Swami Bharati Krishna Tirtha

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Svāmī Bhāratī Kṛṣṇa Tīrtha (Sanskrit: जगद्गुरु स्वामि श्री भारती कृष्ण तीर्थजी महाराज; March 1884 – February 2, 1960) was the Jagadguru Śankarācārya of Govardhana matha in Puri, Orissa (now Odisha) from 1925 to 1960. He is particularly known for his book Vedic Mathematics.[1]

Early life[edit]

Venkatraman Shastri was born in March 1884 to an orthodox Tamil Brahmin family. His father was P. Narasimha Shastri, originally a tehsildar at Tirunelveli in Madras Presidency who later became the Deputy Collector of the Presidency. His uncle, Chandrasekhara Shastri, was the Principal of the Maharaja's college in Vizianagaram, while his great-grandfather, Justice C. Ranganath Shastri was a judge in the Madras High Court.[2]

Educational career[edit]

Venkatraman Shastri started his educational career as a student of the National College in Trichinopoly. After that he moved to the Church Missionary Society College and eventually the Hindu College, both in Tirunelveli. He consistently held first place in all subjects in all of his classes. Shastri passed his matriculation examination from Madras University in January 1899, where he also finished at the head of the class.[3]

As a student, Venkatraman was marked for his splendid brilliance, superb retentive memory, and insatiable curiosity. By deluging his teachers with piercing questions, making them uneasy and frequently forcing them to admit ignorance, he was considered a terribly mischievous student.[4]

Although Venkatraman always scored high in subjects like mathematics, sciences and humanities, he was also proficient in languages and particularly adept in Sanskrit. According to his own testimonials, Sanskrit and oratory were his favourite subjects. Such was his mastery over the language, that he was awarded the title "Saraswati" by the Madras Sanskrit Association in July 1899 at the age of 16. At about that time, Venkatraman was profoundly influenced by his Sanskrit guru Vedam Venkatrai Shastri.[5]

Venkatraman won the highest place in the B.A. examination in 1902. He then appeared for the M.A. Examination for the American College of Sciences in Rochester, New York from the Bombay centre in 1903. He passed the M.A. examination in seven subjects that he had chosen - Sanskrit, philosophy, English, mathematics, history, science, and another - simultaneously scoring the highest honours in all, which was perhaps an all-time world record at the time.[4]

Venkatraman Saraswati, as he was called after receiving the title, also contributed to W. T. Stead's Review of Reviews on topics as diverse as religion and science. During his college days, he also wrote extensively on history, sociology, philosophy, politics, and literature. Reading of the latest scientific research and discoveries was his hobby throughout his life.[4]

Early public life[edit]

Venkatraman Saraswati worked under Gopal Krishna Gokhale in 1905 for the National Education Movement and the South African Indian problems. However, his inclination towards Hindu studies led him to study the ancient Indian holy scriptures, Adhyātma-Vidyā. In 1908 he joined the Sringeri Matha in Mysore to study under Svāmī Satchidānanda Śivābhinava Nrisimha Bhāratī, the Śankarācārya of Sringeri. However, his spiritual practise was interrupted when he was pressured by nationalist leaders to head the newly started National College at Rajamahendri. Prof. Venkatraman Saraswati taught at the college for three years. But in 1911, he suddenly left the college to go back to Sringeri Matha.[6]

Spiritual path[edit]

Returning to Sringeri, Venkatraman spent his next eight years studying advanced Vedanta philosophy with Satchidānanda Śivābhinava Nrisimha.

He also practised vigorous meditation, Brahma-sadhana and Yoga-sādhāna, in the nearby forests during those years. It is believed that he attained spiritual self-realization during his years at Sringeri Matha. He would leave the material world and practice Yoga meditation in seclusion for many days. During those eight years, he also taught Sanskrit and philosophy to local schools and ashrams. He delivered a series of sixteen lectures on Śankarācārya's philosophy at Shankar Institute of Philosophy, Amalner (Khandesh). During that time, he also lectured as a guest professor at various institutions in Mumbai, Pune and Khandesh.[7]

Initiation into Sannyāsa order[edit]

After Venkatrāman's eight-year period of spiritual practice and study of Vedānta and Vedic philosophy, he was initiated into the holy order of sannyāsa in Varanasi by Jagadguru Śankarācārya Svāmī Trivikrāma Tīrtha of Sharada Peetha, Sringeri, on July 4, 1919 and on this occasion he was given the title of Swami and the new name "Svāmī Bhāratī Kṛṣṇa Tīrtha".[7]

Śankarācārya of Sharada Peetha[edit]

Svāmī Bhāratī Kṛṣṇa Tīrtha was installed as Śankarācārya of Sharada Peetha in 1921 after just two years of sannyāsa. After assuming the pontificate, he was given another title, Jagadguru, as is the tradition. The Swami then toured India from corner to corner giving lectures on Sanātana Dharma, Vedic philosophy and Vedanta. By his scintillating intellectual brilliance, powerful oratory, magnetic personality, sincerity of purpose, indomitable will, purity of thought, and loftiness of character, he took the entire intellectual and religious class by storm.[8]

Śankarācārya of Govardhana Matha[edit]

Around the time the Swami became Śankarācārya of Sharada Peetha, the Śankarācārya of Govardhana Matha, Svāmī Madhusudhana Tīrtha, was in failing health and was greatly impressed by Bhāratī Kṛṣṇa. Madhusudana requested Bhāratī Kṛṣṇa to succeed him at Govardhana Matha. Bhāratī Kṛṣṇa respectfully declined the offer. In 1925, however, Śankarācārya Svāmī Madhusudhan Tīrtha's health took a serious turn and Svāmī Bhāratī Kṛṣṇa Tīrtha had to accept the Govardhana Matha gaddi. In 1925, Svāmī Bhāratī Kṛṣṇa Tīrtha assumed the pontificate of Govardhana Matha, and relinquished the gaddi of Sharada Peetha. He installed Svāmī Svarupānanda as the new Śankarācārya of Sharada Peetha.[8]

Jagadguru[edit]

After becoming the Śankarācārya of Govardhana Matha, Svāmī Bhāratī Kṛṣṇa Tīrtha toured all over the world for 35 years to spread the values of peace, harmony and brotherhood and to spread the message of Sanātana Dharma. He took upon himself the colossal task of the renaissance of Indian culture.[8]

While being a pontiff, he wrote a large number of treatises and books on religion, sciences, mathematics, world peace, and social issues. In 1953, at Nagpur, he founded an organization called Sri Vishwa Punarnirmana Sangha (World Reconstruction Association). Initially, the administrative board consisted of Bhāratī Kṛṣṇa's disciples, devotees and admirers of his spiritual ideals for humanitarian service, but later many distinguished people started to contribute to the mission. The Chief Justice of India, Justice B.P. Sinha served as its President. Dr. C. D. Deshmukh, the ex-Finance Minister of India and ex-Chairman of the University Grants Commission served as its Vice-President.[9]

In February 1958 he went on a trans-oceanic tour to America to speak on world peace and Vedānta, staying for three months in Los Angeles, California, traveling via the United Kingdom. This was the first trip outside India by a Śankarācārya. The tour was sponsored by Self-Realization Fellowship of Los Angeles, the Vedantic society founded by Paramhansa Yogananda in America.[10] At that time, Rudi became one of his students.

He attended many national and international religious conferences and yoga workshops. He believed in the Vedāntic ideal of Pūrnatva which, literally translated, means "all-round perfection and harmony". He remained the Śankarācārya of Govardhana Matha until his death in 1960.

In 1965 a Chair of Vedic Studies was founded at Banaras Hindu University by Arvind N. Mafatlala, a generous Mumbai business magnate and devotee of the late Śankarācārya.[11]

Mathematics[edit]

Bhāratī Kṛṣṇa Tīrtha's book Vedic Mathematics is a list of sixteen terse sūtras, or aphorisms, discussing strategies for mental calculation. Bhāratī Kṛṣṇa claimed that he found the sūtras after years of studying the Vedas, a set of sacred ancient Hindu texts.[12] "Vedic Mathematics" sutras.[13][14]

For arithmetic, Bhāratī Kṛṣṇa gives several algorithms for whole number multiplication and division, (flag or straight) division, fraction conversion to repeating decimal numbers, calculations with measures of mixed units, summation of a series, squares and square roots (duplex method), cubes and cube roots (with expressions for a digit schedule), and divisibility (by osculation).[15]

Several tests and techniques for factoring and solving certain algebraic equations with integer roots for quadratic, cubic, biquadratic, pentic equations, systems of linear equations, and systems of quadratic equations are demonstrated. For fractional expressions, a separation algorithm and fraction merger algorithms are given. Other techniques handle certain patterns of some special case algebraic equations. Just an introduction to differential and integral calculus is given.[16]

Geometric applications are reviewed for linear equations, analytic conics, the equation for the asymptotes, and the equation to the conjugate-hyperbola.[17] Five simple geometric proofs for the Pythagorean theorem are given.[18] A 5-line proof of Apollonius' theorem is given.[19]

Advanced topics promised included integral calculus (the center of gravity of hemispheres, conics), trigonometry, astronomy (spherical triangles, earth's daily rotation, earth's annual rotation about the sun and eclipses), and engineering (dynamics, statics, hydrostatics, pneumatics, applied mechanics).[20]

In his final comments he asserted that the names for "Arabic numerals," "Pythagoras' Theorem," and "Cartesian" co-ordinates are historical misnomers.[21]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Understanding ancient Indian mathematics". The Hindu (India). 26 December 2011. 
  2. ^ Manjula Trivedi, "My Beloved Gurudeva", dedication to Bhāratī Kṛṣṇa, in Bhāratī Kṛṣṇa's Vedic Mathematics, page i.
  3. ^ Manjula Trivedi, page i.
  4. ^ a b c Manjula Trivedi, page ii.
  5. ^ Manjula Trivedi, pages i-ii.
  6. ^ Manjula Trivedi, page iii.
  7. ^ a b Manjula Trivedi, page iii
  8. ^ a b c Manjula Trivedi, page iv.
  9. ^ Manjula Trivedi, page v-vi.
  10. ^ Manjula Trivedi, page vi.
  11. ^ Publication announcement by N.H. Bhagwati, Vice-Chancellor, Banaras Hindu University, March 27, 1965, after title page, Vedic Mathematics
  12. ^ Agrawala, V. S. (1992). General Editor's note. Vedic Mathematics (pp. v-viii) Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited.
  13. ^ Myths and reality : On ‘Vedic mathematics’. S.G. Dani. School of Mathematics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research. Frontline, 22 October and 5 November 1993.
  14. ^ The Fraud of Vedic Maths. Hartosh Singh Bal. Open Magazine. 14 August 2010.
  15. ^ Table of Contents, Vedic Mathematics
  16. ^ Table of Contents,Vedic Mathematics
  17. ^ Pages 354-360, Vedic Mathematics
  18. ^ Pages 350-351, Vedic Mathematics
  19. ^ Page 352, Vedic Mathematics
  20. ^ Pages 361-362, Vedic Mathematics
  21. ^ Page 353, Vedic Mathematics

References[edit]

  • Trivedi, Manjula, My Beloved Gurudeva, Sri Vishwa Punarnirmana Sangha, Nagpur (1965).
  • Svāmī Bhāratī Kṛṣṇa Tīrtha, Vedic Mathematics, Motilal Banarassidas, Delhi (1992). ISBN 81-208-0164-4

External links[edit]