Jagdgeschwader 3

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Jagdgeschwader 3
JG3-Emblem.svg
Active 1939–1945
Country Nazi Germany Nazi Germany
Branch Air Force
Type Fighter Aircraft
Role Air superiority
Size Air Force Wing
Nickname Udet
Patron Ernst Udet
Fighter Aircraft Messerschmitt Bf 109,
Focke-Wulf Fw 190A,
Focke-Wulf Fw 190D-9
Decorations References in the Wehrmachtbericht (4)
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Heinz Bär (1.6.44 - 13.2.45)
Insignia
Cuff title Ärmelstreifen Luftwaffe Udet.jpg

Jagdgeschwader 3 (JG 3) Udet was a Luftwaffe fighter-wing of World War II. The Geschwader operated on all the German fronts in the European Theatre of World War II. It was named after Ernst Udet in 1942.

History[edit]

Campaign in the West (1940)[edit]

Jagdschwader 3 "Udet" was formed on 1 May 1939 in Bernburg/Saale from JG 231. JG 3 was one of the Luftwaffe's fighter units that took part in the Battle of France. A particularly fruitful period over France occurred from 14–17 May 1940. Allied bombers had attempted to prevent the German armour from crossing the Meuse and sent waves of inadequately protected bombers to do the job. As a result 90 Allied bombers were shot down and the 14 May became known as the "day of the fighters" within the Luftwaffe. I./JG 3 destroyed seven fighters without loss on this day. On 15 May five were destroyed, again for no losses. On 17 May an entire formation of 13 Bristol Blenheims were shot down by I./JG 3. A total of 19 Allied aircraft were shot down by I./JG 3 alone on that day.[1] The unit claimed some 179 aircraft shot down. Oberleutnant Lothar Keller was top claimant with 10 kills, and I./JG 3 Gruppenkommandeur Maj. Günther Lützow scored 9. I./JG3 was the most successful Gruppe, with 88 enemy aircraft destroyed for ten Bf 109s lost while six pilots were killed and one wounded.[2]

JG 3 later flew intensively in the Battle of Britain. On 21 August 1940, Oberstleutnant Lützow was appointed Kommodore of JG 3. He recorded 8 more victories during the aerial battles over England. Lützow was awarded the Ritterkreuz (Knights Cross) on 18 September. By the end of 1940 its most successful pilots were Oblt. Erwin Neuerberg (11 claims) and Lt Helmut Meckel (9 claims). The Geschwader lost some 51 pilots killed or POW July–December 1940. I Gruppe alone had destroyed exactly 50 enemy machines, but in exchange of 32 Messerschmitts of which 20 were lost to enemy action. Ten pilots were killed or missing while a further 11 were captured.[3]

Campaign in the East (1941)[edit]

Adjusting the machine guns of a Messerschmitt Bf 109 E-1 of the Jagdgeschwader 3 (JG 3).

The Geschwader took part in Operation Barbarossa from 22 June 1941 onwards, and during the offensive against the Soviets JG 3 claimed its 1,000th aircraft destroyed on 30 August. Lützow became the second Experte to achieve 100 victories when he downed three Russian fighters near Moscow on 24 October. Lützow was then grounded. On 27 June 1941, Hauptmann Gordon Gollob was made Gruppenkommandeur II./JG 3. He claimed 18victories in August and achieved 37 victories in October, including 9 aircraft shot down over the Perekop Isthmus on 18 October and 6 aircraft on 22 October. He was awarded the Eichenlaub (Oak Leaves) on 26 October for 85 victories. He led II./JG 3 until November 1941. In the period 22 June - 5 December 1941, the unit destroyed 1,298 Soviet aircraft in return for 58 losses in aerial combat and losing 10 aircraft on the ground.[4]

II Gruppe; Sicily and Malta (1942)[edit]

II./JG 3, under the command of Hauptmann Karl-Heinz Krahl was transferred to Comiso on Sicily in January 1942 to bolster JG 53 and the Regia Aeronautica which were carrying out sustained attacks against Malta. At this time the unit was equipped with Bf 109F-4 Trops. On 14 April Hptm. Krahl, who was credited with 24 victories, was shot down and killed by anti-aircraft fire as he attempted a low altitude attack on ground targets on Malta. Oberleutnant Kurt Brändle was posted in from 5/JG 53 to take his place. At the end of April II Gruppe departed Sicily for a brief stay in Germany before being redeployed to the Eastern front.

Reorganisation and the Battle for Stalingrad (1942)[edit]

In mid-September, I./JG 3 were ordered back to Germany for rest and refit. However, a number of I. Gruppe pilots remained in Russia serving with III./ JG 3. After refitting with Bf 109F-4 fighters, I./JG 3 was ordered to relocate to bases in the Netherlands in December 1941. On 6 January 1942, it became II./JG 1, with a new I. Gruppe being raised.

By early 1942, JG 3 was awarded the honour name "Udet" (after Ernst Udet) and was then often simply referred as "Jagdgeschwader Udet" thereafter. In May 1942, Lützow led most of JG 3 back to Russia and commenced operations in the Kharkiv area. There followed intensive operations through the Crimea, and in the drive towards Stalingrad. Again JG 3 was one of the Luftwaffe's top units, fighting on the Southern Front, reaching 2,000 claims on 28 May 1942. On 12 August, Major Wolf-Dietrich Wilcke was appointed Kommodore of JG 3.

In June 1942 II Gruppe was transferred back to the East where it joined in the advance on the Stalingrad front, suffering heavy losses. During the Battle of Stalingrad, Stab./JG 3 were based at Pitomnik Airfield, where Wilcke directed all day fighter operations over the city. During the summer offensive of 1942 the Geschwaderstab/JG 3 recorded 137 victories, of which Wilcke claimed 97. On 19 September Leutnant Wilhelm Lemke was awarded the Ritterkreuz for 59 Victories.

When Russian forces encircled Stalingrad, the Geschwaderstab/JG 3 was transferred to Morozovskaya-Öst, outside the pocket. In mid-November 1942 JG 3 then provided the famous Platzschutzstaffel (airfield defence squadron) which defended the besieged 6th Army in Stalingrad until late 1942. On a rotational basis up to six volunteer pilots drawn from I and II./JG 3 formed a defence Staffel within the rapidly contracting Stalingrad perimeter. Their purpose was to cover the Junkers Ju 52 transports flying supplies into Pitomik airfield and to protect the aircraft while on the ground. Despite often only having 2 or 3 Bf 109's serviceable, in the last 6 weeks of the siege (until mid January) claimed some 130 Soviet aircraft shot down. In return JG 3 lost 90-victory experte Leut. Georg Schentke over the city on 25 December 1942. In mid-January the pilots were ordered to fly out of the pocket and rejoin their parent unit, although some thirty ground crew remaining became prisoners when the city surrendered to the Soviets on 2 February 1943.[5]

Continued fighting in the East, and home defence (1943)[edit]

II./JG 3 was relocated to the Kuban bridgehead in February 1943. Oblt. Wolf-Udo Ettel proved the 'star' of JG 3 around this time, claiming 28 kills in March 1943, 36 in April, and 20 in May. Intensive operations around the Kerch peninsula followed in April. In July 1943 II. and III./JG 3 at this time were part of Luftlotte 4 and flew in Operation Zitadelle, the tank offensive launched around the Kursk salient. On 5 July 1943 alone the II gruppe claimed 77 Soviet aircraft from a total claimed of 432, Oblt. Joachim Kirschner claiming 9 kills and Gruppenkommandeur Hpt. Kurt Brändle claiming 5.

As Allied bombing raids in Germany increased during mid 1943 each of the gruppen of JG 3 were in turn recalled to Germany to defend the homeland on so called Reichsverteidigung (Defense of the Reich) duty. I. /JG 3 moved back to Germany in April 1943, but did not go operational until June 1943. Equipped with the new Bf 109G-6 Kanonenboote with two 20mm cannons in underwing gondolas, I./JG 3 were slowly worked up as a 'bomber-killer' unit. This long training period paid dividends as the gruppe started to shoot down impressive numbers of USAAF bombers without the heavy losses incurred by many Jagdgeschwadern thrown into the battle with less preparation. Lt. Franz Schwaiger was by this time I./JG 3's current top scorer with 56 claims.

By late summer 1943 III./JG3 were also flying the Bf 109G-6 and Bf 109G-6/R6. On its return to Germany, the Stab/JG 3 was based at Mönchengladbach. On 4 December 1943 Hpt. Wilhelm Lemke (131 kills) was killed in combat with P-47s of the 352nd Fighter Group.

As with most Reich Defence fighter units, JG 3 suffered heavy losses through early 1944 against the increasing numbers of USAAF escort fighters, losing many irreplaceable experten. On 15 March 1944, Hpt. Emil Bitsch (108 kills) was shot down and killed by 352nd Fighter Group P-47s. On 23 March 1944 Wilcke led JG 3 in an attack on a USAAF bomber formation near Braunschweig. During combat, Wilcke shot down a P-51 for his 162nd victory, but was then shot down and killed by fighters of the 4th Fighter Group. On 19 April 1944, Oblt. Otto Weßling (83 kills) was shot down and killed in combat near Eschwege. Wilcke's successor as Geschwaderkommodore of JG 3 was Major Friedrich-Karl "Tutti" Müller, the CO of IV. /JG 3. The 140-kill experte was however killed in a landing accident at Salzwedel on 29 May 1944.

Battering Rams (1944)[edit]

Hauptmann Moritz's Fw 190A "Sturmbock" fighter

With the increased pressure caused by the American bombing raids through late 1943 and early 1944, a new method of attacking the bombers was proposed by Major H.-G. Von Kornatski, an associate of Adolf Galland; simply for specially armoured fighters to get in as close to the bombers as possible before opening fire, even (as a last resort) deliberately ramming the bomber. It was dangerous and, to most experienced aces, foolhardy, but predicted results were such that a special Staffel was formed to test the tactical viability. Sturmstaffel 1 was the first experimental unit to fly the so-called Sturmböck (Battering Ram) up-gunned Focke-Wulf Fw 190A aircraft, and was attached to JG 3, following the general demise of the Zerstörergruppen as bomber destroyers earlier in 1944. Such was their success that in April–May 1944 the Sturmstaffel was expanded into a specialised bomber 'killer' Gruppen, IV./JG 3, led by Hauptmann Wilhelm Moritz. Sturmstaffel 1 was redesignated 11./JG 3 in May 1944. On 12 February 1944, Major Müller was appointed Gruppenkommandeur of IV.(Sturm)/JG 3. He claimed three USAAF four-engined bombers on 8 March to record his 120th-122nd victories.

Downed Consolidated B-24 Liberator of the 492nd Bomb Group after an aerial battle over Oschersleben on 7 July 1944

On 7 July 1944 a force of 1,129 B-17 Flying Fortresses and B-24 Liberators of the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) Eighth Air Force set out from England to bomb aircraft factories in the Leipzig area and the synthetic oil plants at Boehlen, Leuna-Merseburg and Lützkendorf. This formation was intercepted by a German Gefechtsverband composed of IV.(Sturm) / JG 3 escorted by two Gruppen of Bf l09s from Jagdgeschwader 300 led by Major Walther Dahl. Dahl drove the attack to point-blank range behind the Liberators of the 492nd Bomb Group before opening fire. 492nd Bomb Group was temporarily without fighter cover. Within about a minute the entire squadron of twelve B-24s had been annihilated. The USAAF 2nd Air Division lost 28 Liberators that day, the majority to the Sturmgruppe attack. IV./JG 3 lost nine fighters shot down and three more suffered damage and made crash landings; five of the unit's pilots were killed.[6]

Flying modified Fw 190A-8/R8's with extra armour and wing-mounted 30mm MK-108 cannons, IV.(Sturm)/JG 3 became both renowned with the Lufwaffe and feared by the USAAF bomber crews. Oblt. Werner Gerth, Staffelkapitän 14./JG 3, was shot down 11 times and was finally killed when his parachute failed to open after ramming a B-17 (his 27th claim). Due to their added weight (some 400 lbs) and lack of speed, the Sturmböcke aircraft had to be escorted by conventional fighters.

II. and III. gruppe, JG 3 were thrown into the Operation Overlord air battles over the Normandy beach-head in June 1944, and, with the other 23 Gruppen committed were decimated by the hordes of Allied fighters present. On 10 August, 10.(Sturm)/JG 3 was renamed 13.(Sturm)/JG 3. On 16 August 1944, 13./JG 3 Staffelkaptän Oblt. Ekkehard Tichy (25 kills) was killed when he rammed a B-17; Tichy had lost an eye a year earlier but had continued flying combat missions. By 5 September 1944, when the Gruppe was withdrawn from the battle, III/JG 3 alone had lost a staggering 56 pilots killed or missing, 23 wounded and 4 POW, while claiming some 54 Allied aircraft shot down. Just the Gruppenkommandeur, 3 Staffelkapitäne and 4 replacement pilots had survived the three months over the invasion front.

On 2 November the two Sturmgruppen of IV./JG 3 and II./JG 4 successfully intercepted American bomber formations near Leipzig. IV./JG 3 attacked the 91st Bomb Group and claimed 13 Fortresses, including two by ramming, while II./JG 4 claimed nine Fortresses from the 457th Bomb Group. The fighter escorts cost JG 3 15 out of their 39 Sturmböcke aircraft, and JG 4 lost 16 out of 22 committed.

On 5 December 1944, Major Moritz was relieved from command of IV./ JG 3 due to a complete nervous breakdown.

Jet fighters and the final offensives (late 1944-1945)[edit]

An Fw 190D-9 of JG 3, now at the NMUSAF

In November 1944 II./JG 3 was separated from the Geschwader in order to re-equip with the Me 262 jet fighter and become part of the first jet fighter Geschwader, Jagdgeschwader 7. A newly formed II./JG 3 was raised from a former bomber unit at the end of 1944; this new Gruppe was transferred to the East in early 1945 to counter the Soviet air offensive. Hopelessly outnumbered and hampered by lack of fuel, II./JG 3 fought on until the collapse of the Reich.

Some 6,400 air victories were claimed by JG 3 by this time.

During Operation Bodenplatte, the massed attack on Allied airfields on 1 January 1945, Jagdschwader 3 was one of the few German fighter units to carry out their operations successfully despite fielding the smallest German force that day. The 22 Fw 190s committed destroyed 43 Typhoons and Spitfires and damaged 60 more in a 20 minute attack on the 2nd TAF airfield at Eindhoven (JG 3 claimed 116 destroyed).[7] However the loss of 16 pilots was a serious blow to the unit. Six were captured, 6 were killed while four were posted as missing. Six pilots returned, three of them were wounded.[8]

In February 1945, IV./JG 3 moved to the Eastern Front, undertaking freie-Jagd and ground attack missions on the Oder front. IV./JG 3 veteran Obfw. 'Willi' Maximowitz, of 14./JG 3, quickly amassed some 12 Soviet aircraft shot down, including being credited with three Soviet Boston bombers and a fighter shot down on 11 March alone. However, on 20 April 1945, Maximowitz was shot down and killed, having attained 27 claims exclusively with JG 3.

Commanding officers[edit]

Geschwaderkommodoren[edit]

Gruppenkommandeure[edit]

I./JG 3[edit]

  • Major Otto Heinrich von Houwald, 1 May 1939
  • Hauptmann Günther Lützow, 3 November 1939
  • Oberleutnant Lothar Keller, 24 August 1940
  • Hauptmann Hans von Hahn, 27 August 1940
  • Hauptmann Georg Michalek, 1 March 1942
  • Major Klaus Quaet-Faslem, 31 August 1942
  • Hauptmann Joachim von Wehren, 1 February 1944
  • Hauptmann Josef Haiböck, 8 February 1944
  • Major Dr. Langer, 25 February 1944
  • Hauptmann Helmut Mertens, 14 April 1944
  • Hauptmann Ernst Laube, 1 July 1944
  • Hauptmann Horst Haase, 30 October 1944
  • Hauptmann Albert Wirges, 27 November 1944
  • Oberleutnant Alfred Seidel, December 1944

II./JG 3[edit]

  • Hauptmann Erich von Selle, 1 February 1940
  • Hauptmann Erich Woitke, 1 October 1940
  • Hauptmann Lothar Keller, 24 November 1940
  • Hauptmann Gordon Gollob, 27 June 1941
  • Hauptmann Karl-Heinz Krahl, 21 November 1941
  • Major Kurt Brändle, 15 April 1942
  • Hauptmann Heinrich Sannemann, 3 November 1943
  • Hauptmann Wilhelm Lemke, November 1943
  • Hauptmann Heinrich Sannemann, 4 December 1943
  • Hauptmann Detlev Rohwer, February 1944
  • Hauptmann Heinrich Sannemann, 30 March 1944
  • Hauptmann Hermann Freiherr Kapherr, 22 April 1944
  • Leutnant Leopold Münster, 24 April 1944
  • Hauptmann Gustav Frielinghaus, 1 May 1944
  • Hauptmann Hans Ekkehard Bob, 25 June 1944
  • Hauptmann Herbert Kutscha, July 1944
  • Hauptmann Gerhard Baeker, 25 November 1944

III./JG 3[edit]

IV./JG 3[edit]

  • Major Franz Beyer, 1. June 1943
  • Hauptmann Heinz Lang, 11 February 1944
  • Major Friedrich-Karl Müller, 26 February 1944
  • Hauptmann Heinz Lang, 11 April 1944
  • Major Wilhelm Moritz, 18 April 1944
  • Hauptmann Hubert-York Weydenhammer, 5 December 1944
  • Major Erwin Bacsila, 5 January 1945
  • Oberleutnant Oskar Romm, 17 February 1945
  • Hauptmann Gerhard Koall, 25 April 1945
  • Hauptmann Günther Schack, 1 Mai 1945

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Prien & Stremmer 2002, p. 56.
  2. ^ Prien & Stremmer 2002, p. 62.
  3. ^ Prien & Stremmer 2002, p. 84
  4. ^ Bergström 2007, p. 116.
  5. ^ 'More Bf 109 Aces of the Russian Front', Weal, (2007) page 32
  6. ^ Weal 1996, p. 78.
  7. ^ Prien & Stemmer 2002, p. 349.
  8. ^ Manrho & Putz 2004, p.279.
  • Bergström, Christer (2007). Barbarossa - The Air Battle: July–December 1941. London: Chervron/Ian Allen. ISBN 978-1-85780-270-2.
  • Hayward, Joel S. (2001). Stopped at Stalingrad: The Luftwaffe and Hitler's Defeat in the East 1942-1943. University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-1146-0
  • Manrho, John & Putz, Ron (2004). Bodenplatte: The Luftwaffe's Last Hope–The Attack on Allied Airfields, New Year's Day 1945. Hikoki Publications. ISBN 1-902109-40-6
  • Prien, Jochen & Stemmer, Gerhard (2002). Jagdgeschwader 3 "Udet" in World War II. Atglen, USA: Schiffer Military History. ISBN 0-7643-1681-8
  • Weal, John (1996). Focke-Wulf Fw 190 Aces of the Western Front. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-85532-595-0.

External links[edit]