Jagdalpur

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Jagdalpur
city
Jagdalpur is located in Chhattisgarh
Jagdalpur
Jagdalpur
Coordinates: 19°04′N 82°02′E / 19.07°N 82.03°E / 19.07; 82.03Coordinates: 19°04′N 82°02′E / 19.07°N 82.03°E / 19.07; 82.03
Country  India
State Chhattisgarh
Division Bastar Division
District Bastar District
Government
 • Type Mayor–Council
 • Body Jagdalpur Municipal Corporation
 • Mayor Kiran Dev
 • Collector Ankit Anand (IAS)
Area
 • Total 150 km2 (60 sq mi)
Elevation 552 m (1,811 ft)
Population (2014)[1]
 • Total 205,345
 • Density 1,400/km2 (3,500/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Hindi
 • Other Halbi, Bhatri
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 494001
Telephone code 07782
Vehicle registration CG-17
Website www.bastar.gov.in

Jagdalpur is a city in Bastar district in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh. Jagdalpur City is governed by the Jagdalpur Municipal Corporation. Jadgalpur is the administrative headquarters of Bastar District and Bastar Division, and was the capital of the erstwhile princely state of Bastar. Jagdalpur is well known for its greenery, lush green mountains, deep valleys, dense forests, streams, waterfalls, caves, natural parks, monuments, natural resources, herbs, exuberant festivity and peaceful solitude. Other tourist attractions relate to Bastar's royal past and its tribes. Currently two steel plants are being built near Jagdalpur by NMDC and Tata Steel Plant. After completion these projects will be Jagdalpur city's industrial hubs. The city's demographic is changing rapidly and it has the fastest-growing population in Chhattisgarh state.

Demographics[edit]

As of the [2014], Jagdalpur municipality had a population of 205,345.[1] The municipality had a sex ratio of 965 females per 1,000 males and 11.0% of the population were under six years old.[2] Effective literacy was 95.44%; male literacy was 95.51% and female literacy was 85.16%.[2]

Transport[edit]

Road transport[edit]

Road network in and around Jagdalpur can be seen from the road network map of the area.

Bus Services(Both Luxury and Ordinary) are available from Jagdalpur Bus Terminus provided by local Service Providers to major cities like Raipur, Bilaspur, Nagpur, Hyderabad, Vishakapatnam, Amravati, Vizianagaram, Vijayawada etc. Busses for Raipur and Bilaspur are available in every 15 minutes interval. In view of the poor rail and practically non-existent air connectivity, road based transport has emerged as the sole mode of transport for almost all the goods as well as people originating from or destined to Jagdalpur.

Jagdalpur is well connected by road with the Chhattisgarh state capital Raipur, Hyderabad Visakhapatnam, Vizianagaram and other nearby National Highways providing onward connectivity to other major towns and cities of India.

The National Highways passing through Jagdalpur are NH 30 (connecting Raipur to Vizianagaram in Andhra Pradesh), NH 221 (connecting Jagdalpur to Vijayawada in Andhra Pradesh) and NH 16 (connecting Jagdalpur to Nizamabad in Andhra Pradesh) while passing through Maharashtra.

NH 30 at Raipur connects Jagdalpur to NH 6 leading to Nagpur and Kolkata.

NH 43 connects Natavalasa in Andhra Pradesh and Raipur in Chhattisgarh and passes through Jagdalpur.

NH 221 near Vijayawada connects Jagdalpur to NH 9 leading to Hyderabad and Pune.

NH 16 at Bhopalpatnam connects with NH 202, which once completed, would connect Jagdalpur to Warangal and Hyderabad.

Missing links in NH 16[3]

Even though the NH 16 purports to connect Jagdalpur to Nizamabad in Andhra Pradesh while passing through Maharashtra, the connectivity has not been established till date due to two missing bridges en route.Road Development Authority of Chhattisgarh has started tendering for the Bridge near timed in Bhopalpattnam.

One of the missing bridge is on river Indravati near Bhopalpatnam in Bijapur district in Chhattisgarh as is evident from the road network map of the area. One has to cross the river through boat ferry to go to Sironcha taluq of Maharashtra.

As one goes further towards Maharashtra on the NH 16, there is another bridge missing on river Pranahita near Sironcha as is evident from the road network map of the area.

Refer this article for an update as of 27 March 2012.

Missing link in NH 202

Even though the NH 202 purports to connect Bhopalpatnam to Warangal and Hyderabad, the connectivity has not been established till date due to a missing bridge en route on the river Godavari near Jampanna Vaagu, Warangal district in Andhra Pradesh as is evident from the road network map of the area.

Refer this article for an update as of 27 March 2012.

Rail transport[edit]

Jagdalpur is not particularly well connected by trains to other cities. Rail network in and around Jagdalpur can be seen from the map of the area. There have been series of efforts in the past three decades to have meaningful rail connectivity between Jagdalpur and Raipur, the capital of Chhattisgarh but none have succeeded so far.

A line from Bailadila to Visakhapatnam via Jagdalpur is in place mainly for the purposes of evacuation of iron ore by National Mineral Development Corporation (NMDC) from Kirandul with limited passenger trains. Plans are underway for doubling the railway line from Bailadila to Jagdalpur.The cost of this is projected to be about INR 870 crore which is proposed to be initially borne by NMDC and NMDC will in turn get a rebate in the freight from Indian Railways towards the initial cost incurred by NMDC.[4]

It would be evident from a cursory glance at the railway map of India[5] that, east central India, i.e., Jagdalpur and its surrounding areas have no rail lines and certainly no usable rail connectivity with Raipur.

Jagdalpur railway station got grade B in station category by rail budget 2012. Therefore all basic amenities are being set-up at the station. currently construction of platform number 2 and 3 and one Foot Over Bridge are in progress and expected to completed by May 2014.

Existing Rail Connectivity

There are daily trains connecting Jagdalpur to Visakhapatnam (passenger train 58501/58502), Bhubaneswar (Hirakhand Express 18447/18448) and Kirandul (passenger train 58501/58502). According the new Railway Budget of 2012-13, Jagdalpur has got one new train i.e. (Durg–Jagdalpur Tri-weekly express 18211/18212 which runs between Durg Jagdalpur via Raipur Mahasamund Titilagarh Jagdalpur and the(18005/18006) Howrah - Koraput express has been extended to Jagdalpur.

Jagdalpur - Raipur Rail Connectivity[6]

Jagdalpur has got one new train i.e. Jagdalpur - Durg express (via Titlagarh)and passing from Raipur. One can go to Raipur from Jagdalpur by train for which one has to take the Jagdalpur–Bhubaneswar train and get down at Rayagada and there board the Visakhapatnam-Korba train which will go to Mahasamund, Raipur, Bilaspur and beyond.

The above however is a roundabout way to reach Raipur from Jagdalpur as it is a much longer route (622 km compared to 300 km by road) and takes much longer time (about 16 Hrs as compared to 5-6 Hrs by road).

Proposed Rail Connectivity

Proposed Dalli Rajhara-Jagdalpur Rail Line

Dalli Rajhara-Jagdalpur Rail Line has been proposed with a view to support the transport needs of people, trade and industries of the region. Construction of the section from Dalli Rajhara to Rowghat of the Dalli Rajhara-Jagdalpur Rail Line is currently underway amid threat from Naxalites and other challenges.

List of new line surveys in the region to be taken up during 2012-13 as per Railway budget

1. Rail link between Raipur-Dhamtari BG line up to Jagdalpur via Banskot, Amravati, Kondagaon.

2. Linking Bhanupratappur with Dalli Rajhara-Rawghat under construction railline and connecting it with Jagdalpur.

Doubling of Kirandul - Jagdalpur Rail Line

The Ministry of Railways have signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with NMDC Limited, a public sector undertaking under the Ministry of Steel for doubling the Jagdalpur-Kirandul section.The Jagdalpur-Kirandul doubling project will be implemented by Indian Railways at a cost Rs.826 crores and it will be funded by NMDC with provisions for suitable returns through freight rebate. The Railways will additionally make necessary investment in wagons, locomotives, other maintenance facilities and deployment of staff. The new line is likely to create an additional traffic of up to 12 million tonne per annum (MTPA) in a phased manner.

Construction of line between Silakjhori and Jagdalpur section is already started and expected the completion of Doubling of rail line between Kirandul and Jagdalpur will be done by end of 2016.

Air transport[edit]

There is an airport at Jagdalpur but no scheduled services are currently run to or from here. The airport is predominantly used by political leaders and insurgency operation related activities by army and the police. The nearest airport is Raipur Airport in capital city of Raipur and Visakhapatnam Airport, Andhra Pradesh.[7]

History[edit]

The history of Jagdalpur (Bastar) takes us as deep into the past as Valmiki's Ramayana. It was the famous Dandakaranya through which Lord Rama is supposed to have passed. Scholars have also identified Valmiki's ashram here.

The Bastar rulers trace their ancestry not just to the moon, but also to Prithviraj Chauhan, the last Hindu king to rule from Delhi in the 12th century. Bastar has seen the rule of number of kingdoms like the Nals, Chalukyas and the Kakatiyas. The great Kakatiya king Pratap Rudra's brother, Annama Deva, left Warangal, Andhra Pradesh and established his kingdom at Bastar, around AD 1424.

Bastar has seen several hundred years of royal rule, wars of succession, conquering of kingdoms, battles, conspiracies etc. After Annam Deo it witnessed the rule of Hamir Deo, Pratap Raj Deo, Rajpal Deo, Dalpat Deo and others. It was during the reign of Dalpat Deo that the capital of their kingdom was shifted to Jagdalpur.

After the death of Dalpat Deo, his son Daryao Deo over threw his elder brother Ajmer Singh from the throne, and became the ruler. Ajmer Singh was successful in securing the throne back, but after two years Daryao Deo once again succeeded in overthrowing Ajmer Singh and became the ruler.

After the death of Daryao Deo, his eldest son Mahipal Deo succeeded to the throne of Bastar. He was latter succeeded by Bhopal Deo. Bhairam Deo was the next successor.

Bhairam Deo died in 1891, leaving a minor son, Rudrapratap Deo. During his minority the state was managed by the government until January 1908 when the young Raja was installed as Feudatory Chief of Bastar. In 1910 a tribal revolt occurred against the Diwan and the British government who ruled over the state. Raja Rudrapratap Deo died in 1921 and his daughter Praphul Kumari Devi ascended the throne in 1922. She married the prince of Mayurbhanj, a prince from the State of Odisha.

Praphul Kumari Devi died in 1936 in London and her elder son Maharaja Pravir Chandra Bhanj Deo, first Oriya ruler of Bastar and the 20th Maharaja of Bastar, ascended the throne in 1936 as a minor. The famous Maharani hospital at Jagdalur was built in memory of Maharani Praphul Kumari Devi in 1937.

Later in 1941, an airstrip was made at Jagdalpur. One bridge was also constructed during this time over the River Indravati. In 1948, Bastar state was merged in the Indian Union.

Maharaja Pravir Chandra Bhanj Deo was killed in a "police action" on 25 March 1966 when he revolted against the Union Of India for the rights of tribals in his erstwhile principality. Scores, if not hundreds, of tribals were killed in that police action defending their former ruler,[citation needed] who ultimately succumbed to 13 bullet injuries in Baster Palace. The current Maharaja Kamal Chandra Bhanj Deo is his grand son.

Festivals[edit]

Bastar Dassehra[8][edit]

History.

15th century A.D led to an event which is responsible for the origin of Bastar Dassehra. The Kaktiya ruler (descendants of great Chalukya Dynasty ) King Purushottam Deo went to Jagannath Puri temple for worship and came back as ‘Rath-pati’ with a divine permission to mount on Chariot. From there, this trend continued up till yet. Now, it is a 500 year old festival of Bastar. Earlier it was a Hindu festival, but later incorporated and assimilated many customs of local tribes.[9]

For 10 days, the king (as the high-priest of Devi Danteshwari) would temporarily abdicate office to worship Danteshwari full-time. He would seek, in confidence and through a siraha (a medium "possessed" by the devi ), a report on the state.

Uniqueness of Bastar Dussehra

Dassehra in Bastar is different from other places where it is linked with Lord Rama or the Ramayana. Bastar is in Dandakarnya, where Lord Rama is believed to have spent the 14 years of his exile. Yet Bastar Dassehra has nothing to do with Lord Rama or the Ramayana.

Here, instead of rejoicing over the killing of Ravana, the tribals celebrate Dassehra as a congregation of Devi Mavli ( Bastar's native deity, revered as the "elder sister" of Devi Danteshwari, the family goddess of the ruling Kakatiya family), and all her sisters. Hundreds of priests bring flower-bedecked local deities to the Danteshwari temple in Jagdalpur, arriving with all pomp and show.[8]

Timing and Period

Beginning with amavasya (dark moon) in the month of Shravan, Bastar Dassehra spans over 75 days, ending on the thirteenth day of the bright moon in the month of Ashwin.

Who does what

Bastar Dassehra involves the participation of diverse tribes and castes, each of whom is assigned a specific task, which they continue to carry out 5 decades after monarchies were abolished in India. For example, to build the two-tiered chariot, carpenters come from Beda Umargaon village; the special, massive ropes are twined by the tribals of Karanji, Kesarpal and Sonabal villages; the smaller chariot is pulled by the youth of Kachorapati and Agarwara parganas; the larger chariot is pulled by the bison-horn marias of Killepal. Singing hymns at all rituals is the prerogative of mundas from Potanar village. The construction of the rath (chariot) is always exclusively done by the Saoras every year. The iron nails used in the construction of the wooden rath are always made by Lohars, blacksmiths. The ropes for dragging the rath are prepared and supplied by the member of the Parja tribe. The construction of the rath is supervised by the Dhakada. Before using the rath for the ceremony it is always worshipped by the members of the Khaki caste.The chariot undoubtedly looks very primitive to an outsider. The swaying juggernaut, when it is pulled by 400+ strong mariyas, impresses upon an onlooker the strength of aboriginal faith.

The festival involves rituals of extraordinary rigor like a girl swinging on a bed of thorns; a youth (jogi) sitting in vigil, buried shoulder-deep, for nine days; mediums, reputedly possessed by the local deities, dancing eerily on the roads.

The festival provides a forum for elected representatives, administrators and old-time tribal chieftains to confer on the state of Bastar at the Muria Durbar.

One of the most awaited events is the rath yatra. The massive rath (chariot) might look primitive to an outsider, but it is symbolic of the king's desire to patronize locals instead of bringing a fancy chariot from elsewhere and tribal taboos on using sophisticated tools to make the chariot. It is hewn afresh each year, and the sight of 400 marias pulling it leaves a potent impression of tribal faith.

COMPONENTS & RITUALS OF BASTAR DUSSEHRA:[8]

PATA JATRA, WORSHIP OF THE WOOD

Wood is considered sacred by tribals, and felling of the timber to make the chariot is preceded by a ritual. A log of wood is laid at the Simha Dwar (Lion Gate) of the Palace temple on Shravan Amawasya ( also called Hareli Amawasya) and duly consecrated with sacrificial blood. This ritual kicks off the festival.

DERI GADHAI, Posting Of The Pillars

In the month of Bhadon, on the twelfth day of the bright moon, two pillars are posted in the Sirasar (traditional town hall outside the palace, the hub of Bastar Dassera activities).

KACHAN GAADI, A Throne For Kachan Devi

On the Ashwin Amaswasya, a young girl of the Mirgin-Mahara caste (a Scheduled Caste) becomes a "medium" when possessed by the caste deity, Kachan devi. She swings on a bed of thorns, brandishes a sword, and grants to the king (who comes in a procession to seek her blessings) a flower symbolizing her sanction to proceed with the festival.

KALASH STHAPANA, Installation Of The Urns

On the first day of the bright moon in the month of Ashwin, the navaratri (nine holy nights) part of Bastar Dassera begins with the installation of the holy urns in the temples of Danteshwari, Maoli and Kankalin devis in Jagdalpur. The Brahmins begin sacred recitations, which continue for nine days and nights.

JOGI BITHAI, The Jogi's Penance

On the evening of the first day of the bright moon in the month of Ashwin, a jogi (youth) from the Halba tribe sits buried shoulder-deep in a pit in the Sirasar, doing penance for the success of the festival. Sacrifice of a goat and seven mangur -fish precede his vigil.

RATH PARIKRAMA, Chariot Circuit

A day after the jogi has commenced his penance, the 4-wheeled flower-chariot, phool-rath, begins to circumambulate the Mavli Temple every evening. This continues till the seventh day. Formerly there was a single chariot of 12 wheels, but as this was too unwieldy, it was replaced with two smaller chariots - one of 4 wheels (for the daily circumambulation) and the other of 8 wheels (for the longer journey on the tenth and eleventh days). On the eighth and ninth days, the chariot is rested.

NISHA JATRA, The Nocturnal Festival

On the eighth day of the bright moon in the month of Ashwin, (better known as Durgashtami) a procession of lights leads to the puja mandap in the Sunday Square, Itwari. This spectacular ritual is known as nisha jatra.

JOGI UTHAI, Raising of the Jogi

On the ninth day of the bright moon in the month of Ashwin, the penance of the jogi comes to an end. He is ceremoniously raised from the pit he sat buried in, and honored with consecrated gifts.

MAVLI PARGHAV, Reception of the Devi Mavli

Mavli, the pre-Kakatiya presiding deity of Bastar, considered an elder sister of Danteshwari, is the Chief Guest in the congregation of deities. She is borne from Dantewada in the doli (palanquin) of Danteshwari. She arrives, borne on the shoulders of four media swaying under her spell, to a spectacular reception. She is then led to the palace-temple of Danteshwari.

BHEETAR RAINI, The Inner Circuit

On the tenth ( Vijaydashmi ) day of the bright moon in the month of Ashwin, the 8-wheel chariot runs the usual circumambulatory course around the Maoli temple. It has a swing in the top tier where the king used to sit. Currently, the raj-guru sits here, holding the chhatra (holy umbrella) of Devi Danteshwari. After it has completed its inner circuit and been parked for the night, around 400 Marias and Murias 'steal' it away to Kumdakot, a sal grove about 2 km away on the southern bank of river Indravati.

BAAHAR RAINI, The Outer Circuit

On the eleventh day of the bright moon in the month of Ashwin, the king used to visit Kumdakot to offer the goddess rice cooked from the new harvest. He would then partake of her prasad. After this, the chariot would be (still is) pulled back ceremoniously through the main road to the Lion Gate of the palace.

KACHAN JATRA, Thanksgiving

This is a thanksgiving ceremony organized on the twelfth day of the bright moon in the month of Ashwin to celebrate the successful conclusion of the festival through the grace of Kachan Devi.

MURIA DURBAR, Tribal Chieftains' Conference

The same day the tribal chieftains confer with the elected representatives and administrative officers on matters relating to public welfare. Formerly, the king presided over this conference.

OHADI, Farewell to the Deities

On the thirteenth day of the bright moon in the month of Ashwin, the deities brought from various parts of Bastar are bade a ceremonious farewell. Mavli, come from Dantewada is also bid a farewell with new clothes and ornaments which go to adorn the main idol in Dantewada.

An important feature of this festival is that an underlying spirit of participation, cutting across caste and creed, prevails. During the celebrations, along with Danteshwari Mai, representing the Hindu Goddess Durga or Kali, a number of lesser powers and tribal deities, some indigenous and others borrowed from Hinduism, are also worshipped.

Bhatra tribals have a special role in this ceremony. Armed with bows and arrows they make way for the rath. The girl who gets possessed in the temple of Kachhingudi Devi always comes from a weaver family. The musical band at the Kachhingudi Devi ceremony is always played by the same caste. In this way, the Bastar Dassehra is a Hindu festival deeply influenced by the local myths and religious beliefs as well as the customs of the tribals.

The Goncha Festival[edit]

The Goncha Festival is rath yatra(Chariot) festival of lord jagannath, similar to puri rath(Chariot)yatra. The word ghoncha is derived from word gundicha jatra in puri. This annual festival is celebrated on Ashad Shukla Dwitiya (second day in bright fortnight of Ashad month).

Three different Chariots are made for Lord Jagannath, Lord Balabhadra and Subhadra. These chariots are second largest chariots of lord jagannath in the world after puri. Chariots are made by different tribal community.

It also showcases the inimitable tribal culture. The vigorous and enthusiastic enjoyment that marks the Goncha Festival is remarkable. The zest and hearty spirit of the tribals from different parts of Bastar who participate in this festival is incredible. Peoples play with tupki (small pistol) in honor of lord jagannath. This pistol made by bamboo and fruit of pengu is used as bullet, bamboo stick is cut in the shape of a pistol and a fruit to strike each other. The intention is not to hurt each other but to just be a part of a mock encounter.

As part of Ratha yatra, the deities of Lord Jagannath, Lord Balabhadra and Subhadra are taken out in a procession to Gundicha Temple (sirhasar) and remain there for nine days. Then the deities or Ratha yatra return to Jagannath temple. The return journey is known as Bahuda goncha. The fervor and gusto of the people of Bastar at the time of celebrating this festival is admirable. If you visit Jagdalpur at the time of the Goncha Festival, you can be a part of the festivities.

Haryali Aamavasya[edit]

Haryali amavasya popularly known as AMUS TIHAR in Bastar, celebrated in dark night of July (Shrawn mas). Its Agriculture festival, people start sowing of seed from this day, this ritual is called beej forni. People worship their family god and goddess that day and seek blessing for good agriculture production. This festival having great significance because from this day making of chariot is start for Dashara festival. For this purpose special offering and worship is done including sacrifice of he-goat and Mangur fish.

Aama tihar[edit]

This unique Mango festival is celebrated in all part of Bastar. People of Bastar first offer mango to their deity then they eat. Before offering no one is allowed to eat mango, even small child they don't pluck mango from tree. Generally this festival is celebrated on month of April–May in shukla paksha but date is not fixed. It vary from village to village and family. If one family has not offer mango to their god then whole family will not eat mango that year.

Climate[edit]

Jagdalpur has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Aw) with three main seasons: summer, monsoon, and winter. Summers last from March to May and are hot, with the average maximum for May reaching 38.1 °C (100.6 °F). The weather cools off somewhat for the monsoon season from June to September, which features very heavy rainfall. Winters are warm and dry.

Climate data for Jagdalpur
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 32.9
(91.2)
35.9
(96.6)
39.6
(103.3)
42.5
(108.5)
44.8
(112.6)
42.6
(108.7)
35.9
(96.6)
33.4
(92.1)
34.0
(93.2)
33.9
(93)
33.0
(91.4)
31.5
(88.7)
44.8
(112.6)
Average high °C (°F) 28.3
(82.9)
31.2
(88.2)
35.1
(95.2)
37.6
(99.7)
38.1
(100.6)
33.4
(92.1)
28.9
(84)
28.4
(83.1)
29.8
(85.6)
30.0
(86)
28.5
(83.3)
27.6
(81.7)
31.41
(88.53)
Daily mean °C (°F) 19.9
(67.8)
23.0
(73.4)
26.9
(80.4)
30.0
(86)
31.2
(88.2)
28.5
(83.3)
25.7
(78.3)
25.4
(77.7)
25.9
(78.6)
24.7
(76.5)
21.7
(71.1)
19.5
(67.1)
25.2
(77.37)
Average low °C (°F) 11.5
(52.7)
14.7
(58.5)
18.6
(65.5)
22.3
(72.1)
24.3
(75.7)
23.6
(74.5)
22.4
(72.3)
22.3
(72.1)
21.9
(71.4)
19.4
(66.9)
14.8
(58.6)
11.3
(52.3)
18.93
(66.05)
Record low °C (°F) 2.8
(37)
7.0
(44.6)
8.3
(46.9)
14.8
(58.6)
17.0
(62.6)
14.3
(57.7)
18.3
(64.9)
19.3
(66.7)
17.4
(63.3)
11.0
(51.8)
5.9
(42.6)
4.4
(39.9)
2.8
(37)
Rainfall mm (inches) 7
(0.28)
11
(0.43)
12
(0.47)
44
(1.73)
90
(3.54)
295
(11.61)
352
(13.86)
367
(14.45)
200
(7.87)
87
(3.43)
26
(1.02)
4
(0.16)
1,495
(58.85)
Avg. rainy days 0.8 1.5 1.6 4.5 6.8 13.8 20.5 21.1 15.4 6.8 2.2 0.6 95.6
 % humidity 59 51 42 43 47 69 84 86 82 74 68 65 64.2
Source: NOAA (1971-1990)[10]

Industries[edit]

Nagarnar Steel Plant[edit]

National Mineral Development Corporation (NMDC) is setting up a 3 MTPA capacity greenfield Integrated Steel Plant in Nagarnar, located 16 km from Jagdalpur, with an estimated outlay of Rs 21,000 crore. The land for the plant has already been acquired as of August 2010 and, as of February 2012, 5 major packages of the steel plant have already been awarded to internationally acclaimed companies at a cost of around Rs.6,500 crore. [11]

Tata Steel Plant[edit]

Tata Steel had inked the deal with the Chhattisgarh Government in June 2005 to set up a green field integrated steel plant at Lohandiguda, about 20 km from Jagdalpur. The proposed 5.5-million-tonne per annum plant has an estimated outlay of Rs 19,500 crore.[12]

An environment ministry panel has recommended the diversion of forest land for the steel plant in a decision that was taken in the meeting of a Forest Advisory Committee (FAC) of the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), Government of India[13]

Places to visit in and around Jagdalpur[edit]

Wild Life Parks[edit]

Kanger Valley National Park[14][edit]

Kanger Valley National Park, also known as Kanger Ghati National Park, located near Jagdalpur is one of the most popular National Parks in Chhattisgarh. It is easily accessible from Jagdalpur as can be seen on the road network map of the area.

It is named after the Kanger River, which flows centrally from northwest to southeast direction. The park was established on 22 July 1982 with the purpose of preserving the bio-diversity on the region and protecting the vast species of flora and fauna. It is about 33.5 km long with an average width of about 6 km and starts from Tirathgarh waterfall to Kolab River which borders the state of Odisha. The entire area of the park has been divided into two ranges viz., Kotumsar and Koleng. It lies just 25 km southeast of Jagdalpur on the Jagdalpur-Darbha road.

Kanger Valley National Park is home to the rare mouse deer as well as other exotic animals such as red jungle fowl, rocket-tailed drongo, striped hyena and barking deer. It also houses numerous attractions including caves like the Kailash caves, the Kotumsar caves and the Dandak caves. Wildlife attractions at Kanger Valley National Park includes animals such as cheetal, sambhar, wild boar, sloth bear, porcupine, mouse deer, civet, rabbits, tiger, leopard, crocodiles, wild dog, hyena, mongoose, wolf, leopard cat, Indian false vampire bat. Numerous species of fish are also found at the Kanger River and its tributaries.

How to Reach the Park

Kanger Valley is well approachable from Jagdalpur as can be seen on the road network map of the area.

Entry into the National Park is permitted form Netanar and Kotamsar barriers. Netanar barrier is situated at 33 km from Jagdalpur on the road passing through village Sargipal, Bodal, Murma, and Netanar. The Park starts after 3 km from the Netanar barrier. Main entry of the Park is from Kotamsar barrier situated at 27 km from Jagdalpur on the Jagdalpur-Darbha road i.e. NH 221 (connecting Jagdalpur to Vijayawada in Andhra Pradesh). Inside the Park there is good network of Murram and kutcha roads.

Rest houses, Hotels, lodges, Resorts of good quality are available for lodging at Jagdalpur. Inside the Park Forest Rest House at Kotamsar and Tirathgarh is available; Nearest Petrol Pump is at Jagdalpur. Forest wireless system is at Tirathgarh & Netanar.

Indravati National Park[15][edit]

Indravati National Park, located in the Dantewada district of Chhattisgarh, is named after the nearby Indravati River. It is regarded as one of the finest and top most wildlife parks of Chhattisgarh. Spread on an area of about 1258 km2, the park is renowned for its wide ranging species of animals, birds and reptiles. Indravati National Park was declared a National Park in 1981 and later on under the famous Project Tiger of India got the status of Tiger Reserve in 1983. It is the only Tiger Reserve in the Tribal State of Chhattisgarh. The main attraction in the park is the rare wild buffalo as well as the swamp deer.

Indravati National Park attracts thousands of wildlife enthusiasts who come here for having a view of the wild herbivores grazing the grasslands of the park. The major wildlife attractions in Indravati National Park include Barking Deers, Nilgai, Barasinghas, Gaurs, Sambars, Wild Dogs, Sloth Bear and Hyenas. It is also renowned for the wide variety of reptiles including Crocodiles, Indian Chameleons, Cobras, Russell's viper and Indian Rock Pythons. The park also serves as a refuge to a number of bird species. The best season to visit the park is during the months of December through June.

Reaching There By Air: Visakhapatnam (417 km) is the nearest airport. By Rail: Dantewada, about (55 km) is the nearest railhead. By Road: The Park is linked with other parts of the district by road link

Temples[edit]

Danteshwari Temple[16][edit]

It is located around 84 km (52 mi) from Jagdalpur city is the famous and sacred temple of Ma (Hindi for mother) Danteshwari, a local goddess, worshipped as an incarnation of Shakti. This temple is believed to possess several divine powers. Every year during Dushera thousands of tribals from surrounding villages and jungles gather here to pay homage to the goddess.

Situated in Dantewada, south-west of Jagdalpur, at the confluence of the holy rivers Shankini & Dhankini, this six hundred year old temple is one of the ancient heritage sites of India and is a representation of the religio-socio-cultural history of the Bastar region. Little is known about this shrine to much of India. The vast temple complex today is truly a standing monument to centuries of history and tradition. With its rich architectural and sculptural wealth and its vibrant festival traditions, Danteshwari Mai temple serves as the most important spiritual center for the people of this region.

It is believed that a tooth of Sati had fallen here and Danteshwari Shakti Pith was established. According to the ancient legend, Goddess Sati committed self-immolation in the fire pit of yagna kund, due to an insult committed by her father Daksha towards her consort Lord Shiva during the Yaga. Raged by the death of Sati, Lord Shiva destroyed the Yaga of Daksha and with the body of Sati in his hands started to do 'Taandav'.Lord Vishnu cut the dead body of Goddess Sati with his Sudarshan to free Lord Shiva from the grief caused by her death. Parts of the dead body of Goddess Sati were scattered to fifty-two different places, which were consecrated as Shakti Pithas.

The Danteshwari temple was built in the 14th Century by the Chalukya kings in South Indian style of temple architecture. The idol of Danteshwari Mai is chiseled out of black stone. The temple is divided into four parts such as Garbh Griha, Maha Mandap, Mukhya Mandap and Sabha Mandap. Garbha Griha and Maha Mandap were constructed with stone pieces. There is a Garud Pillar in front of the entrance of the temple. The temple itself is located in a spacious courtyard surrounded by massive walls. The shikhara is adorned with sculptural finery.

Temples in Barsoor[17][edit]

Located on the banks of the Indrawati river, about 75 km (a one and a half to two hour drive) to the south west of Jagdalpur, Barsoor was once an epicentre of Hindu civilization. It is believed that there were once 147 temples and an equal number of ponds here. The ruins of these temples, dating back to the 10th and 11th centuries (i.e. over 1,000 years) can still be seen today; they contain some notable images of Lord Vishnu. One Shiva temple, with 12 carved stone pillars, has nude figures on the outside. Another Shiva temple has 32 carved stone pillars, a black granite Nandi (Shiva's carrier) bull, and two sanctum sanctorum, with a common court. The ruins of this temple have been recently restored. A 50 foot high temple, known locally as Mama-bhanja-ka-mandir (temple of the maternal uncle and nephew), is in good condition, but lacks an idol. It is not clear to which deity the temple was consecrated, or even if it was ever consecrated. The biggest attraction is the Ganesha Temple. While the temple itself is in ruins, two sandstone images of Ganesh, both in the aspect of Maha-Ganapati, are still intact. The larger of these is about 8 feet high and over 17 feet wide.

Danteshwari Temple at Jagdalpur[edit]

It is an ancient temple built by the kings of Bastar for inhabiting their family Goddess, Devi Danteshwari. Devi Danteshwari is the Goddess of entire Bastar division, worshipped by tribals and other community. This temple is located inside the Bastar Palace. especial offering is done on Saturday and Tuesday, In bastar all goddess temple are closed on Monday, Wednesday.

It is popular to visit the temple during the famous Bastar Dussehera festival season, when it is decorated with colored lights. The temple is where the main traditional functions of the festivals are carried on.

Mavli temple[edit]

Devi mavali is consider as elder sister of goddess danteswari, presiding deity of narayanpur, the temple is situated in front of danteswari temple. This temple have series of Temple of other gods and goddess like goddess kali, shiva(bhairava) has great significance because in dashara festival all most rituals, offering is done in mavli temple.

Jagannath temple[edit]

Temple is dedicated to lord jagannath, Subhadra and Balbhadra. This temple is nearby to Mavli temple having unique singha dwar (lion gate) The famous festival Goncha (Rath yatra) is started from this temple. The festival is celebrated on ashad shukla dwitiya, second largest festival of Jagdalpur. folk from nearby and distance places participate in festival and seek blessing of lord jagannath. They play tupki in honor of lord jagannath. The sound of this tupki is heard in every corner, cross of Jagdalpur. The ripe jack-fruit and germinated mungbean is main offering to lord.

Hinglajin temple[edit]

There are many temple in Jagdalpur dedicated to goddess Hinglajin. As per the folk belief she is the younger sister of goddess Danteswari, her abode is in eastern part of Bastar like Girhola, Bakavand, Jaithgiri. In Jagdalpur oldest Hinglajin temple is in Hatkachora. Girhola temple of goddess has very religious importance, people gathered in Girhola during Navratri festival from Bastar and Odisha. the idol of goddess is very beautiful and divine. Other temple are in Bastar village, nayamunda.

Laxmi-Narayan temple[edit]

This temple is near by Danteswari temple, dedicated to Lord Vishnu. The architecture of temple is same as Danteswari temple. Shri Ram temple and Radha- Krishna temple is very near to Laxmi- Narayan temple which has similar architecture.

The Sri Venkateshwara Swamy Temple[edit]

The Sri Venkateshwara Swamy Temple in Jagdalpur is a result of the dedicated efforts of members of Andhra Association. The temple reaches out to serve spiritual, cultural and social dimensions of the society. The construction of the Balaji temple in Jagdalpur has been beneficial to many of the devotees, who now have an accessible darshan of the Lord nearer their homes. Every day devotees throng this sacred shrine of Lord Balaji, also known as Sri Venkateswara Swamy, the all-pervading Lord of the Universe.

Water Falls[edit]

Chitrakote Falls[18][edit]

Chitrakot Falls is also referred as the Niagara Falls of India and has got the distinction of being the broadest waterfall in India. It is located 38 km (24 mi) from Jagdalpur and is accessible by road only.Image:Chitrakot waterfalls.JPG|300px|right|thumb|Majestic Chitrakote Waterfall

Chitrakot ghumar or Chitrakote Falls is listed amongst the most popular waterfalls in Chhattisgarh. Locally known as chitrakot ghumar, meaning of ghumar is waterfall like tarmara ghumar mendri ghumar, chitar means cheetal (deer). Earlier days numerous deer were there so people used to call it chitrakote. The falls showcase their natural beauty amidst the densely forested surroundings. The waterfall is located near Jagdalpur, in Bastar district in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh on the Indravati River. The waters of the river flowing through dense vegetation and cascading from a height of about 95 feet is a popular attraction for thousands of tourists. The breadth of the waterfall varies according to the season and goes down drastically in the summers. The most spectacular view of Chitrakot Falls is during the monsoon season when the river flows in its full fury and touches both the banks and is filled with silt.

Panoramic view of Chitrakote Falls

Indravati River flowing east to weat direction, is one of the main tributaries of the mighty Godavari River. Chitrakote is also an important religious destination and a famous Hindu pilgrimage center in Chhattisgarh. Every year thousands of pilgrims visit this place for shivratri festival and offer prayers and homage to the Lord shiva. Many natural shiva linga are there people worship them. Tourists and pilgrims get the opportunity of watching the falls as well as offering prayers on their visit to Chitrakote. The best season to visit this place is during the months of July through October.

There is a helipad but it is used by government only. A very good quality resort namely Chitrakot Resorts has been set up by Chhattisgarh Tourism near the falls.

Tirathgarh Waterfalls[19][edit]

It is located around 38 km from Jagdalpur in Kanger Valley National Park, a renowned eco tourism site. The scenic Tirathgarh Falls is one of the most notable waterfalls in Chhattisgarh. Water cascading from the hills surrounding the falls provides impressive views. Splashing streams of water come down at high speed from a height of more than 100 feet on the river Mugabahar, which originates in a lake not very far away from this point. The surrounding forests dramatize the visual effect of the falls.

Water flows through various streams and crosses numerous paths along the way in a zigzag manner, finally ending up in the falls. Besides the natural scenic attractions associated with this place, Tirathgarh Falls is also an important religious place featuring a temple which is dedicated to Shiva Parvati. Every thousands of tourists and devotees come here from within the state and rest of India for having spectacular views of Tirathgarh Falls as well as offering prayers at the temple. The best season to visit this place is in the months of October through February.

Chitradhara Waterfalls[20][edit]

The Chitradhara Waterfalls is located just 19 km form Jagdalpur in Chhattisgarh on the way to Chitrakot Falls. It is one of the most popular sightseeing and weekend vacation destinations in the centrally located state of Chhattisgarh, and in Bastar District. It lies near a small village called Potanar and attracts thousands of tourists from within the state and from the rest of the country. Families and friends come to enjoy the outdoors and watch the gushing waters cascading down the hill at high speed.

River Indravati is the main source of Chitradhara Waterfalls. The river passes through dense forested lands in a zigzag manner, cutting through uneven rocky terrains and finally descending from the top of the hills. The sound of water flowing through the river and splashing into the air after hitting the ground is ever-present, especially during the monsoon season. The natural beauty of this river, along with the dense forests and clear waters of the lake, rank this place amongst the top Eco Tourism Sites in Chhattisgarh. Monsoon is the best season to visit here.

Tamra Ghoomar Waterfalls[21][edit]

Tamra Ghoomar Falls is located at around 45 km from Jagdalpur. It is very close to the Chitrakoot waterfall. This is a recently discovered waterfall with a height of more than 100 feet and is generally formed in the rainy season. There are green fields on either side of this waterfall. Like Chitrakoot and Tirathgarh Waterfalls, Tamra Ghoomar Falls is another scenic spot near Chitrakoot. The natural beauty of the area, featuring lush forested lands, deep valleys, and hills, attracts tourists to it. Even though the waterfalls lies in a secluded location, numerous tourists still make it a point to come here for picnicking and enjoying the natural wonders with their families and friends. It is one of the most popular Eco Tourism destinations in Chhattisgarh. The area surrounding the falls is rich in natural attractions. The best way of exploring this place is to trek or take a scenic drive.

It has become an important picnic spot in Chhattisgarh which numerous tourists visit to escape from the stress of busy city life. It is a popular place to relax and rest amidst scenic surroundings. Tourists are greeted with views of flowing waters, passing along the trees on both sides, cutting through the rocks and finally cascading at high speed from the top of the hill. Tourists have the opportunity to relax and play beside the gushing waters. The best season to visit this place is monsoon.

Mandawa Waterfalls[edit]

Mandawa waterfall is located in a place called Mandawa off the NH-16 (Jagdalpur-Geedam road), around 31 km from Jagdalpur.

At Mandawa, the stream of water flows step-wise and falls from a height of 70 ft to make a cascade called Mandawa Waterfall. The water from this waterfall collects in a small reservoir (jalkund) and then flows downstream, meeting Kanger river and forming two other waterfalls (Tirathgarh and Kanger-dhara). Due to its flat top and adjacent horizontal rocks, it offers a good view.

Kanger Dhara[edit]

Kanger Dhara is located inside the Kanger Valley National Park, 36 km from Jagdalpur. To reach Kanger Dhara, one should get the applicable permission and tickets from the District Forest Office located at the entry to the park.

The best season for visiting the park is from winter to summer; the park closes to tourists from the beginning of Monsoons in the month of July.

Being in the lap of Kanger Valley, the Kanger Dhara waterfall is produced by the Kanger River due to the presence of undulating rocks present there. Geologists suggest that the area was a sedimentary terrain, later intruded by igneous rock bodies, causing these folded structures.

Just at the beginning of the downstream of Kanger river, when the river falls from undulating folded rocks, it forms small cascades of water, which creates Kanger Dhara Falls.

Caves[edit]

Kotumsar Caves[22][edit]

Kotumsar Caves are situated at a distance of about 40 km (25 mi) from Jagdalpur. Kotumsar Caves are about 35 meters below ground level and around 1371 meters long.

These caves have got the distinction of being India's first and world's second longest natural caves. As they are underground, there is pitch-darkness inside. It features stalactite and stalagmite formations. Entry to the caves is via narrow stairs. Visitors have to pass through tall, narrow chambers to gain access to the main hall, which features superb acoustics. The caves feature five chambers having several blind wells. Lots of tribal tales are also associated with it and are also known as Gupanpal or Kutamsar Caves. The stalactites found inside the cave have been an interesting research topic for scientists and arouse curiosity among visitors.

There is a lack of oxygen when going deep into the caves. In view of this, for safety reasons, entry beyond certain points has been restricted.

Kailash Caves[22][edit]

Kailash Caves are located in the Kanger Valley National Park area near Mikulwada. The caves are located around 40 km from Jagdalpur. The caves are around 250 meters long and are situated at an altitude of 40 meters above ground level. The caves feature impressive stalactite and stalagmite formations.

Access to the cave is through a narrow opening. At the end of the cave is a huge stalagmite formation in the shape of Shivlinga. The hollow walls of the cave, when struck by hand, make musical sounds.

Aranyak Cave[23][edit]

Discovered in the month of July 1996, Dr. Suresh Tiwari and his troop were the first group to view this cave. Followed by a 15 foot long aven, the cavern (solution cave) opens into a series of galleries and shafts, having two big and three small chambers, with a view of developing/budding speleothems. This cave is one of the caves of Kanger Valley National Park, situated at the extreme north-west of the Park area and under the village of Madarkonta.

Bastar Palace[edit]

is another historical remain that is seen in Jagdalpur. It was the headquarters of Bastar Kingdom. It was built by the rulers of Bastar State when the capital of Bastar kingdom was shifted from Barsur to Jagdalpur. At present the royal family of Bastar state is residing there.

Anthropological Museum[24][edit]

The Zonal Anthropological Museum in Jagdalpur was established in the year 1972 to provide insight into the culture and lifestyles of Bastar tribes. The museum is 4 km from the Jagdalpur city center in the office of the Anthropological Survey of India. It houses a fine collection of numerous objects of ethnographic interest. The rare items on display at the museum throw light on the rituals and customs followed by the tribes of Bastar and highlight their religious practices and style of living. All the collections have been documented, classified, and are displayed in various sections of the museum.

The Zonal Anthropological Museum of Jagdalpur is one of the prominent museums in central India which is entirely dedicated to the acquisition, study, protection, exhibition, and educational understanding of various objects that have historical, scientific, or artistic value. Some of the rare collections found at the museum include headgears, footwear, ornaments, musical instruments, dresses, paintings, wood carvings, weapons, masks, art work, sculptures and a wide variety of objects that were used in daily life. It is one of the top tourist attractions in Chhattisgarh that serves as a window to the lifestyles and ethnic cultures of various tribes in Bastar. The rare collections on display at the museum cover four fields of anthropology namely ethnology, linguistics, archaeology, and physical anthropology.

Lakes in Jagdalpur[edit]

Earlier days many lakes were in Jagdalpur like Ganga Munda, Dalpat Sagar, Kevara Munda, Naya Munda, Ran Munda and so on but at present time only three Ganga Munda, Dalpat Sagar and Ran Munda are in good condition, others are dry up. Munda is a Halbi word means ponds or lake. Ganga Munda and Dalpat Sagar are a great attraction for those residing in the town as well as for tourists coming to Jagdalpur.

Dalpat Sagar Lake[edit]

Dalpat Sagar Lake is located within Jagdalpur. It is one of the biggest artificial lakes in Chhattisgarh. It was built by Raja Dalpat Deo Kakatiya over 400 years ago to harvest rain water. This lake is full of lotus and water lily.

Temple. There is an old temple located at the center island of the Dalpat Sagar. The temple is dedicated to lord shiva. As it is located on an island, one will have to take paddle boat or fishing boat to reach there. The island offers impressive views of the scenic surroundings.

Fishing. Dalpat Sagar is one of the major sources of fishing and provides means of livelihood to many local people. Group fishing activity takes place early in the morning or in the evening. One group of people spreads the net in the water while the other group drives the fishes into the net by beating the water. Because of fishing one might not be able to explore every part of Dalpat sagar, as paddle boats are prohibited in the region where nets are spread.

Boating. To help visitors enjoy Dalpat Sagar, the Government of Chhattisgarh has provided facilities for paddle boats and motor boats. The paddle boat has two variations, 2-seater and 4-seater, so that groups of family and friends can travel together. A shed has also been provided in each boat to protect passengers from sun.

Island. The Government has built an island on Dalpat Sagar so that people can sit, relax and enjoy the beauty of the lake. The island has coconut trees, show plants, a light tower, and a musical fountain. The light tower can be seen from anywhere in Jagdalpur. Visitors can sit on the island enjoying the view and the sunset. The musical fountain show is usually at 7 o’clock in the evening.

Other Places Of Attraction[edit]

About 40 km. north west of Narayanpur is the Kurschel Valley, with its gigantic trees.

Media and communications[edit]

State-owned All India Radio has a local station in Jagdalpur, which transmits various programs of mass interest.

Web portals[edit]

Website name URL Notes
Bastar - Government Website http://www.bastar.gov.in/ Official government website for the Bastar district of Chhattisgarh. Land records and other e-governance projects are available from here.
QuickSearch http://www.myquicksearch.in Local business directory service for Jagdalpur
District Court http://bastar.gov.in/DistrictCourtBastar/home.html Official website of the district court of Bastar

Educational Institutions[edit]

Main Colleges[edit]

  • Adeshwar Nursing Institute,Khamargaon,Jagdalpur.
  • Government Engineering College, Jagdalpur
  • Surya College, Jagdalpur
  • Post graduate (P.G.) College,Jagdalpur
  • Danteshwari College
  • Government Medical College, Maharani Hospital, Jagdalpur.
  • Bastar Medical College of Alternative Medicines, Jagdalpur
  • Christ college jagdalpur
  • Bodhni Devi Nursing Institute, Jagdalpur

Main Schools[edit]

  • Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya,Jagdalpur ,Dharampura 2
  • Adeshwar Public School(APS),Rajmahal Parisar,Jagdalpur
  • Sanskar The Gurukul, Jagdalpur
  • Shri Gurunanak Public School, Jagdalpur
  • Kendriya Vidyalaya(KV),Jagdalpur
  • Nirmal Vidyalaya, Jagdalpur
  • Vidya Jyoti School, Jagdalpur
  • Deepti Convent School, Jagdalpur
  • St Xavier's High School, Jagdapur
  • Delhi Public School(DPS), Jagdalpur
  • DAV Public School,NMDC steel plant, dhanpunji, Jagdalpur
  • Aadeshwar Academy, Adawal, Jagdalpur
  • Saraswati Shishu Mandir, Kangoli, Jagdalpur
  • Saraswati Shishu Mandir, Frezarpur, Jagdalpur
  • National English medium School, Jagdalpur
  • Sharda Convent, Dharampura- 1, Jagdalpur
  • Balvihar high School, Jagdalpur
  • Bastar High School, Jagdalpur
  • Kali Baadi Vidyalaya, Jagdalpur
  • Maharani Laxmi Bai School, Jagdalpur
  • Maharishi Vidya Mandir, Jagdalpur
  • E B A Mission School, Jagdalpur
  • MGM School, Jagdalpur
  • Gyanodaya High School, Adawal, Jagdalpur
  • Shri Vidyapathi Higher Secondary School, Jagdalpur
  • HAM Academy, Jagdalpur

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011; Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 27 March 2012. 
  2. ^ Cite error: The named reference 2014Cities was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  3. ^ Life at the end of the road - Hindustan Times
  4. ^ NMDC mining target of 50 million tonne facing infra hurdles
  5. ^ [IRFCA] Indian Railways FAQ: Route Map
  6. ^ "Extra coach on Vizag-Korba". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 2012-02-07. 
  7. ^ Maps, Google. "Distance". Retrieved 18 October 2012. 
  8. ^ a b c Bastar Dassera
  9. ^ Dushera Festival, Chhattisgarh, Tourism, Culture
  10. ^ "Jagdalpur Climate Normals 1971-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 24 December 2012. 
  11. ^ http://www.moneycontrol.com/livefeed_pdf/Feb2012/NMDC_Ltd_040212.pdf
  12. ^ Tata group | Tata Steel | Media reports | Tata Steel's Rs19,500-crore Bastar project gets villagers support
  13. ^ "MoEF panel recommends land diversion for Tata Steel's plant". The Times Of India. 2012-03-11. 
  14. ^ Chhattisgarh National Park Guide - Kanger Ghati National Park, Jagdalpur
  15. ^ Chhattisgarh National Park Guide - Indravati National Park - Only Tiger Reserve
  16. ^ Chhattisgarh Temple Guide - Danteshwari Temple - Ancient Temple, Dussehra Festival
  17. ^ Dantewada District
  18. ^ Chhattisgarh Waterfalls Guide - Chitrakoot Falls - Niagara Falls of India
  19. ^ Chhattisgarh Waterfalls Guide - Tirathgarh Falls Jagdalpur - Kanger Valley National Park
  20. ^ Chhattisgarh Waterfalls Guide - Chitradhara Falls, Jagdalpur - Top Eco Tourism Site
  21. ^ Chhattisgarh Waterfalls Guide - Tamra Ghoomar Falls Jagdalpur, Eco-Tourism Destination
  22. ^ a b Jagdalpur Travel Guide - Kotumsar and Kailash Caves - Kanger Valley National Park
  23. ^ http://www.questchhattisgarh.in/2012/12/aranyak-cavern-jagdalpur.html
  24. ^ Chhattisgarh Museums Guide - Anthropological Museum in Jagdalpur - Rare Collections, Tribal Art & Artifacts

success convent the vidya mandir mano vikas holy cross Hindi medium school krishna public school kendriya vidyalay hr.sec.school

External links[edit]