Jaguar AJ-V8 engine

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Jaguar AJ8
2001 Jaguar S-Type AJ-V8 engine.JPG
Overview
Manufacturer Jaguar Cars
Production 1996–
Combustion chamber
Configuration DOHC V8
Chronology
Predecessor Jaguar AJ16
Jaguar V12
Rover V8 engine

The Jaguar AJ-8 is a compact DOHC V8 piston engine used in many Jaguar vehicles. It was the fourth new engine type in the history of the company. In 1997 it replaced both designs previously available on Jaguar cars: the straight-6 Jaguar AJ6 engine (or rather its AJ16 variant), and the Jaguar V12 engine. It remained the only engine type available on Jaguar until 1999 with the launch of the S-Type, when the Jaguar AJ-V6 engine was added to the list. The AJ-V8 is available in displacements ranging from 3.2 L to 5.0 L, and a supercharged version is also produced. Ford Motor Company used this small V8 in other products as well, including the Lincoln LS the 2002-2005 Ford Thunderbird as well as in several Land Rovers and the Aston Martin V8 Vantage.

The AJ-V8 was designed to use Nikasil-coated cylinders rather than the more-common iron cylinder liners. However, like the BMW M60, high-sulphur fuel reacted with the Nikasil liners and caused engine failures. Jaguar replaced affected engines, and has used conventional cast-iron linings ever since.

The engine originally used a two-state Variable Valve Timing system to switch the intake cam timing by 30°. Newer variants use a more sophisticated system which can vary intake timing incrementally up to 48°. The Lincoln version was made in the United States.

Other engine features include fracture-split forged powder metal connecting rods, a special one-piece cast camshaft, and reinforced plastic intake manifold.

The AJ-V8 was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 2000.

Manufacture[edit]

The AJ8 engine is manufactured in an all-new, dedicated Jaguar facility located within the Ford Bridgend Engine Plant in Bridgend, South Wales. The Jaguar "plant-within-a-plant" saved considerable investment costs by Jaguar. It is staffed by workers dedicated to Jaguar engine production and includes a linked flow-line of computer numerically controlled machines with automated loading and assembly. Component supply is on a "just-in-time" basis.[1][2][3][4]

4.0 L [edit]

The 4.0 L (3996 cc) AJ26 engine was introduced in 1996. The number "26" comes from 12+6+8 (cylinders), because when the first ideas were sketched, a family of 6, 8 and 12 cylinder engines was contemplated, although only the 8 cylinder version was produced. It has a square 86 mm (3.4 in) bore and stroke. It was updated in 1998 as the AJ27 with continuously variable valve timing. The AJ-V8 was updated again in 2000 as the AJ28. The naturally aspirated version produces 290 hp (216 kW) in the 2004 XK8.

Vehicles using this engine:

Supercharged [edit]

The supercharged version of the AJ26 is used in the high-performance R versions of Jaguar's cars. The engine was updated with AJ27 specifications for 2000. It produces 375 hp (280 kW) and 387 lb·ft (525 N·m) with the help of an Eaton supercharger (modified roots-blower). The supercharged engine did not use variable cam timing as the normal benefits of improved volumetric efficiency are not noticeable on a boosted engine

Vehicles using the supercharged version include:

3.2 L[edit]

The 3.2 litre variant was the second to be introduced. It reduces the stroke to 70 mm (2.8 in) and power falls to 240 hp (179 kW) and 233 lb·ft (316 N·m).

Vehicles using this engine:

3.5 L[edit]

The 3.6 L (3555 cc/216 in³) "3.5" was used in the XJ series as well. The stroke was 76.5 mm (3.0 in). Output was 262 bhp (195 kW; 266 PS) at 6250 rpm and 345.0 N·m (254.5 lb·ft) at 4200 rpm.

Vehicles using this engine:

  • 2002–present Jaguar XJ8 3.5, 262 hp (195 kW) and 254 lb·ft (344 N·m)

3.9 L [edit]

The 3.9L (3934 cc) AJ30/AJ35 variant is a unique displacement used only by Ford and Lincoln and is built in Ford's Lima, OH engine plant. Bore is 86 mm (3.4 in) and stroke is 85 mm (3.3 in). The AJ35 version introduced for the 2003 model year added variable valve timing of the intake camshafts and electronic throttle control. While the block, crankshaft, pistons, and connecting rods are all unique to this displacement, many other parts are shared with the AJ-V8 engines produced in the UK by Jaguar.

Vehicles using this engine:

The last AJ35 was produced in March 2006 after only 3 years. Total run of AJ30/35 was nearly 250,000 units

4.2 L [edit]

The 4.2 L (4,196 cc (256.1 cu in)), AJ33 and AJ34 versions retain the 86 mm (3.4 in) bore, however they do have a 90.3 mm (3.56 in) stroke . It was introduced in 2002 as the AJ33 and produces 294 hp (219 kW) at 6000 rpm with 303 lb·ft (411 N·m) of torque at 4100 rpm, later increased to 300 hp (224 kW) and 310 lb·ft (420 N·m).

Vehicles using this engine:

  • 2002–2006 Jaguar XK-series 294 hp (219 kW), 303 lb·ft (411 N·m)
  • 2006–2008 Jaguar XK-series 300 hp (224 kW), 310 lb·ft (420 N·m)
  • 2002–2008 Jaguar S-Type 4.2, 300 hp (224 kW) and 310 lb·ft (420 N·m)
  • 2003–present Jaguar XJ8, 300 hp (224 kW) and 310 lb·ft (420 N·m)
  • 2008–2010 Jaguar XF, 300 hp (224 kW) and 310 lb·ft (420 N·m)

Supercharged [edit]

The AJ33S is a supercharged/intercooled variant of the AJ33. It was introduced in 2002 to replace the 4.0 SC and produces 390 hp (291 kW) at 6100 rpm with 399 lb·ft (541 N·m) of torque at 3500 rpm. The engine was later updated to AJ34S specification to include Variable Valve Timing as well as other minor updates.

Vehicles using this engine:

Land Rover also offered a supercharged version of the 4.2 L as that company's high-performance engine. Land Rover's version is not the same as the Jaguar's version but it was adapted from it.[5]

Applications:

4.4 L[edit]

4.4 L V8 in a 2006 Range Rover Sport

The 4.4 L (4,394 cc (268.1 cu in)) AJ41 version features an 88.0 mm (3.46 in) bore and a 90.3 mm (3.56 in) stroke. This engine also replaced the BMW M62 engine used 2003-2005 Range Rover models.

Applications:

Aston Martin 4.3/4.7[edit]

4.7L V8 in a 2012 Vantage

Aston Martin hand-assembles a special version of the AJ-V8 for the 2005 V8 Vantage known as AJ37. This unit displaced 4.3 L (4280 cc/261 in³) and produces 380 hp (283 kW) at 7000 rpm and 302 lb·ft (409 N·m) at 5000 rpm. This engine is unique to Aston Martin and features race-style dry-sump lubrication, which enables it to be mounted low to lower the centre of gravity. The firing order is different to the other AJ-V8 engines therefore very few parts are interchangeable. The engine is assembled by hand at the AM facility in Cologne, Germany, which also builds the V12 for the DB9 and Vanquish. The cylinder block, cylinder heads, crankshaft, connecting rods, pistons, camshafts, inlet and exhaust manifolds, lubrication system and engine management are all unique to the Aston Martin version.

In May 2008, Aston Martin released a new design that used pressed cylinder liners instead of cast-in liners. This allowed for thinner liners, and a higher capacity of 4.7L for the V8 Vantage. Power output increased to 420 bhp (an 11% increase on the previous 4.3L unit) and peak torque to 470 N·m (350 lb·ft) (a 15% increase).

4.3 bore 89 mm (3.5 in) stroke 86 mm (3.4 in)

4.7 bore 91 mm (3.6 in) stroke 91 mm (3.6 in)

Applications:

AJ-V8 Gen III[edit]

An all new direct injection 5.0 L engine family was introduced in 2009 (all new engine block).[6] New featuring: spray-guided direct-injection, continuously variable intake and exhaust camshaft timing. The naturally aspirated engines also feature cam profile switching and variable track length inlet manifold. Supercharged engines make use of a sixth-generation twin vortex supercharger. The 10 model year engine conforms to EU5 and ULEV2 emissions regulations.[6]

The engine is controlled by Denso's Generation 1.6 Engine Management System.

AJ133[edit]

Bore and stroke is 92.5 mm (3.6 in) x 93.00 mm (3.7 in).

Land Rover version is called 'LR-V8 Petrol engine'.

Vehicles using this engine:

  • 2009–present Jaguar XFR, 510 PS (380 kW; 500 hp) and 625 N·m (461 lbf·ft)
  • 2009–present Jaguar XJR, 510 PS (380 kW; 500 hp) and 625 N·m (461 lbf·ft)
  • 2011–present Jaguar XKR-S, 550 PS (400 kW; 540 hp) and 680 N·m (500 lbf·ft)
  • 2013–present Jaguar XFR-S, 550 PS (400 kW; 540 hp) and 680 N·m (500 lbf·ft)
  • 2009–present Jaguar XKR, 510 PS (380 kW; 500 hp) and 625 N·m (461 lbf·ft)
  • 2009–present Jaguar XF, 385 PS (283 kW; 380 hp) and 515 N·m (380 lbf·ft)
  • 2009–present Jaguar XJ, 385 PS (283 kW; 380 hp) and 515 N·m (380 lbf·ft)
  • 2009–present Jaguar XK, 385 PS (283 kW; 380 hp) and 515 N·m (380 lbf·ft)
  • 2013–present Jaguar F-Type Convertible, 488 hp (364 kW) and 461 lb·ft (625 N·m)
  • 2014–present Jaguar F-Type Coupé, 542 hp (404 kW) and 502 lb·ft (681 N·m)
  • 2009–present Land Rover Range Rover, 375 hp (280 kW) and 375 lb·ft (508 N·m)
  • 2009–present Land Rover Range Rover, 510 hp (380 kW) and 461 lb·ft (625 N·m)
  • 2009–present Land Rover Discovery, 375 hp (280 kW) and 375 lb·ft (508 N·m)
  • 2009–present Land Rover Range Rover Sport, 510 hp (380 kW) and 461 lb·ft (625 N·m)
  • 2009–present Land Rover Range Rover Sport, 375 hp (280 kW) and 375 lb·ft (508 N·m)

AJ126[edit]

The AJ126 is a 3.0 L (2,995 cc (182.8 cu in)) 90° petrol V6, having a bore of 84.5 mm (3.3 in) and stroke of 89 mm (3.5 in) with a 10.5:1 compression ratio. It is liquid cooled featuring direct fuel injection, four overhead camshafts and four valves per cylinder. There are two versions differing in power produced, a standard version making 340 hp (254 kW; 345 PS) at 6500 RPM and 332 lb·ft (450 N·m) between 3500-5000 RPM and a high-performance variant making 380 hp (283 kW; 385 PS) at 6500 RPM and 339 lb·ft (460 N·m) between 3500-5000 RPM.

The main structural components of the engine are all manufactured from aluminum alloy. The engine is built around a very stiff, lightweight, enclosed V, deep skirt cylinder block. A structural windage tray is bolted to the bottom of the cylinder block to further improve the block stiffness, minimize NVH (noise, vibration and harshness) and help reduce oil foaming. To further enhance the stiffness of the lower engine structure, a heavily ribbed sump body is installed. The sump body also helps to reduce engine noise.

The engine uses a Bosch high pressure direct injection fuel system with fuel pressure provided by two, cam driven high pressure pumps which are driven by a dedicated camshaft. The high pressure pumps supply the fuel rails which in turn supply the three injectors for that bank with fuel at a controlled pressure.

The four camshafts incorporate VCT (variable camshaft timing). VCT allows the timing of the intake and exhaust valves to be adjusted independently of each other. The VCT system is controlled by the Bosch ECM (engine control module) using information from CMP (camshaft position) sensors.

The supercharger is located in the 'vee' of the engine and is driven from the crankshaft by a dedicated secondary drive belt.

The engine meets EU5 emission regulations in Europe and Rest of World (ROW) and ULEV 70 emission regulations in North American Specification (NAS) markets.

The direct fuel injection system, advanced piston and combustion chamber design and the supercharger provide improved fuel consumption and emissions.

The AJ126 V6 is basically an AJ133 V8 engine that has 2 less cylinders and is made on the same production line as the AJ133. It shares a very similar block as the supercharged V8 AJ133, with some differences such as reduced bore size. Cylinder heads are also derived from the V8 engine. The engine features a balance shaft to drive the oil pump and balance the crankshaft.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Business Secretary Visits Ford'S Expanding Engine Plant | Ford Motor Company Newsroom". Media.ford.com. 2009-01-15. Retrieved 2009-10-02. 
  2. ^ "Ford jobs safe at Bridgend and Dagenham - Car and Car-Buying News - What Car?". Whatcar.com. 2009-07-28. Retrieved 2009-10-02. 
  3. ^ "Jaguar's First Ever V8 Engine To Power XK8 Sports Car". 
  4. ^ "All-New, World-Class Jaguar Production Facility". 
  5. ^ Hutton, Ray. "2006 Land Rover Range Rover". caranddriver.com. Hearst Digital Media. Retrieved 2 October 2014. 
  6. ^ a b "Jaguar Engines". Jaguarperformance.com. Retrieved 2009-10-02. [dead link]