Jagmal Raja Chauhan

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Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja
Born Jagmal Raja Chauhan
1887
Nagor, Cutch
Died 1974
Bombay, India
Nationality Indian
Occupation Industrialist, Railway Contractor, Architect, Airline owner, philanthropist
Known for railway bridge constructions, glass factory, industrialist

Jagmal Raja Chauhan (1887–1974), better known as Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja, was a noted railway contractor, industrialist, miner, private banker, aviation pioneer and philanthropist of India.[1]

Early life[edit]

He was born in 1887 in a small village named Nagher, in Kutch and belonged the Mestri community.[1][2][3][4] He studied in school only till class IV and joined his father's business of railway contractor at an early age of twelve only. He carried on his father's legacy to become a reputed and noted Railway Contractor of British India.[4][5][6]

Builder, engineer and architect[edit]

Railway contracts for railways and bridges[edit]

His father Raja Narayan Chauhan was also a noted railway contractor. Raja Narayan of Nagor with Mulji Meghji Chauhan also of Nagor in 1903 together built bridge over Yamuna river at Agra. Jagmal Raja Chauhan carried on father's legacy, who joined him at an early age of twelve to get practical knowledge of building bridges and laying rail lines.

Some of his railway contract works are in 1904 – railway track from Bulandshahr to Hapur, 1904– Shahdara to Saharanpur, 1906 – Aligarh Station, in 1906 – Balmau to Sitapur, 1908 – Allahbad, the Ganges Railway Bridge construction, 1911 – Allahbad, the Yamuna Bridge doubling, 1912 – Kanpur to Banda including the bridge near Hamirpur over Yamuna river, 1913 – Hooghly- Katwa section, 1913 – Jabalpur Gun Carriage siding, 1914 – the Mughalsarai railway yard extension, 1915 – GayaKatras doubling, 1916 – Gaya yard extension, 1922 – the Dhanbad railway yard extension, 1924 – Calcutta, the Kidderpore Docks extension, 1925 – Dehri-on-sone bridge, 1927– Bridge over Son River near Arrah, 1927 – Allahbad, the Yamuna bridge re-girding (in 1911 he had done doubling of same bridge), 1926–32 – Bally Bridge, 1932 Dankuni to Dum Dum for Calcutta Chord Railway[1][4][5]

In 1926, Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja started construction of the Bally Bridge in Calcutta, which he completed in 1932.[7] In all the railway contracts done by him, his partners and sub-contractors were railway contractors from his own community – Mistris of Kutch. The Bally Bridge was named Willingdon Bridge after Viceroy of India, The Marquess of Willingdon, who inaugurated it. The British acknowledged the feat of Jagmal Raja, by naming the first train that ran across Willingdon Bridge as Jagmal Raja Howrah Express. The name plates mentioning Erection & Construction done by Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja, Allahbad, can still be seen riveted on each girder of Bally Bridge.[1][4][5][7][8]

Contractor for docks[edit]

Further, in 1924 the extension of Calcutta Port Trust at Khiddirpore in Calcutta was made by building a new dock named the "King George Dockyard", which was done by Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja Chauhan with Bhimjee Pancha Chauhan & Mavji Punja Chauhan, all from Nagor. This work was completed in 1927 and the dock has now been renamed as "Netaji Subhas Docks".[1][4][5]

Architect and builder[edit]

H.H. Maharao Shri Khengarji III of Cutch used to stay in hotels when he visited Bombay. Jagmal Raja, who was close friend of the King, did not like this and insisted upon the King that a ruler like him should have a personal mansion in the city. The Rao entrusted the job to build the mansion to Jagmal Raja, who personally built Cutch Castle in the 1920s in Bombay.[1][4][5]

Again Jagmal Raja Chauhan was one of the persons involved in supervision and construction of Vijay Vilas Palace built during the years 1920–1929 in which many artisans of Mistri community of Cutch worked along with other artisans and craftsman from Rajasthan, Bengal and Saurashtra.[1][4][5]

In 1932 upon completion of Bally Bridge, Jagmal Raja was recommended by Viceroy of India to King of Nepal, who needed a contractor of repute to do renovation and rehabilitation of his royal palaces & temples. He was given the contract for the same and Parbat Harji Chauhan, Karaman Devji Chauhan both of Kukma and Manji Shivjee of Madhapar were delegated by Jagmal Raja as main supervisor and completed the work. A team of 200 artisans was sent from Kutch to do this massive job.[1][4][5]

He was also involved in construction and erection Darya Mahal, the second monumental residence of Maharao Khengarji III of Cutch, which was commissioned in 1940 a Maharao advised Jagmal Raja to oversee the construction. As he was too busy in his other ventures, he declined to take complete responsibility, however, he sent a team of Mistri artisans from Kutch, who worked with other architects appointed by the king.[3]

Further, he also built his personal residential palace at M.G Road in Allahbad in the decades of 1920, which was spread in acres and built like a royal palace, as a replica of Prag Mahal of Bhuj. Remnants of his palace can still be seen in the city.[1][4][5]

Industrialist[edit]

Glass and ceramics[edit]

He was a pioneer in the glass and ceramic industry of India, who founded Allahbad Glass Factory[1][2][9][10] and Naini Glass Works both located at Naini in 1912. In 1919, his glass factory at Naini was visited by Sir Harcort Butler, the Lieutenant Governor of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh[11] Later he established another glass factory named, Bombay Glass Works at Bombay in 1930 and one more named Raja Glass Works at Sodepur near Calcutta in 1932.[1][2] In 1941 he was conferred Fellowship by Society of Glass Technology, London for his contributions to glass and ceramic industry of world. Others conferred fellowship with him were John Northwood of England Pandit Vishnu Datta of India.[9]

He also started a Sanitary ware factory in year 1932 at Derol named Gujarat Pottery Works and owned tiles factory, fire clay factory.[12][13][14][15]

Pharmaceuticals[edit]

He was Chairman of Zandu Pharmaceutical for several years.[4]

Airline & navigation[edit]

He owned a Shipping company with Haridas Madhavdas and Vijaysinh Govindji named Shree Ambica Steam Navigation Co., which was founded in 1945,[16] It operated in western coast of India having its head office at Bombay.[3][4]

They also started in 1947, one airline company named Ambica Airlines[17][18] which operated on Bombay – BhujRajkotJamnagarMorvi and Bombay – BarodaAhmedabad air routes.[4] The Ambica Airlines closed in 1949 due to insufficient traffic and litigation.

Miner[edit]

Like many members the Mistri community of Kutch to which he belonged, he owned coal mine named Rajapur Colliery near Jharia,[1] which he held in partnership with Manji Jeram Rathod of Madhapar.[4][12][19][20] He entered into coal mining business purchasing the mines in 1913 from one Gujarati miner, Bhawan Kara of Balambha. His partner in coal mines, Manji Jeram died in 1954, however, he carried on his mining business till 1970, when he sold his mine just one year before nationalisation of coal mines in India.[12]

He owned Silica mines at Bargad in Shankargarh, the produce of which was used by the glass factories owned by him.[12]

Bus transport[edit]

In 1945, Cutch State started its own passenger bus service. Jagmal Raja was quick to capitalise on this opportunity and took on contract the Bhuj- AnjarMundra bus route, which he operated till 1948, when Cutch merged into Union of India.[3]

Banker[edit]

He worked as a private banker from Jharia with his trusted partner Manji Jeram Rathod of Madhapar and used to give loans and funding especially for coal mines business.[12]

Others[edit]

Among his other industrial venture were a paper board factory at Dahanu named Dahanu Straw Products, an aromatics unit named Hindustan Aromatics, Insurance company named Indian Globe Insurance Co and he also owned a finance company, ice factory, cold storage & export business. He also ventured into packaged food and pickle export business.[4]

Personal life[edit]

He had residence, offices and factories at Allahbad and Bombay and his personal mansions at both cities.[1][12]

He shared personal friendship with Maharao of Cutch, Khengarji III and was personal aide-de-camp (ADC) to him in Coronation ceremony of King George VI in 1937. He was the only person from any community of Kutch, who had the privilege of being ADC to Maharao Khengarji III. Khenharji Bawa as a mark of his friendship, honoured Jagmal Raja, by his presence, when Degree of Engineering was conferred upon him in London.[4] He was among few persons, who was given permission by Khengarji III to hold a car in Cutch State.

Apart from Maharao of Cutch, he held friendly relations with Viceroy Lord Irwin, Raja of Shankargarh, Jam of Rajkot, Jam Sahib of Jamnagar, Rana of Nepal and Raja of Rewa.[4][5]

He built numerous railway lines and railway bridges and was pioneer in glass & ceramic industry of India, for which he was given title of Rao Bahadur in 1923 at a function held in Shimla, summer Capital of British India by Viceroy of India, The Earl of Reading. His construction of Bally Bridge was noted.[1][2][7] Although, he had studied up to fifth standard in his native village (Nagor), he had the distinction of being conferred with Degree of AEIE (UK) on recommendation of Viceroy of India, Lord Irwin.[7][21]

He was also very close with Motilal Nehru and Jawaharlal Nehru and marriage procession of both the daughters of Motilal Nehru – Vijaya Nehru & Krishna Nehru had started from his mansion at M.G. Road in Allahbad.[4] He once participated in elections from Allahbad.[3][4][22] His residential palace at M.G Road in Allahbad, was spread in acres and built like a royal palace, as a replica of Prag Mahal of Bhuj.[3][4][12] Besides Nehru family he also held personal relationship with Malviyaji, Mahatma Gandhi, Sardar Patel, Lal Bahadur Shastri, C. Y. Chintamani, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, C. Rajagopalachari, V. V. Giri and always helped liberally for Indian Independence Movement.[3][4] The Yuvraj of Cutch, Vijayaraji, used to come to his Allahbad mansion, to spend vacation along with his French Tennis coach and play Lawn Tennis in his private court.[3][4][5][23]

During his stay in Calcutta for construction of Bally bridge, through his friends established in Calcutta; Lira Raja Rathod of Khambhra and Devram Jetha Jethwa of Sinugra, he came in contact with Jeewanlal Motichand Shah, father of Viren J. Shah, who owned an Aluminum utensils factory named Jeevanlal & Company later named as Jeewanlal (1929) Limited at Calcutta. Jeewanlal Shah had decided to close his factory of Aluminum utensils, under the influence of Gandhiji, who said these utensils are not good for health. Jagmal Raja Chauhan, who was among top industrialists in Bombay and had relations with Tata, Birla, Wadia, Bajaj, Walchand came to know that Lala Mukandlal of Lahore was willing to sale Mukand Iron & Steel. Jagmal Raja informed this to Mahatma Gandhi and also persuaded Shah Jeewanlal Motichand Shah to take over Mukand Iron & Steel Co., which he finally purchased in partnership with Jamnalal Bajaj after Mahatma Gandhi's blessings. Thus he was instrumental in helping Jiwanlal Motilal Shah to take-over present day Mukand Ltd.[3][4]

His life sketch is also mentioned in Encyclopædia Britannica and Book of World Knowledge.

Death[edit]

He died in 1974 at Allahbad survived by four sons, Jairam Jagmal, Varjang Jagmal, Gopalji Jagmal and Shamji Jagmal, who had been managing affairs jointly since decade of 1930-40.[1][12][24] His one son Varjang Jagmal Raja headed his Bombay Glass Works factory.,[25] whereas the Allahbad Glass Works factory and Gujarat Pottery Works were headed by elder son Jairam Jagmal.[13][26][27] Varjang Jagmal was also a trained pilot and a member of Bombay Flying Club.[28][29]

Philanthropy[edit]

He built an ashram at Jhusi having more than hundred rooms and other facilities near Allahbad on banks of river Ganges. He also built and donated Boys Hostel and Boarding School known as Mistri Boarding House at Bhuj, Cutch his native state in 1932.[3][4] also built a boarding house for students at Poona, which was also known as Mistri Boarding House in 1940. He also donated funds to start ambulance and to build hospitals. He has also built and donated a Hindu temple at Rajkot. Further, he instituted several funds for charitable works, education scholarships, starting sports shield and medical benfits.[30][31][32] At his native village Nagor, Kutch he had built and donated a huge public garden, a Hindu temple, a housing colony for Harijans, several wells, chabutro, welcome-gate and also a 10 km long pucca road from Nagor to Bhuj. His ancestral home still stands there.[3][4] Further, he also offered many scholarship for research[33] and higher studies.[3]

Honors[edit]

Apart from being awarded title of Rai Bahadur in 1923, he was also recipient of George V Silver Jubilee Medal in 1935 and George VI Coronation Medal in 1937.[12]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Jagmal Raja, Rai Bahadur, Land-lord, Industrialist and Contractor. Born and educated at Nagher, a village in Cutch. He joined his father's business of Railway Contracts on the Railway at an early age. He also owns valuable landed property in Allehabad, a Colliery in Jharia, the Bombay Glass Works at Matunga and at Gujarat. In recognition of his services to Indian Industries, he was created a Rai Bahadur in 1924. Modern Bombay and Indian states by T. Peters, Who's Who Publishers (India), 1942,page 250
  2. ^ a b c d Jagmal Raja Rai Bahadur Life sketch Modern Bombay and her patriotic citizens Who's Who Publishers (India), 1941 Page 250.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya Community : A brief History & Glory by Raja Pawan Jethwa. (Kolkata, 2007)
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Nanji Bapa ni Nondh-pothi published in Gujarati in 1999 from Vadodara. It is a diary of Railway Contracts done by KGK community noted by Nanji Govindji Tank during his life-time last entry in 1954. The diary was later discovered his son Govardhan Nanji Tank and released as a book complied by Dharsibhai Jethalal Tank. This book was given Aank Sidhhi award by Kutch Shakti at Mumbai in 2000.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Kutch Darpan (Gujarati Magazine published from Vadodara) August 2009 issue (article on Jagmal Raja Chauhan)
  6. ^ Who's who in India, Burma & Ceylon, 1941
  7. ^ a b c d Willingdon Bridge, Calcutta. The work was carried out by Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja, Assoc. Inst. CE Minutes of proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Volume 235, Part 1. Institution of Civil Engineers (Great Britain) 1934. Pagw 83.
  8. ^ Mr. Jagamal Chauhan. He was better known as Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja Chauhan who built Vivekanand Bridge at Hoogly Riaver and also involved in Allahabad Glass Works.
  9. ^ a b The honorary general secretary announced that the council had conferred Fellowship on Mr John Northwood, Pandit Vishnu Datta and Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja Journal of the Society of Glass Technology, Volume 32 Page 4.
  10. ^ Allahbad Glass Works Private Limited, Jagmal Raja & Sons Private Limited
  11. ^ Pioneer Mail and Indian Weekly News, Volume 46. 44. p. 1919. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i Diary of Golden Days at Jharia – A Memoir & History of Gurjar Kashtriya Samaj of Kutch in Coalfields of Jharia – written by Natwarlal Devram Jethwa of Calcutta & Sinugra complied by Raja Pawan Jethwa (1998).
  13. ^ a b The Eastern Economist, Volume 48. R.P. Agarwala. 1967. p. 247,249. 
  14. ^ Gujarat State Gazetteers: Panchmahals - Page 339, 1972
  15. ^ Records of the Geological Survey of India - page 528, 1954.
  16. ^ Our seafaring in the the [sic] Indian Ocean by Odayamadath Kunjappa Nambiar, 1975
  17. ^ Ambica Airlines Legal : Jagmal Raja v/s Crown
  18. ^ Ambica Airlines
  19. ^ Indian Coal Statistics. India (Republic). Dept. of Mines. 1915. p. 17. 
  20. ^ Jagmal Raja Rai Bahadur (Rajapore Colliery) Jharia Indian export directory: with foreign section, Volume 4, 1965. Colliries and Coal Merchants Page 19 and 48
  21. ^ Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja, E, 1931 Journal of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Volume 12, 1939.
  22. ^ Political life of Pandit Govind ... – Google Books
  23. ^ Election Result Lal Bahadur Shastri, Jyoti Shankar Dikshit, R.B. Jagmal Raja, Kashmir: constitutional history and documents.
  24. ^ Kothari's Economic Guide and Investors' Handbook of India, Volume 2. 1961. p. 1270. 
  25. ^ Foreign commerce weekly. U.S. Dept. of Commerce. 1960. 
  26. ^ Journal of the Society of Glass Technology, Volume 15. Society of glass technology, Sheffield, Eng. 1931. p. 34. 
  27. ^ Who's who in India, Burma & Ceylon. Who's Who Publishers (India) Limited. 1939. p. 392. 
  28. ^ Indian Aviation: A Monthly Illustrated Journal Devoted to Popular Flying in Indian, Volume 33. 1949. p. v,72. 
  29. ^ Asian and Indian Skyways, Volume 2. 1948. p. 48. 
  30. ^ General Report on Public Instruction. United Provinces of Agra and Oudh (India). Education Dept. 1937. p. 64,72. 
  31. ^ [1] Report [of the] ST. John Ambulance Association and the St. John Ambulance Brigade (India)
  32. ^ Jagmal Raja Ambulance Challage Feild Madras State Administration Report
  33. ^ [2] The Calcutta Review, University of Calcutta, 1934