xenakis and Karlheinz Stockhausen.
A decisive turning point for Monod occurred in 1944 and at the age of 17, when he took private lessons in composition and theory for five years, subsequently remaining a lifelong supporter and president of an association promoting the music of the French composer and conductor René Leibowitz, an Webern disciple and émigré from Warsaw, Poland (rumor has it that during the German occupation of France, which lasted until December 1944, the young Monod surreptitiously brought food to Leibowitz, a member of the French Resistance). Leibowitz, who was an outsider among the French musical establishment, and a major catalyst in the promotion of Schoenberg's music and in the subsequent development of serial music in Paris after WWII, became Monod’s principal teacher and mentor within a circle of devoted pupils, including Jean Prodromidès, Antoine Duhamel, Pierre Chan, Michel Philippot, Serge Nigg, André Casanova, Claude Helffer, and for a brief period, Pierre Boulez.
Monod's oeuvre is historically significant among the early cadre of post-WWII proponents of the New Modernism in Paris (ca. 1945–51), promoting initially the music of Schoenberg and later, the serial music of Webern. Interest in Schoenberg's music had seen a steady growth in Paris, beginning with the work and teachings of the Polish-French vocalist Marya Freund, who premiered Pierrot Lunaire to French audiences in 1927, followed by Schoenberg's brief emigration to Paris in 1933, before departing for America during the same year. The Schoenberg pupils Max Deutsch and Erich Itor Kahn also relocated to France during the early 1930s, where Deutsch subsequently taught at the Sorbonne for the next 40 years. Schoenberg's music—considered "radical" for a brief period in France after WWII—was soon regarded as outmoded by the early 1950s and superseded by that of his pupil, Webern. Yet it would be Schoenberg—an autodidact from humble origins, possessing an extraordinary combination of sharp intellect with creative energy and the self-proclaimed leader from fin-de-siècle Vienna of the New Music—who conveyed a mesmerizing, almost overpowering persona to those who were smitten by his music and teachings, and who would ultimately alter the course of twentieth-century music through his particular invention of the "method of twelve-tone composition" and promotion by his many disciples, such as R. Leibowitz, J. Rufer, T.W. Adorno, E. Stein and J. Cage; and earlier, A. Webern and A. Berg. And during the course of new music developments from France after WWII, Monod would not abandon Schoenberg's music throughout his long career—as many in the French avant-garde had under Boulez's direction, as exemplified in his polemical 1951 article, "Schoenberg is Dead" and in his subsequent influence upon the development of "experimental" serialist and related music at Darmstadt. Monod's debut (1949) as a pianist took place in Paris at a concert organized by Leibowitz for Schoenberg's 75th birthday. His performance in the European premiere of Schoenberg's Phantasy for Violin and Piano Accompaniment, Op. 47, missed being the world premiere by only a few hours (the world premiere took place in Los Angeles on September 13, 1949, with Leonard Stein on piano and Adolf Koldofsky on violin).
New York City 1950s: pianist and the Dial recordings
Soon after Leibowitz’s earliest travels to the United States (first in 1947 to visit Schoenberg in Los Angeles), Monod followed, accompanying Leibowitz to New York City in 1950. Whereas, the noted pianist Charles Rosen claims to have heard Monod perform Milton Babbitt's The Widow's Lament in Springtime as early as 1945 or 1946 at Princeton (Rosen 1976, p. 37)—and yet the work was not composed until 1951.
At a time when the musics of Schoenberg, Berg, and Webern were least performed in America, Monod was among their earliest champions. He spent much of the 1950s as a pianist, performing works of the Second Viennese School for piano and voice, similar to the careers of pianists E. Steuermann; P. Stadlen; C. Helffer; Paul Jacobs; the Viennese pianist, Karl Steiner; and the American pianist, L. Stein. Under the direction of Leibowitz, Monod performed and recorded the piano part of Berg's Chamber Concerto and Schoenberg's Ode to Napoleon Bonaparte, Op. 41; and more importantly, Monod also performed on historic recordings of chamber music by Webern for the Dial Records label in the early 1950s (a label founded by Ross Russell, who also produced historic jazz recordings of Charlie Parker, Max Roach and Miles Davis), including the earliest recordings of Webern's Symphony, Op. 21, conducted by Leibowitz with the Paris Chamber Orchestra; the Concerto for nine instruments, Op. 24; the Variations for Piano, Op. 27, performed by Monod; the Four Songs, Op. 12, performed by the American virtuosic soprano Bethany Beardslee with Monod on piano; and the Quartet for tenor saxophone, clarinet, violin, and piano, Op. 22.
On Dec. 18, 1950, Monod performed in a special concert of Alban Berg's chamber music at Juilliard, featuring the American premiere of Berg's Two Songs (unedited extract from Die Musik 1930) with Ms. Beardslee. The duo also performed Berg's Seven Early Songs (1905–08) and Four Songs, Op. 2 (1908–10).
Monod also promoted other musics in addition to the music of the Second Viennese School: on January 24, 1954, The Three Japanese Lyrics, composed by Igor Stravinsky in 1912–13, received their Carnegie Hall premiere in Carnegie Recital Hall (now Weill Recital Hall) with Ms. Beardslee, soprano; the pianist Russell Sherman; and a chamber ensemble conducted by Monod. Also evident during Monod's residency in the USA was his extraordinary analytical ability: while attending a Columbia graduate 20th-century-music seminar taught by the Varèse disciple Chou Wen-chung, Monod's cogent analysis of Varèse's Ionisation led to his teaching the remainder of the course. Monod's studies at Columbia University during the 1950s would eventually lead by the early 1970s to an Associate Professorship position at Columbia's music department, wherein Monod with the former Schoenberg pupil and specialist in medieval music theory, P. Carpenter, were instrumental in establishing the department's undergraduate and graduate core curricula.
New York City 1950s: conductor of Webern and New York serialism
Beginning in the early 1950s, Monod directed American premieres of many works of Anton Webern, assisting Richard Franko Goldman (of Goldman Band notoriety) in directing the first all-Webern concert in the USA, which took place in New York City on May 8, 1951, and included the world premiere of Webern’s Five Canons on Latin Texts (Moldenhauer and Moldenhauer 1975, p. 713). On March 16, 1952, Monod gave the world premieres of Webern's Three Traditional Rhymes, Op. 17, and the Three Songs on Poems of Hildegard Jone, Op. 25, all with his then wife, Ms. Beardslee, with whom for years, they gave critically acclaimed concerts of new music with the Camera Concerts under Monod's directorship (Moldenhauer and Moldenhauer 1975, pp. 713, 717).
Hermann Scherchen (with an introduction by Pierre Boulez) premiered Edgard Varèse’s Déserts in Paris on January 20, 1954; while Monod gave its American premiere at Town Hall in December 1955, with Varèse controlling the Ampex tape recorder. In 1956, Monod received an Award from the American Academy of Arts and Letters for his creative work in music.
London 1960s: conductor at the BBC and the British serial movement
Many of Schoenberg's and Webern's disciples had relocated to Great Britain during the 1930s as a result of the rise of National Socialism (e.g., E. Wellesz, E. Stein. W. Goehr, R. Gerhard, T. W. Adorno, K. Rankl, L. Spinner, E. Kraus, E. Spira, etc.). Further, "during his seven years as the conductor for the BBC Third Program, he [i.e. Monod] presented a live concert broadcast of new music every Tuesday throughout the concert season. Each program was different and was broadcast internationally to a wide listening audience...[Monod] has conducted major orchestras and chamber ensembles in Europe, Scandinavia, and North and Central America" (Equinox Music CD 0101 Liner Notes). A notable performance took place on Tuesday evening, December 21, 1965 with Monod conducting the British premiere of Kurt Weill's school opera composed in 1930, Der Jasager, based on a libretto by Bertolt Brecht and after a Japanese Noh-play, as reported by David Drew (1965).
New York City 1970s–1990s: the Guild of Composers and music from uptown
In 1975 he founded, and for 20 years served as president of the Guild of Composers, a New York-based group that produced concerts of "uptown" contemporary music. At the Guild of Composers concerts, which often took place at Columbia University's Miller Theater, performances included the music of Elliott Carter, Arthur Berger, Claudio Spies, Mario Davidovsky, Seymour Shifrin, Earl Kim, Donald Martino, George Edwards, Robert Helps, David Lewin, Fred Lerdahl; and Milton Babbitt, who composed an earlier work, Du, dedicated to Monod and Ms. Beardslee. During 1995–2000, concerts of the Guild of Composers were directed by the Monod protégé, the Princeton- and Columbia-educated American composer and conductor, Daniel Plante.
New York City during the 1960s through the 1980s played host to numerous concerts and "happenings" devoted to contemporary music: the development of a "downtown" contemporary music scene during the 1960s and mid-1970s, for instance, may have been a reaction to and/or caused by "uptown" contemporary music promulgated at the Juilliard School in Lincoln Center—which remains to this day a beacon of European-derived, "high-art" music—and primarily at Columbia University by concerts of the Guild of Composers; and earlier, by The Group for Contemporary Music concerts, directed from 1961 to the 1970s by two former Columbia students, Charles Wuorinen and Harvey Sollberger. Columbia's renowned music department, characterized by a tendency to promote modern music from its earliest years under the influence of the Paris Conservatoire-educated American composer Edward MacDowell—and which much later had invited composers as diverse as Bartók and Varèse during the 1940s and 1950s—was dominated during much of the 1970s and 1980s by Columbia- and Princeton-educated composers and theorists who shared a strong bias toward the European-derived, historically deterministic theories of Schoenberg—which composers from the downtown music scene opposed, developing instead a multicultural, improvisatory, and pop-influenced music also influenced by the indeterminate music of John Cage, who paradoxically was a former pupil of Schoenberg's, and by the New York School of American experimental music.
Monod was a major proponent in New York City of "non-experimental" serialism, promoting the music of American composers from the so-called Columbia-Princeton "axis" (and to a lesser degree from Harvard) at the Guild of Composers concerts. The music performed for 25 years at the Guild of Composers concerts exemplified the ideological view that contemporary American music remains very much a part of the Western polyphonic tradition. Further, Boulez's provocative work as Music Director of the New York Philharmonic at Lincoln Center during 1971–77 also contributed to the public's increased awareness of concerts devoted to contemporary music, albeit with a much wider palette of works.
Throughout much of the 1970s and 1980s, Monod also continued to perform the music of Schoenberg in New York City, leading the music critic Allan Kozinn to write an article published in the New York Times (March 1985) acknowledging Monod as the "Guardian of the Schoenberg Flame," wherein Monod is quoted to have stated the following concerning his conducting demands:
Roughly speaking, my experience has proved that you need at least one hour of rehearsal for every minute of music. Less than that, and you cannot do justice to the piece. You also need good players - ideally, I prefer musicians who have worked together, and who have worked with me before. I have a very short fuse when I have to waste time on elementary things. And if possible, I like to use my own marked scores and parts. I'm talking about an ethical approach to performing, and the conditions that justify the performance of a work. If someone asks me to conduct, but cannot give me the conditions I need, well, it's very easy for me to live without conducting.
List of compositions (1952–80)
Monod's music is published by the Jerona Music Corporation.
A partial list of Monod's compositions include works from the series, Cantus Contra Cantum:
- Cantus Contra Cantum I (1968/1980) for Soprano and Chamber Orchestra
- Cantus Contra Cantum II (1973) for Violin and Cello
- Cantus Contra Cantum III (1976) for Chorus (a Piano reduction exists)
- Cantus Contra Cantum IV (Tränen des Vaterlandes—Anno 1636) (1978) for Mixed Chorus and Sackbuts or Trombones
- Cantus Contra Cantum V for Orchestra
- Cantus Contra Cantum VI for Mixed Choir and Chamber Orchestra
- 2 Elegies (1978) (incl. Canonic Vocalise, 1978)
- Chamber Aria (1952) (or the Passacaglia)
Style and ideology
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There are three phases of development in Monod's oeuvre: first, his initial education in Paris during the 1930s and 1940s, bearing distinctively French influences and characteristics as to his role in the origins of serialism in France (e.g., extensive training at the Paris Conservatoire, including studies under Messiaen and later, private studies under Leibowitz); followed by his relocation abroad during the 1950s and 1960s to NYC and London as a pianist and conductor of the New Music, with the advancement of music by composers of non-French origins, particularly American music (e.g., C. Ives, E. Carter, M. Babbitt and S. Shifrin) and the music of Schoenberg, Webern and the serial movement (e.g., A. Berg, A. Webern, R. Gerhard, E. I. Kahn, L. Spinner, E. Krenek, L. Nono, et al.), including the music of a fellow émigré, Varèse; and thirdly, his own musical legacy as a composer and pedagogue at music schools in the Northeast during the 1970s and 1980s, primarily at Columbia University and at the Guild of Composers concerts with the advancement of a post-Schoenbergian generation of "non-experimental" polyphonic music by American composers—many who were directly associated with Monod.
Cantus Contra Cantum and advanced polyphony
Monod’s music is based upon historical precedents of Webern’s music and represents the French school of post-WWII serialism, combined with subtle lyricism. Among his early works, only the Chamber Aria (or the Passacaglia) from 1952 has been published. His doctoral dissertation, i.e. a second doctorate, was completed with distinction at Columbia in 1975 and assisted by the Princeton- and Columbia educated pianist-composer Thomas S. James, consisting of a detailed exposition on the compositional premise of his seminal work, Cantus Contra Cantum II for Violin and Cello: music which represents a tour de force in rhythmic and serial complexity. It is dedicated to the violinist Rose Mary Harbison, wife of the composer John Harbison.
Monod's music has been performed sparingly and has yet to be fully recognized. As in the music of Webern, there are no extraneous musical elements nor is there any degree of fortuitousness in Monod's rigorously composed music, which gives the discerning listener a means to distinguish musical relationships with aesthetically compelling results. The strict formal characteristics of his non-experimental and non-improvisational, highly controlled music requires superior technical abilities on the part of performers. Also noticeable in Monod's music is the apparent avoidance of strictly adhered row permutations, as originally advocated by Schoenberg. Moreover, the overly-mechanical and superficial aspects exhibited in some earlier works of integral or total serialism are entirely absent and circumvented in Monod's music; which as a result, provides listeners with lyrical attributes. Monod has set many of his works to texts by French poets, such as Eluard, Valéry, Renard and René Char (Steinberg 2001).
The title for his extensive cycle of serial compositions composed during the course of the past forty years, namely "Cantus Contra Cantum", refers to the late-medieval concept of "line against line" as a progression beyond "punctus contra punctum", i.e., creating advanced music that is correlated to the development of modern Western polyphony: "music-synergy", wherein the interaction of two or more parts or voices in each work creates a combined effect that is greater than the sum of their individual effects. Monod's music is the subject of a doctoral study by New York-based composer Manuel Sosa's 2002 DMA dissertation for Juilliard, entitled, "Jacques-Louis Monod's Cantus Contra Cantum III : a preliminary inquiry".
In 1979, the ISCM in New York City performed his Cantus Contra Cantum I for Soprano and Chamber Orchestra, the first of a series of works that realizes Monod's advancement of a polyphonic "langue". Other than his editorial work, Monod has written sparingly on his own works and music of other composers. The few available writings by Monod are liner notes from a 2010 New World Records reissue (NWCRL358) of a 1972 recording of his "Cantus Contra Cantum I":
There is unfortunately very little a composer can do to assist the non-professional listener toward an understanding of his work, for a transliteration of his creative statement will be in the best of circumstances a tautology. Further, it may obscure the interaction between the author's and the listener's aesthetic proclivities by dissociating the work from that perceptual level, where the listener experiences the discipline's long standing association with the cultural context. Thus, I will agree with Naum Gabo 'that a work of art restricted to what the artist has put in it is only part of itself,' and that 'it only attains full stature with what people and time make of it.' (Horizon 10, no. 53, July 1944)
For both the non-professional and professional listener, understanding will begin with and depend upon the intensity of intuitive perception and the desire for a significant aesthetic experience that transcends the measurable assets of a given discipline. “Together with the apprehension of concepts and the acquisition of information, professional understanding will achieve cultural significance through the eventual enrichment of a compositional technique that will serve a broader aesthetic responsibility than that of an ideology which relegates aesthetic consideration to that of a surface event.” (NWLCRL358)
More recent performances took place in New York City during February 1987 and in March 1989 of his provocative, "Tränen des Vaterlandes—Anno 1636" (Cantus Contra Cantum IV), a four-minute choral work accompanied by "sackbuts", based upon "a gruesome poetic depiction of carnage and devastation by Andreas Gryphius...[the music is] stark but appropriate for the horrors described" (Rockwell 1989); and his two a capella works, Elergies, evoking "the ghost of Anton Webern...music as exquisitely beautiful as any this listener has heard in some time" (Page 1987).
Theorist and editor of Schoenberg, Webern and Ives
Monod has also edited numerous works for publication at Mobart Music Publications/Boelke-Bomart, Inc. (now part of Jerona Music Corp.). These scores include Charles Ives' Central Park in the Dark, Hallowe'en and The Pond; and Schoenberg's Kol nidre, Op. 39 and the Three Songs, Op. 48; and two works that are arguably among Schoenberg's greatest works from his late period, namely the String Trio, Op. 45, and A Survivor from Warsaw, Op. 46; and Webern's Quintet for Strings and Piano.
Monod's editions of Schoenberg's music have been described as the standard by which other [editions] are to be judged (Haimo 1984,[page needed]). In 1983, Monod edited and published at Mobart, "René Leibowitz 1913–1972. A Register of His Works and Writings".
Teacher at Columbia and Juilliard
Over the years, Monod has also given private lessons to talented musicians, including those influenced by mathematics and the computer sciences: many occupy various professional positions in the USA and abroad in the areas of conducting, composition, and theory.
Monod has also taught conducting to many who have specialized in this profession, including Peter Schubert, Michael Alexander Willens, Gilbert Levine, Markand Thakar, Joel Eric Suben, Peter Frewen, Rachael Worby, David Leibowitz, Richard Fletcher, et al.
Association for the Promotion of New Music
In 1975, Monod established a new music publishing firm, the Association for the Promotion of New Music (APNM), consisting of many works representative of the New York "uptown" movement and beyond. Monod, Mario Davidovsky, and Fred Lerdahl are Honorary Members of the Board with many former pupils of Monod's serving on the Board of Directors. Notable works include the music of Eduard Steuermann, Roger Sessions, Edward T. Cone, Arthur Berger, Godfrey Winham, Will Ogdon, Ursula Mamlok, Rolv Yttrehus, George Edwards, Philip Batstone, Robert Ceely, Mark Hagerty, et al. Monod has also edited music for APNM, including Godfrey Winham's Composition for Orchestra and Stephen Peles' Intermezzo for solo piano.
Personal life and close associates
Monod was previously married to the soprano Bethany Beardslee; and later, to a translator of German descent, Margrit Auhagen.
His closest associates in America include the composers Earl Kim, Seymour Shifrin, Arthur Berger, Mario Davidovsky, Claudio Spies, and Malcolm Peyton; and in France, Michel Philippot.
Monod is descended from one of the oldest families of the French (but of Swiss origin) Protestant bourgeoisie with a history since the Napoleonic Era of wide-ranging influences in French government, theology, the sciences and medicine, banking and the arts. His great-great-grandfather Adolphe Monod was a noted pastor and theologian. His father Pierre Monod was a noted surgeon. His cousins include the naturalist Théodore Monod; the industrialist-politician Jérôme Monod; Jacques Lucien Monod, the Nobel Prize-winning biologist; the pharmacologist Daniel Bovet, who won the Nobel Prize in Medicine; and the French New Wave film director Jean-Luc Godard.
- Drew, David. 1965. [article]. The Musical Times 106, no. 1474 (December): 934–37.[full citation needed]
- Haimo, Ethan. 1984. "Editing Schoenberg’s Twelve-tone Music". Journal of the Arnold Schoenberg Institute 8, no. 2:141–57.
- March. 1985.[full citation needed]
- Moldenhauer, Hans, and Rosaleen Moldenhauer. 1975. Anton Von Webern: A Chronicle of His Life and Work. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
- Page, Tim, music critic, NYT: 2-5-87.[full citation needed].
- Rockwell, John. 1989. New York Times (March 30).[full citation needed]
- Rosen, Charles. 1976. "Homage to Milton". Perspectives of New Music 14, no. 2 / 15, no. 1 (Spring–Summer/Fall–Winter): 37-40.
- Schoenberg, Arnold. 1975. Style and Idea: Selected Writings of Arnold Schoenberg. Edited by Leonard Stein, with translations by Leo Black. New York: St. Martins Press; London: Faber & Faber. ISBN 0-520-05294-3. Expanded from the 1950 Philosophical Library (New York) publication edited by Dika Newlin. The volume carries the note "Several of the essays...were originally written in German (translated by Dika Newlin)" in both editions.
- Steinberg, Michael. 2001. "Monod, Jacques-Louis". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers.
- Website link to the Association for the Promotion of New Music: <http://www.apnmmusic.org/>
- Review by Tim Page in the New York Times: Music: Guild of Composers Concert (February 5, 1987), accessed 16 February 2010
- Review by Dika Newlin on Jacques-Louis Monod's, Passacaille for Soprano and Seven Instruments, No. 1
- Review by Allan Kozinn in the New York Times: Guardian of the Schoenberg Flame (March 10, 1985), accessed 16 February 2010
- Review by Robert G. Kopelson in The Harvard Crimson: Jacques-Louis Monod and Chamber Ensemble
- Review by John Rockwell in the New York Times: Music: Composers Guild (March 25, 1985), accessed 16 February 2010
- Boelke-Bomart, Inc./Jerona Music Corporation Website
- Review by Paul Griffiths in the New York Times: Music Review; Composers' Guild Honors Its Founder in a Concert (November 12, 1999), accessed 16 February 2010
- Review by Tim Page in the New York Times: Concert: New-Music Ensemble (February 26, 1984), accessed 16 February 2010
- Review by Richard G. Swift on Jacques-Louis Monod's ediiton of Schoenberg's A Survivor from Warsaw, Op. 46
- Citation by Jeni Dahmus on the Juilliard Concert of Berg's chamber music with Jacques-Louis Monod and Bethany Beardslee
- Review by Tom Cleman on Jacques-Louis Monod's edition of Schoenberg's String Trio, Op. 45
- Video interview on YouTube
- Recording of Webern Op. 27 Piano Variations on YouTube