||This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (July 2006)|
|Country||Lithuania, Poland, Hungary, Bohemia|
|Titles||Grand Duke of Lithuania, King of Poland, King of Hungary, King of Bohemia|
|Final ruler||Anna Jagiellon|
The Jagiellonian dynasty (Polish: Jagiellonowie, Lithuanian: Jogailaičiai, Czech: Jagellonci, Hungarian: Jagelló, Belarusian: Ягелоны) was a royal dynasty originating from the Lithuanian House of Gediminas that reigned in Central European countries (present day Lithuania, Belarus, Poland, Ukraine, Latvia, parts of Estonia, Russia, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Croatia) between the 14th and 16th centuries. Members of the dynasty were Grand Dukes of Lithuania (1377–1392 and 1440–1572), Kings of Poland (1386–1572), Kings of Hungary (1440–1444 and 1490–1526), and Kings of Bohemia (1471–1526).
The dynastic union between the Poland and Lithuania (converted into a full administrative union in 1569) is the reason for the common appellation "Poland–Lithuania" in discussions about the area from the Late Middle Ages onward. One Jagiellonian briefly ruled both Poland and Hungary (1440–44), and two others ruled both Bohemia and Hungary (1490–1526) and then continued in the distaff line as the Eastern branch of the House of Habsburg.
The name comes from Jagiełło, the first Grand Duke of Lithuania to become King of Poland. In Polish, the dynasty is known as Jagiellonowie and the patronymic form: Jagiellończyk; in Lithuanian it is called Jogailaičiai, in Belarusian Яґайлавічы (Jagajłavičy), in Hungarian Jagellók, and in Czech Jagellonci, as well as Jagello or Jagellon in Latin.
Gediminids (Lithuanian: Gediminaičiai), the immediate predecessors of the first Jagiellonian, were rulers of medieval Lithuania with the title of Grand Duke. Their realm, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, was chiefly inhabited by Lithuanians and Ruthenians.
Jogaila, the eponymous first ruler of the Jagiellonin dynasty, started as the Grand Duke of Lithuania. He then converted to Christianity and married the 11-year-old Jadwiga of Poland, the second of Poland's Angevin rulers. Thereby he became King of Poland and founded the dynasty.
Rulers of the House of Jagiello
- Jogaila (in Lithuania 1377–1401; as Władysław II Jagiełło in the Crown 1386–1434)
- Władysław III of Poland (in the Crown 1434–1444)
- Casimir IV Jagiellon (1447–1492)
- John I Albert (in the Crown 1492–1501)
- Alexander Jagiellon (1501–1505)
- Sigismund I the Old (1506–1548)
- Sigismund II Augustus (1548–1572)
After Sigismund II Augustus, the dynasty underwent further changes. Sigismund II's heirs were his sisters Anna Jagiellon and Catherine Jagellon. The latter had married Duke John of Finland, who thereby from 1569 became King John III of Sweden, and they had a son, Sigismund III Vasa; as a result, the Polish branch of the Jagiellonians merged with the House of Vasa, which ruled Poland from 1587 until 1668. During the interval, among others, Stephen Báthory, the husband of the childless Anna, reigned.
Bohemia and Hungary
At one point, the Jagiellonians established dynastic control also over the kingdoms of Bohemia and Hungary (from 1490 onwards), with Vladislaus Jagiello whom several history books call Vladisla(u)s II. After being elected and crowned King of Hungary, Vladislaus moved his court to Hungary from where he ruled both countries and his children were born and raised.
The Jagiellonian Kings of Bohemia and Hungary:
- Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary (Vladislaus Jagiello)
- Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia (Louis Jagiello). By Louis' sudden death in Battle of Mohács in 1526, that royal line was extinguished in male line.
- Anna of Bohemia and Hungary, Queen Consort, sister of Louis. Her husband Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor was elected King of Bohemia and Hungary, though the latter title was disputed by John Zápolya and his son, John II Sigismund Zápolya.
- Isabella Jagiellon of Hungary, Queen Consort, daughter of Sigismund I the Old. She was wife of the John Zápolya (the crowned Count John Zápolya) and mother of John II Sigismund Zápolya.
- History of Poland during the Jagiellon dynasty
- List of Czech rulers
- List of Hungarian rulers
- List of Lithuanian rulers
- List of Polish rulers
- The Jagiellonian University in Kraków
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