Jagannath Temple, Puri
|Proper name:||Shri Mandira (ଶ୍ରୀ ମନ୍ଦିର), Bada Deula (ବଡ଼ ଦେଉଳ)|
|Architecture and culture|
|Important festivals:||Ratha Yatra, Chandan Yatra, Snana Yatra Hati Besa Nabakalevara|
|Architectural styles:||Kalinga Architecture / Dravidian architecture|
|Creator:||Anantavarman Chodaganga Deva|
The Jagannath Temple in Puri is a famous Hindu temple dedicated to Jagannath and located in the coastal town of Puri in the state of Odisha, India. The name Jagannath (Lord of the Universe) is a combination of the Sanskrit words Jagat (Universe) and Nath (Lord of). and also, the word "Jagannatha" is evolved from "Jagati" (Oriya: ଜଗତି) (as an elevated platform or "Ratnabedi" on which the wooden form of Jagannatha, Balabhadra and Subhadra are worshiped on or the temple or its precincts inside the "Narendra Pokhari" ) and "Natha" (Oriya: ନାଥ) (means "Lord"). The temple is an important pilgrimage destination for many Hindu traditions, particularly worshippers of Krishna and Vishnu, and part of the Char Dham pilgrimages that a Hindu is expected to make in one's lifetime . The temple was built in the 11th century atop its ruins by the progenitor of the Eastern Ganga dynasty, King Anantavarman Chodaganga Deva.  The temple is famous for its annual Rath Yatra, or chariot festival, in which the three main temple deities are hauled on huge and elaborately decorated temple cars. Since medieval times, it is also associated with intense religious fervour.
The temple is sacred to the Vaishnava traditions and saint Ramananda who was closely associated with the temple. It is also of particular significance to the followers of the Gaudiya Vaishnavism whose founder, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, was attracted to the deity, Jagannath, and lived in Puri for many years.
The central forms of Jagannath, Balabhadra and the goddess Subhadra constitute the trinity of deities sitting on the bejewelled platform or the Ratnavedi in the inner sanctum. The Sudarshan Chakra, idols of Madanmohan, Sridevi and Vishwadhatri are also placed on the Ratnavedi. The deities of Jagannath, Balabhadra, Subhadra and Sudarshan Chakra are made from sacred Neem logs known as Daru Bramha. Depending on the season the deities are adorned in different garbs and jewels. Worship of the deities pre-date the temple structure and may have originated in an ancient tribal shrine.
Origins of the temple 
According to recently[when?] discovered copper plates from the Ganga dynasty, the construction of the current Jagannath temple was initiated by the ruler of Kalinga, Anantavarman Chodaganga Dev. The Jaga mohan and the Vimana portions of the temple were built during his reign (1078 - 1148 CE). However, it was only in the year 1174 CE that the Oriya ruler Ananga Bhima Deva rebuilt the temple to give a shape in which it stands today.
Jagannath worship in the temple continued until 1558, when Odisha was attacked by the Afghan general Kalapahad. Subsequently, when Ramachandra Deb established an independent kingdom at Khurda in Orissa, the temple was consecrated and the deities reinstalled. Perhaps in light of Chodaganga Deva's Chola Dynasty ancestry, the customs, ritual and architecture of the temple follows a style syncretised with the Dravidian of South India and points to tribal Dravidian origins of the deity. Portuguese Catholic priest and author Fernão de Quieroz described it in the late 1600s as frequented by as many pilgrims as Rameshwaram, Tirumalai-Tirupati, Kilvelur, Kanchipuram, Vaijayanti in Bengal, but surpassed by Koneswaram temple, Trincomalee.
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Legendary account as found in the Skanda-Purana, Brahma Purana and other Puranas and later Oriya works state that Lord Jagannath was originally worshipped as Lord Neela Madhaba by a Savar king ( tribal chief ) named Viswavasu. Having heard about the deity, King Indradyumna sent a Brahmin priest, Vidyapati to locate the deity, who was worshipped secretly in a dense forest by Viswavasu. Vidyapati tried his best but could not locate the place. But at last he managed to marry Viswavasu's daughter Lalita . At repeated request of Vidyapti, Viswavasu took his son-in-law blind folded to a cave where Lord Neela Madhaba was worshipped.
Vidyapati was very intelligent. He dropped mustard seeds on the ground on the way. The seeds germinated after a few days, which enabled him to find out the cave later on. On hearing from him, King Indradyumna proceeded immediately to Odra desha Orissa on a pilgrimage to see and worship the Deity. But the deity had disappeared. The king was disappointed. The Deity was hidden in sand. The king was determined not to return without having a darshan of the deity and observed fast unto death at Mount Neela, Then a celestial voice cried 'thou shalt see him.' Afterwards the king performed a horse sacrifice and built a magnificent temple for Vishnu. Sri Narasimha Murti brought by Narada was installed in the temple. During sleep, the king had a vision of Lord Jagannath. Also an astral voice directed him to receive the fragrant tree on the seashore and make idols out of it. Accordingly the king got the image of Lord Jagannath, Balabhadra, Subhadra and Chakra Sudarshan made out of the wood of the divine tree and installed them in the temple.
Indradyumna's prayer to Lord Brahma
King Indradyumna put up for Jagannath the tallest monument of the world. It was 1,000 cubits high. He invited Lord Brahma, the cosmic creator, consecrate the temple and the images. Brahma came all the way from Heaven for this purpose. Seeing the temple he was immensely pleased with him. Brahma asked Indradyumna as to in what way can he (Brahma) fulfill the king's desire, since was very much pleased with him for his having put the most beautiful Temple for Lord Vishnu. With folded hands, Indradyumna said, "My Lord if you are really pleased with me, kindly bless me with one thing, and it is that I should be issueless and that I should be the last member of my family." In case anybody left alive after him, he would only take pride as the owner of the temple and would not work for the society.
The episode of the Lord's grace during a war with Kanchi 
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At one time, a king of Kanchi in the down south remarked that the king of Orissa was a chandala (a man of very low caste or status) because, he performs the duties of a sweeper during the Car Festival. When this news reached the ears of the king of Orissa, he led an expedition to Kanchi. Before that, he implored the mercy of Lord Jagannath. The soldiers of Orissa marched towards Kanchi from Cuttack (then capital city of Orissa, located on the banks of Mahanadi, at a distance of 30 km from Bhubaneswar . It so happened that when the soldiers, headed by the king Purusottam Dev, reached a place near the Chilika lake, a lady, who was selling curd (a milk preparation, sour in taste) met him (the king) and presented a golden ring studded with precious gems and submitted. "My Lord, kindly listen to me. A little earlier, two soldiers riding over two horses (white and black in colour), approached me and said we are thirsty give us curds to drink.' I gave them curds. Instead of giving me money, they gave me this ring and said,'the king of Orissa will come here, after some time, on his way to Kanchi. You present it to him and he will pay you the money.' So my Lord, you take it and give me my dues.
It took no time for the king to know that the ring belongs to Lord Jagannath. He was convinced that Jagannath and Balabhadra were proceeding to the battle field ahead of him to help him there. To perpetuate the memory of this great incident, the king founded a village in the Chilika lake area. As the name of the lady was Manika, the name given to the village was Manika Patana. Even to this day, the curds of this village are famous.
Legend surrounding the Temple Origin 
The traditional story concerning the origins of the Lord Jagannath temple is that here the original image of Jagannath (a deity form of Vishnu) at the end of Treta yuga manifested near a banyan tree, near seashore in the form of an Indranila nilamani or the Blue Jewel. It was so dazzling that it could grant instant moksha, so the god Dharma or Yama wanted to hide it in the earth, and was successful. In Dvapara Yuga King Indradyumna of Malwa wanted to find that mysterious image and to do so he performed harsh penances to obtain his goal. Vishnu then instructed him to go to the Puri seashore and find a floating log to make an image from its trunk.
The King found the log of wood. He did a yajna from which god Yajna Nrisimha appeared and instructed that Narayana should be made as fourfold expansion, i.e. Paramatma as Vasudeva, his Vyuha as Samkarshana, Yogamaya as Subhadra, and his Vibhava asSudarsana. Vishwakarma appeared in the form of artist and prepared images of Jagannath, Balabhadra and Subhadra from the tree. When this log, radiant with light was seen floating in the sea, Narada told the king to make three idols out of it and place them in a pavilion. Indradyumna got Visvakarma, the architect of Gods, to build a magnificent temple to house the idols and Vishnu himself appeared in the guise of a carpenter to make the idols on condition that he was to be left undisturbed until he finished the work.
But just after two weeks, the Queen became very anxious. She took the carpenter to be dead as no sound came from the temple. Therefore, she requested the king to open the door. Thus, they went to see Vishnu at work at which the latter abandoned his work leaving the idols unfinished. The idol was devoid of any hands. But a divine voice told Indradyumana to install them in the temple. It has also been widely believed that in spite of the idol being without hands, it can watch over the world and be its lord. Thus the idiom.
Buddhist Origins 
Some archaeologists theorize that there existed a Buddhist stupa named Dantapura at the site of the present one, which may have housed the tooth relic of the Buddha before it was transported to its present location in Kandy, Sri Lanka. Around that period Buddhism was imbibed within the Vaishnava fold, whence Jagganath worship gained popularity. This was before the tenth century, during the reign of the Somavamsi kings of Orissa. It has been suggested that the temple was actually the spot where Buddha attained enlightenment 
Sikh leader Maharaja Ranjit Singh, had donated massive amounts of gold to the Jagannath temple. In his last will, he also ordered that Kohinoor, the most precious and greatest diamond in the world, to be donated to this temple, but the diamond could never actually make its way to the temple because the British, by that time, had annexed the Punjab and all its royal possessions. Thus claiming that the kohinoor was theirs. (It is currently housed in The British Museum)
Restrictions on Entry 
Temple security is selective regarding who is allowed entry. Practicing Hindus of non-Indian descent are excluded from premises, as are Hindus of non-Indian origin. Visitors not allowed entry may view the precincts from the roof of the nearby Raghunandan Library and pay their respects to the image of God Jagannath known as Patitapavana at the main entrance to the temple. There is some evidence that this came into force following a series of invasions by foreigners into the temple and surrounding area. Buddhist, and Jain groups are allowed into the temple compound if they are able to prove their Indian ancestry. The temple has slowly started allowing Hindus of non-Indian origin into the area, after an incident in which 3 Balinese Hindus were denied entry, even though Bali is 90% Hindu.
Cultural Integrity 
Shrikshetra of Puri Jagannath, as is commonly known, can verily be said to be a truthful replica of Indian culture. To understand this culture, one has to have some idea of the history of this land, which again is different from that of other countries of the world.
Starting from Lord Jagannath himself, history has it that he was a tribal deity, adorned by the Sabar people, as a symbol of Narayan. Another legend claims him to be Nilamadhava, an image of Narayana made of blue stone and worshipped by the aboriginals. He was brought to Nilagiri (blue mountain) or Nilachala and installed there as Shri Jagannath in company with Balabhadra and Subhadra. The images made of wood are also claimed to have their distant linkage with the aboriginal system of worshipping wooden poles. To cap it all the Daitapatis, who have a fair share of responsibilities to perform rituals of the Temple, are claimed to be descendants of the aboriginals or hill tribes of Orissa. So we may safely claim that the beginning of the cultural history of Shrikshetra is found in the fusion of Hindu and Tribal Cultures. This has been accepted as a facet of our proud heritage. The three deities came to be claimed as the symbols of Samyak Darshan, Samyak Jnana and Samyak Charita usually regarded as Triratha (of the Jain cult), an assimilation of which leads to Moksha (salvation) or the ultimate bliss...
Lord Jagannath is worshipped as Vishnu or Narayana or Krishna and Lord Balabhadra as Shesha. Simultaneously, the deities are regarded as the bhairava (Shiva the formidable) with Vimala (the bhairavi or the consort of Shiva) installed in the campus of the temple. So ultimately we find a fusion of Saivism, Shaktism and Vaishnavism of the Hindu religion with Jainism and up to an extent Buddhism in the culture of Jagannath and the cultural tradition so reverently held together in Shrikshetra.
Acharyas and Jagannatha Puri 
All of the renowned acharyas except Madhvacharya have been known to visit this kshetra. Adi Shankara established his Govardhana matha here. There is also evidence that Guru Nanak, Kabir Tulsidas Ramanujacharya, Nimbarkacharya had visited this place. Sri ChaitanyaMahaprabhu of Gaudiya Vaishnavism especially stayed here for 24 years and established that love of god can be spread by chanting Hare Krishna mantra. Even Srimad Vallabhacharya was his great admirer and met Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and joined Sankirtana of Lord Jagannath. His sitting place of Bhajan is still famous as "baithakji" is evident as his visit to Puri. .
Char Dham 
Badrinath • Rameswaram
Dwarka • Puri
The temple is one of the holiest Hindu Char Dham (four divine sites) sites comprising Rameswaram, Badrinath, Puri and Dwarka. Though the origins are not clearly known, the Advaita school of Hinduism propagated by Sankaracharya, who created Hindu monastic institutions across India, attributes the origin of Char Dham to the seer. The four monasteries lie across the four corners of India and their attendant temples are Badrinath Temple at Badrinath in the North, Jagannath Temple at Puri in the East, Dwarakadheesh Temple at Dwarka in the West and Ramanathaswamy Temple at Rameswaram in the South. Though ideologically the temples are divided between the sects of Hinduism, namely Saivism and Vaishnavism, the Char Dham pilgrimage is an all Hindu affair. There are four abodes in Himalayas called Chota Char Dham (Chota meaning small): Badrinath, Kedarnath, Gangotri and Yamunotri - all of these lie at the foot hills of Himalayas  The name Chota was added during the mid of 20th century to differentiate the original Char Dhams. The journey across the four cardinal points in India is considered sacred by Hindus who aspire to visit these temples once in their lifetime. Traditionally the trip starts at the eastern end from Puri, proceeding in clockwise direction in a manner typically followed for circunambulation in Hindu temples.
The huge temple complex covers an area of over 400,000 square feet (37,000 m2), and is surrounded by a high fortified wall. This 20 feet (6.1 m) high wall is known as Meghanada Pacheri. Another wall known as kurma bedha surrounds the main temple. It contains at least 120 temples and shrines. With its sculptural richness and fluidity of the Oriya style of temple architecture, it is one of the most magnificent monuments of India. The temple has four distinct sectional structures, namely -
- Deula, Vimana or Garba griha (Sanctum sanctorum) where the triad deities are lodged on the ratnavedi (Throne of Pearls). In Rekha Deula style;
- Mukhashala (Frontal porch);
- Nata mandir/Natamandapa, which is also known as the Jagamohan (Audience Hall/Dancing Hall), and
- Bhoga Mandapa (Offerings Hall).
The main temple is a curvilinear temple and crowning the top is the 'srichakra' (a eight spoked wheel) of Vishnu. Also known as the "Nilachakra", it is made out of Ashtadhatu and is considered sacrosanct. Among the existing temples in Orissa, the temple of Shri Jagannath is the highest. The temple tower was built on a raised platform of stone and, rising to 214 feet (65 m) above the inner sanctum where the deities reside, dominates the surrounding landscape. The pyramidal roofs of the surrounding temples and adjoining halls, or mandapas, rise in steps toward the tower like a ridge of mountain peaks.
The Singhadwara 
The Singahdwara, which in Sanskrit means The Lion Gate, is one of the four gates to the temple and forms the Main entrance. The Singhadwara is so named because two huge statues of crouching lions exist on either side of the entrance. The gate faces east opening on to the Bada Danda or the Grand Road. The Baisi Pahacha or the flight of twenty two steps leads into the temple complex. An idol of Jagannath known as Patitapavana, which in Sanskrit, means the "Saviour of the downtrodden and the fallen" is painted on the right side of the entrance. In ancient times when untouchables were not allowed inside the temple, they could pray to Patita Pavana. The statues of the two guards to the temple Jaya and Vijaya stand on either side of the doorway. Just before the commencement of the Rath Yatra the idols of Jagannath, Balabhadra and Subhadra are taken out of the temple through this gate. On their return from the Gundicha Temple they have to ceremonially placate Goddess Mahalakshmi, whose statue is carved atop the door, for neglecting to take her with them on the Yatra. Only then the Goddess allows them permission to enter the temple. A magnificent sixteen-sided monolithic pillar known as the Arun stambha stands in front of the main gate. This pillar has an idol of Arun, the charioteer of the Sun God Surya, on its top. One significant thing about Arun stambha is that prior it was located in the Konark Sun temple, later, the Maratha guru Brahmachari Gosain brought this pillar from Konark. The Puri Jagannath Temple was also saved by Shivaji Maharaj from being plundered at his times from the Mughals.
Other Entrances 
Apart from the Singhadwara, which is the main entrance to the temple, there are three other entrances facing north, south and west. They are named after the sculptures of animals guarding them. The other entrances are the Hathidwara or the Elephant Gate, the Vyaghradwara or the Tiger Gate and the Ashwadwara or the Horse Gate.
Minor Temples 
There are numerous smaller temples and shrines within the Temple complex where active worship is regularly conducted. The Bimala Shaktipeeth considered one of the most important of the Shaktipeeths marks the spot where Sati's feet fell. It is located near Rohini Kund in the temple complex. Until food offered to Jagannath is offered to Goddess Bimala it is not considered Mahaprasad. The temple of Mahalakshmi has an important role in rituals of the main temple. It is said that preparation of naivedya as offering for Jagannath is supervised by Goddess Mahalakshmi. The Kanchi Ganesh Temple is dedicated to Uchhista Ganapati. Tradition says the King of Kanchipuram in ancient times gifted the idol, when Gajapati Purushottama Deva married Padmavati, the kanchi princess. There are other shrines namely Muktimandap, Surya, Vimala, Saraswati, Bhuvaneshwari, Nrsimha, Ramachandra, Hanuman and Eshaneshwara.
The Mandapas 
There are many Mandapas or Pillared halls on raised platforms within the temple complex meant for religious congregations. The most prominent is the Mukti Mandapa the congregation hall of the holy seat of selected learned brahmins. Here important decisions regarding conduct of daily worship and festivals are taken. The Dola Mandapa is noteworthy for a beautifully carved stone Torana or arch which is used for constructing a swing for the annual Dol Yatra festival. During the festival the idol of Dologobinda is placed on the swing. The Snana Bedi is a rectangular stone platform where idols of Jagannath, Balabhadra and Subhadra are placed for ceremonial bathing during the annual Snana Yatra
Daily Food Offerings 
Daily offerings are made to the Lord six times a day. These include:
- The offering to the Lord in the Morning that forms His breakfast and is called The Gopala Vallabha Bhoga. Breakfast is a seven item treat - Khua, Lahuni, sweetened coconut grating, coconut water, and popcorn sweetened with sugar known as khai and curd and ripe bananas.
- The Sakala Dhupa forms his next offering at about 10 O’ clock in the morning Sakala Dhupa. This generally consists of 13 items including the Enduri cake & Mantha puli.
- Bada Sankhudi Bhoga forms the next repast & the offering consists of Pakhala with dahi and Kanji payas. The offerings are made in the bhog mandapa, about 200 feet from the Ratna Vedi. This is called Chatra Bhog and was introduced by Adi Shankaracharya in the 8th century to help pilgrims share the temple food.
- The Madhyanha dhupa forms the next offering at the noon.
- The next offering to the Lord is made in the evening at around 8 o’clock it is Sandhya Dhupa.
- The last offering to the Lord is called the Bada Simhara Bhoga.
The Mahaprasad of Lord Jagannath are distributed amongst the devotees near the Ratnavedi in side the frame of Phokaria which is being drawn by the Puja pandas using Murujexcept for the Gopal Ballav Bhog and Bhog Mandap Bhoga which are distributed in the Anabsar Pindi & Bhoga Mandap respectively.
The Temple Kitchen & Mahaprasada 
The temple's kitchen is considered as the largest kitchen in the world.    Tradition maintains that all food cooked in the temple kitchens are supervised by the Goddess Mahalakshmi, the empress of Srimandir herself. It is said that if the food prepared has any fault in it a shadow dog appears near the temple kitchen. The temple cooks or Mahasuaras take this as a sign of displeasure of Mahalakshmi with the food which is promptly buried and a new batch cooked. All food is cooked following rules as prescribed by Hindu religious texts, the food cooked is pure vegetarian without using onions and garlic. Cooking is done only in earthen pots with water drawn from two special wells near the kitchen called Ganges and Yamuna. There are total 56 varieties of naivedhyas offered to the deities, near ratnavedi as well as in bhoga mandap on five particular Muhurta.The most awaited prasad is kotho bhoga or abadha, offered at mid-day at around 1 pm, depending upon temple rituals. The food after being offered to Jagannath is distributed at reasonable amount as Mahaprasad, which considered as divine to devotees in the Ananda Bazar located to the North-east of the Singhadwara inside the temple complex.
There are elaborate daily worship services. There are many festivals each year attended by millions of people. The most important festival is the Rath Yatra or the Chariot festival in June. This spectacular festival includes a procession of three huge chariots bearing the idols of Jagannath, Balabhadra and Subhadra through the Bada Danda meaning the Grand Avenue of Puri till their final destination the Gundicha Temple.
Early European observers told tales of devotees being crushed under the wheels of these chariots, whether by accident or even as a form of meritorious suicide akin to suttee. These reports gave rise to the loan word juggernaut suggesting an immense, unstoppable, threatening entity or process operated by fanatics. Many festivals like Dol Yatra in spring and Jhulan Yatra in monsoon are celebrated by temple every year.Pavitrotsava and Damanaka utsava are celebrated as per panchanga or panjika.There are special ceremonies in the month of Kartika and Pausha.
The annual shodasha dinatmaka or 16 day puja beginning 8 days prior to Mahalaya of Ashwin month for goddess Vimala and ending on Vijayadashami, is of great importance, in which both the utsava murty of lord Madanmohan and Vimala take part.
- Pana Sankranti: Also known or Vishuva Sankranti and Mesha Sankranti: Special rituals are performed at the temple.
Chandan Yatra 
Snana Yatra 
Literally means vacation. Every year, the main idols of Jagannath, Balabhadra, Subhadra & Sudarshan after the holy Snana Yatra on the jyestha purnima, go to a secret altar named Anavasara Ghar where they remain for the next dark fortnight (Krishna paksha). Hence devotees are not allowed to view them. Instead of this devotees go to nearby place Brahmagiri to see their beloved lord in the form of four handed form Alvarnath a form of Vishnu. Then people get the first glimpse of lord on the day before Rath Yatra, which is called 'Navayouvana. It is said that the gods fall in fever after taking a huge bath and they are treated by the special servants named, Daitapatis for 15 days. During this period cooked food is not offered to the deities.
One of the most grandiloquent events associated with the Lord Jagannath, Naba Kalabera takes place when one lunar month of Ashadha is followed by another lunar month of Aashadha. This can take place in 8, 12 or even 18 years. Literally meaning the “New Body” (Nava = New, Kalevar = Body), the festival is witnessed by as many 8,00,000 people and the budget for this event exceeds $500,000. The event involves installation of new images in the temple and burial of the old ones in the temple premises at Koili Vaikuntha. The idols that are currently being worshipped in the temple premises were installed in the year 1996.
Niladri Bije 
Celebrated on Asadha Trayodashi. Niladri Bije is the concluding day of Ratha yatra. On this day deities return to the ratna bedi.  Lord Jagannath offers Rasgulla to goddess Laxmi to enter in to the temple. 
Gupta Gundicha 
Celebrated for 16 days from Ashwina Krushna dwitiya to Vijayadashami. As per tradition, the idol of Madhaba, along with the idol of Goddess Durga (known as Durgamadhaba), is taken on a tour of the temple premises. The tour within the temple is observed for the first eight days. For the next eight days, the idols are taken outside the temple on a palanquin to the nearby Narayani temple situated in the Dolamandapa lane. After their worship, they are brought back to the temple.
The name Purushottama Kshetra and Its Significance 
Lord Jagannath is the Purushottama as per the scripture, Skanda Purana.In order to teach humanbeings how to lead life full of virtue he has taken the form of Darubrahman.He is the best brother to his siblings, Lord Balabhadra and Devi Subhadra. He is the best husband to goddess Shri.The most noteworthy thing is still in the month of Margashirsha, on three consecutive days during amavasya he does Shraaddha to his parents (Kashyapa-Aditi, Dasharatha-Kaushalya, Vasudeva-Devaki, Nanda-Yashoda), along with king Indradyumna and queen Gundicha. As a master he enjoys every comforts daily and in various festivals. He grants everything to all his subjects, and those who surrenders before him he takes the utmost care of them.
Culture and Tradition of Puri 
Puri is one of the fascinating littoral district of Orissa. The Cultural heritage of Puri with its long recorded history beginning from third century B. C till present day, The monuments and religious sanctity, way of life of the people with their rich tradition possess emphatically to be the cultural heart of Orissa. Indeed Puri is considered cultural capital of Orissa. The culture here flourished with its manifold activities.
The District has the happy conglomerate of different religions, sects and faith in course of history, Hindu, Buddhist, Jaina, Muslim, Christian, Sikh found here in the District.
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, an incarnation of Lord Krishna, appeared 500 years ago, in the mood of a devotee to taste the sublime emotions of ecstasy by chanting the holy name of Krishna. Stalwart scholars of Puri like Sarvabhauma Bhattacharya (a priest & great Sanskrit pandit) and others followed His teachings. Even kings and ministers of His period became His disciples. Especially King Prataparudra became His great admirer and ardent follower.Thus all cultures and religion became one in Puri after his teachings were given to all with no consideration of caste and creed.
The security at the 12th century Jagannath Temple is beefed up ahead of Ratha Yatra, the homecoming festival of the deities of Jagannath temple. In the wake of terror alert on 27 June 2012, the security forces were increased to ensure smooth functioning of the crowded Ratha Yatra and Suna Besha.
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- "Lord Jagannath : Symbol of Unity and Integration". Retrieved 2006-05-01.
- O' Malley, L S S (1908). Bengal District Gazeteer: Puri. Logos. p. 90. ISBN 817681380 Check
|isbn=value (help). "British historian William Wilson Hunter in the first volume on the British province of Odisha and the temple of Jagannath has remarked that the aboriginal people worshiped a Blue Stone inside dense forests as Nila Madhava. Hunter ascribed the blue (Nila) colour to the use of the common chlorite schist stone of the Hills of Odisha in which all the ancient images of Odisha were being made. As per Hunter, the Dravidian God, who was offered raw, uncooked food by the primitive tribes. Hunter hypothesized that with the passage of time, the Aryan elements assimilated Jagannath into fold of Hinduism where as per more sophisticated customs, Jagannath is being offered cooked food. The synthesis is clear even at present since worship methods of both these two folds (Tribal and Brahminical) coexist side by side at Jagannath Temples."
- Mansingh, Mayadhar (1962). History of Oriya Literature. Sahitya Academy. "The traditions and practices which centre in an around this famous temple are also still South Indian or Dravidian to a large extent."
- Prematilleka, Leelananda; Seneviratne, Sudharshan (1990). Perspectives in archaeology : Leelananda Prematilleke festschrift. p. 96. "Queyroz compares Konesvaram to the famous Hindu temples in Rameswaram, Kanchipuram, Tirupatti, Tirumalai, Jagannath and Vaijayanthi and concludes that while these latter temples were well visited by the Hindus, the former had surpassed all the latter temples."
- "Sri Jagannath Puri Dham Information - Jagannath". jagannathpuri-info.net. 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2012. "The King wanted Lord Brahma to consecrate the temple"
- "History of The Shrine | Maa Tarini". maatarini.com. 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2012. "It began with the king sweeping a part of the chariot where the deity was to be placed"
- "Juggernaut". Time. 1959-07-20.
- "Jagannath Temple at Puri". Retrieved 2006-09-12.
- "Oldest Jagannath Temple of Puri The Buddhist and Somavamsi Connections". Retrieved 2006-09-12.
- "Jainism and Buddhism in Jagannath Culture". Retrieved 2003-07-01.
- Sahoo, A.K (3 November 2011). "'Place of First Sermon'". Daily News, Colombo – via HighBeam Research (subscription required). Retrieved 2 September 2012.
- "Jagannatha Puri". Archived from However, since the Govt has taken over as custodian of the temple, even non-Hindus are allowed into the temple if they can prove Indian ancestry. the original on 2006-07-15. Retrieved 2006-09-12.
- "Puri - Jagannath Temple".
- "Jagannath Temple". Retrieved 2006-09-12.
- Puri temple in Hindu gaffe, The Telegraph, Calcutta - November 08, 2007
- See: Chakravarti 1994, p 140
- Mittal, Sushil (2004). The Hindu World. New York: Routledge. p. 482. ISBN 0-203-64470-0.
- Brockman 2011, pp. 94-96
- Gupta 2008, p. 484-486
- See: Gwynne 2008, Section on Char Dham
- "About Sakhigopal". samsepuja.in. 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2012. "The outermost is called 'Meghanad Pacheri' which has a length of 650ft from east to west and breadth of 644ft from north to south direction. The height of Meghanad Pacheri is 20ft and thickness of 6ft"
- "Lord Jagannath:Inside the temple of the lord, Jagannath Puri, Jagannath Temple,Orissa | orissa.oriyaonline.com". orissa.oriyaonline.com. 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2012. "and kurma Bedha (the inner wall) or the inner enclosure of the Jagannath temple i"
- "Sri Jagannath". Retrieved 2006-09-12.
- "Jagannath Temple, India - 7 wonders". 7wonders.org. 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2012. "The temple is divided into four chambers: Bhogmandir, Natamandir, Jagamohana and Deul"
- "Architecture of Jagannath Temple, Jagannath Puri Architecture, Puri Jagannath Temple India.". orissatourism.org. 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2012. "wheel on top of the Jagannath Temple made of an alloy of eight metals (asta-dhatu). It is called the Nila Chakra (Blue Wheel)"
- "Jagannath Temple, Orrisa". Retrieved 2006-09-20.
- "About Temple - Devotee Care Center". devoteecare.fullorissa.com. 2012. Retrieved 28 September 2012. "Two colossal lions flank the Purba Dwara (Eastern Gate) also known as Simha Dwara. This is a mini tower and the main entrance to the temple"
- "Sri Jagannath Temple". Retrieved 2006-09-20.
- "Main Temple Complex - Sun Temple, Konarak - Archaeological Survey of India". asi.nic.in. 2011. Retrieved 5 October 2012. "To the front of the eastern staircase of the porch, once stood the free-standing chlorite pillar, the dhvaja-stambha, with Aruna, the charioteer of Surya as the crowning element"
- "Aruna Stambha | PURIWAVES". puriwaves.nirmalya.in. 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012. "this Pillar was a part of Sun Temple Of Konark and was located in front of Sun Temple"
- Behera, Prajna Paramita (2004). "The Pillars of Homage to Lord Jagannatha". Orissa Review. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
- "Puri Sri Jagannath temple tour & accommodation". go2india.in. 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2012. "Main Gate the Singh Dwar or Lion Gate ( Eastern gate ) Dharma Dwar Dakhina Dwar ( South gate or Horse gate ), Kudia Hanuman temple is there ( Kamana Gate ) Paschima Dwar ( West gate or Tiger gate ), Artha Dwar ( Money gate) Uttar Dwar ( North gate or Elephant gate ), Mokya Dyar"
- "JAGANNATH TEMPLE, SANCTUARIES, MANDAPS OF LORD JAGANNATH TEMPLE PURI". jagannath.orissaculture.com. 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2012. "It is allowed only for Sankaracharya, Brahmins of 16 sasans and for Jhulan yatra."
- "Rituals of LORDS". jagannath.nic.in. Retrieved 25 December 2012. "This is the last bhoga of the day."
- Karan, Jajati (2009). "God's own kitchen vies for no record - India News - IBNLive". ibnlive.in.com. Retrieved 2 July 2012. "the Jagannath temple in Puri has the world’s largest kitchen that can feed more than one lakh people at a time"
- "The Sampradaya Sun - Independent Vaisnava News - Feature Stories - June 2011". harekrsna.com. 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2012. "Not only is it the largest temple kitchen in the world"
- "Amazing Orissa". nilachakra.org. 2011. Retrieved 2 July 2012. "The Jagannath temple kitchen at Puri is reputed to be the largest kitchen in the world"
- "Kitchen of Lord Jagannath - Devotee Care Center". devoteecare.fullorissa.com. 2012. Retrieved 28 September 2012. "If the dog is seen, all the food must be buried and prepared again"
- "Jagannath Temple, Jagannath Puri, Jagannath Temple Puri, Jagannath Temple of Puri, Jagannath Temple Odisha, Jagannath Temple Orissa". visitodisha.net. 2012. Retrieved 28 September 2012. "The Prasad is prepared in a very traditional way, without using onion, garlic, chillies"
- "Jagannath Temple at Puri". Retrieved 2006-09-20.
- "Festivals of lord jagannath, puri festivals". fullorissa.com. 2010. Retrieved 16 May 2012. "Pana Sankranti or Mahabishuba sankranti:"
- "Alarnatha – Articles - Jagannath Dham". jagannathdham.com. 2012. Retrieved 16 May 2012. "peoples believe that Lord Jagannath during this time manifests as Alarnath Dev,"
- "Festivals of Lord Sri Jagannath". nilachakra.org. 2010. Retrieved 16 May 2012. "suffer from fever on the account of elaborate bath and for that they are kept in dietary provisions (No cooked food is served) and are nursed by the Daitas"
- "Festivals of Lord Sri Jagannath". nilachakra.org. 2010. Retrieved 3 July 2012. "NILADRI BIJE - Celebrated on 13th day of bright fortnight of Asadha."
- "Ocean of devotees on Grand road to witness Sunavesh". news.oneindia.in. 2012. Retrieved 3 July 2012. "entering in to the sanctum sanctorum popularly called called Niladri Bije"
- "Niladri Bije – Lord Jagannath Returning to Shree Mandir | PURIWAVES". puriwaves.nirmalya.in. 2012. Retrieved 3 July 2012. "‘Niladri Bije’, the return journey to Shree Mandir. It is the welcome festival of Lord Jagannath to Shree Mandir"
- "Lord placates wife with sweet delight". vv.telegraphindia.com (Calcutta, India). 2012. Retrieved 3 July 2012. "Lord Jagannath tries to mollify His wife by offering her rasagollas, so that she lets Him enter the temple with His siblings"
- "Lord Jagannath placates angry Mahalakshmi, reenters temple". dailypioneer.com. 2012. Retrieved 3 July 2012. "Jagannath then offers Mahalakshmi rasgullas to placate her and to forgive him"
- Panda, Namita (11 October 2010). "The Telegraph - Calcutta (Kolkata) | Orissa | Gupta Gundicha attracts devotees". telegraphindia.com (Calcutta, India). Retrieved 20 December 2012. "Beginning from Ashwina Krishna dwitiya to the last day of Dusherra,"
- "Gupta Gundicha In Srikhetra – Start of Durga Madhab worshiping | PURIWAVES". puriwaves.nirmalya.in. Retrieved 20 December 2012. "The Vimanbadu servants ( who carry the chariot) carry Sri Durga – Madhab ( Sri Jagannath & Jaya Durga ) in a chariot to the temple of Narayani at Dolamandap Sahi."
- "Terror alert in Puri, security tightened". The Times Of India. 27 June 2012.
- Brockman, Norbert C. (2011), Encyclopedia of Sacred Places, California: ABC-CLIO, LLC, ISBN 978-1-59884-655-3
- Chakravarti, Mahadev (1994), The Concept of Rudra-Śiva Through The Ages (Second Revised ed.), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0053-2
- Gwynne, Paul (2009), World Religions in Practice: A Comparative Introduction, Oxford: Blackwell Publication, ISBN 978-1-4051-6702-4.
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- Jagannath Dham Puri (Official Website of the temple)
- Lord Sri Jagannath Temple - Jagannath Dharma (Official website of the Puri district administration)
- Jagannath Temple, Puri travel guide from Wikivoyage