iOS jailbreaking is the process of removing the limitations on Apple Inc. devices running the iOS operating system through the use of software and hardware exploits; such devices include the iPhone, iPod touch, iPad, and second-generation Apple TV. Jailbreaking permits root access to the iOS operating system, allowing the download of additional applications, extensions, and themes that are unavailable through the official Apple App Store. Jailbreaking is a form of privilege escalation, and the term has been used to describe privilege escalation on devices by other manufacturers as well. The name refers to breaking the device out of its "jail", which is a technical term used in Unix-style systems, for example in the term "FreeBSD jail". A jailbroken iPhone, iPod touch, or iPad running iOS can still use the App Store, iTunes, and other normal functions, such as making telephone calls.
- 1 Reasons for jailbreaking
- 2 Security, privacy, and stability
- 3 "Jailbreaking" vs. "Android rooting"
- 4 Legal status
- 5 Types of jailbreaks
- 6 History of iOS jailbreaking tools
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Reasons for jailbreaking
Use of third-party apps
One of the reasons for jailbreaking is to expand the feature set limited by Apple and its App Store.[dubious ] Apple checks apps for compliance with its iOS Developer Program License Agreement before accepting them for distribution in the App Store. However, their reasons for banning apps are not limited to safety and security and may be construed as arbitrary and capricious. As the list of banned apps continues to grow, users rely on jailbreaking to circumvent Apple's censorship of content and features. Jailbreaking permits the downloading of programs not approved by Apple, such as customization apps used to change the User Interface.
Since software programs available through Cydia are not required to adhere to App Store guidelines, many of them are not typical self-contained apps but instead are extensions and customizations for iOS and other apps. Users install these programs for purposes including personalization and customization of the interface, adding desired features and fixing annoyances, and making development work on the device easier by providing access to the filesystem and command-line tools. Many Chinese iPhone owners jailbreak their phones to install third-party Chinese character input systems because they are easier to use than Apple's.
Use of handset on multiple carriers
Jailbreaking also opens the possibility for using software to unofficially unlock carrier-locked iPhones so they can be used with other carriers. Software-based unlocks have been available since 2008, with each tool applying to a specific iPhone model and baseband version (or multiple models and versions).
Early exploit fixes
On July 15, 2011, Apple released a new version of iOS that closed the exploit used in JailbreakMe 3.0. The German Federal Office for Information Security had reported that the "critical weakness" uncovered by JailbreakMe meant that iOS users could potentially have their information stolen or unwillingly downloaded malware by clicking on maliciously crafted PDF files. Before Apple released a fix for this security hole, jailbreak users had access to a fix published by the developer of JailbreakMe.
After "jailbreaking" their iPhone, owners can access almost unlimited customization, allowing for better control of the phone's settings, like the user interface, and color scheme. For iPhone users, this is the solution to the iPhone's restrictions, putting it in the same level of customization as Google's operating system, Android.
Security, privacy, and stability
The first iPhone worm, iKee, appeared in early November 2009, created by a 21-year-old Australian student in the town of Wollongong. He told Australian media that he created the worm to raise awareness of security issues: jailbreaking allows users to install an SSH service, which those users can leave in the default unsecure state. In the same month, F-Secure reported on a new malicious worm compromising bank transactions from jailbroken phones in the Netherlands, similarly affecting devices where the owner had installed SSH without changing the default password.
A Forbes staff analyzed UCSB study on 1407 free programs available from a third party source and Apple. Of the 1,407 free apps investigated in the cited study, 825 were downloaded from Apple’s App Store using the website App Tracker, and 526 from BigBoss (Cydia's default repository). 21% of official apps tested leaked device ID and 4% leaked location. Unofficial apps leaked 4% and 0.2% respectively. 0.2% of apps from Cydia leaked photos and browsing history, while the Apple store leaked none. He commented that unauthorized apps tend to respect privacy better than official ones. Also, there is a program called PrivaCy that allows user to control the upload of usage statistics to remote servers.
Installing software published outside the App Store has the potential to affect battery life and system stability if the software is poorly optimized or frequently uses resource-draining services (such as 3G or Wi-Fi).
"Jailbreaking" vs. "Android rooting"
Jailbreaking devices running the Apple iOS operating system is sometimes compared to gaining root access on Android devices. However, these are distinct concepts. In the tightly-controlled iOS world, technical restrictions prevent installing or booting into a modified or entirely new operating system (a "locked bootloader" prevents this), sideloading unsigned applications onto the device is also prevented, and user-installed apps are restricted from having root privileges. Bypassing all these restrictions together constitute the expansive term "jailbreaking" of Apple devices. That is, jailbreaking entails overcoming several types of iOS security features simultaneously.
By contrast, Android devices may or may not have locked bootloaders, with many vendors such as HTC and Google explicitly providing the user the ability to unlock devices and even replace the operating system entirely. Similarly, the ability to sideload apps is typically permissible on Android devices without root permissions. Thus, it is primarily the third aspect of iOS jailbreaking relating to superuser privileges that correlates to Android rooting.
||The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (July 2012)|
Jailbreaking a device involves circumventing its technological protection measures (in order to allow root access and running alternative software), so its legal status is affected by laws regarding circumvention of digital locks, such as laws protecting digital rights management (DRM) mechanisms. Many countries do not have such laws, and some countries have laws including exceptions for jailbreaking.
International treaties have influenced the development of laws affecting jailbreaking. The 1996 World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Copyright Treaty requires nations party to the treaties to enact laws against DRM circumvention. The American implementation is the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), which includes a process for establishing exemptions for non-copyright-infringing purposes such as jailbreaking. The 2001 European Copyright Directive implemented the treaty in Europe, requiring member states of the European Union to implement legal protections for technological protection measures. The Copyright Directive includes exceptions to allow breaking those measures for non-copyright-infringing purposes, such as jailbreaking to run alternative software, but member states vary on the implementation of the directive.
In 2010, Electronic Frontiers Australia said that it is unclear whether jailbreaking is legal in Australia, and that anti-circumvention laws may apply. These laws were strengthened by the Copyright Amendment Act 2006.
In November 2012, Canada amended its Copyright Act with new provisions prohibiting tampering with digital locks, with exceptions including software interoperability. Jailbreaking a device to run alternative software is a form of circumventing digital locks for the purpose of software interoperability.
There had been several efforts from 2008-2011 to amend the Copyright Act (Bill C-60, Bill C-61, and Bill C-32) to prohibit tampering with digital locks, along with initial proposals for C-11 that were more restrictive, but those bills were set aside. In 2011, Michael Geist, a Canadian copyright scholar, cited iPhone jailbreaking as a non-copyright-related activity that overly-broad Copyright Act amendments could prohibit.
India's copyright law permits circumventing DRM for non-copyright-infringing purposes. Parliament introduced a bill including this DRM provision in 2010 and passed it in 2012 as Copyright (Amendment) Bill 2012. India is not a signatory to the WIPO Copyright Treaty that requires laws against DRM circumvention, but being listed on the US Special 301 Report "Priority Watch List" applied pressure to develop stricter copyright laws in line with the WIPO treaty.
Jailbreaking might be legal in Singapore if done to provide interoperability and not circumvent copyright, but that has not been tested in court.
The law Copyright and Related Rights Regulations 2003 makes circumventing DRM protection measures legal for the purpose of interoperability but not copyright infringement. Jailbreaking may be a form of circumvention covered by that law, but this has not been tested in court. Competition laws may also be relevant.
In 2010, in response to a request by the Electronic Frontier Foundation, the U.S. Copyright Office explicitly recognized an exemption to the DMCA to permit jailbreaking in order to allow iPhone owners to use their phones with applications that are not available from Apple's store, and to unlock their iPhones for use with unapproved carriers. Apple had previously filed comments opposing this exemption and indicated that it had considered jailbreaking to be a violation of copyright (and by implication prosecutable under the DMCA). Apple's request to define copyright law to include jailbreaking as a violation was denied as part of the 2009 DMCA rulemaking. In their ruling, the Library of Congress affirmed on July 26, 2010 that jailbreaking is exempt from DMCA rules with respect to circumventing digital locks. DMCA exemptions must be reviewed and renewed every three years or else they expire. In 2012, the Copyright Office renewed the jailbreaking exemption for phones but declined to approve a new exemption for tablet computers such as iPads, due to the vague definition of "tablet" in the proposed exemption. The Copyright Office also renewed the 2010 exemption for unofficially unlocking phones to use them on unapproved carriers, but restricted this exemption to phones purchased before January 2013.
Tim Wu, a professor at Columbia Law School, argued in 2007 that jailbreaking is "legal, ethical, and just plain fun." Wu cited an explicit exemption issued by the Library of Congress in 2006 for personal unlocking, which notes that locks "are used by wireless carriers to limit the ability of subscribers to switch to other carriers, a business decision that has nothing whatsoever to do with the interests protected by copyright" and thus do not implicate the DMCA. Wu did not claim that this exemption applies to those who help others unlock a device or "traffic" in software to do so. In 2010 and 2012, the U.S. Copyright Office approved exemptions to the DMCA that allow iPhone users to jailbreak their devices legally. It is still possible Apple may employ technical countermeasures to prevent jailbreaking or prevent jailbroken phones from functioning, but it will not be able to sue users who jailbreak. It is also unclear whether it is legal to traffic in the tools used to make jailbreaking easy.
New Zealand's copyright law allows the use of technological protection measure (TPM) circumvention methods as long as the use is for legal, non-copyright-infringing purposes. This law was added to the Copyright Act 1994 as part of the Copyright (New Technologies) Amendment Act 2008.
Types of jailbreaks
An "untethered" jailbreak has the property that if the user turns the device off and back on, the device will start up completely, and the kernel will be patched without the help of a computer – in other words, it will be jailbroken after each reboot.
However, with a "tethered" jailbreak, a computer is needed to turn the device on each time it is rebooted. If the device starts back up on its own, it will no longer have a patched kernel, and it may get stuck in a partially started state. By using a computer, the phone is essentially "re-jailbroken" (using the "boot tethered" feature of a jailbreaking tool) each time it is turned on. This is often a major problem for users on a tethered jailbreak. If the device is not connected to a computer, it is rendered useless until it is. Devices that use tethered jailbreaks can still respring and not lose the jailbreak.
A device with a tethered jailbreak may have a semi-tethered solution, which means that when the device boots, it will no longer have a patched kernel (so it will not be able to run modified code), but it will still be usable for normal functions. To use any features that require running modified code, the user must start the device with the help of the jailbreaking tool in order for it to start with a patched kernel (jailbroken).
History of iOS jailbreaking tools
|Parts of this article (those related to History of iOS jailbreaking tools) are outdated. (November 2013)|
A few days after the original iPhone became available in July 2007, developers released the first jailbreaking tool for it, and soon a jailbreak-only game app became available. In October 2007, JailbreakMe 1.0 (also called "AppSnapp") allowed people to jailbreak iPhone OS 1.1.1 on both the iPhone and iPod touch, and it included Installer.app as a way to get software for the jailbroken device. In February 2008, Zibri released ZiPhone, a tool for jailbreaking iPhone OS 1.1.3 and 1.1.4.
The iPhone Dev Team (not affiliated with Apple) has released a series of free desktop-based jailbreaking tools. It released a version of PwnageTool in July 2008 to jailbreak the then new iPhone 3G on iOS 2.0 as well as the iPod touch, newly including Cydia as the primary third-party installer for jailbroken software (PwnageTool continues to be updated for untethered jailbreaks of newer iOS versions). The iPhone Dev Team released QuickPWN to jailbreak iOS 2.2 on iPhone and iPod touch, also including options to enable functionality that was possible but disabled by Apple on certain devices. After Apple released iOS 3.0, the Dev Team published redsn0w as a simple jailbreaking tool usable on Mac and Windows, and also updated PwnageTool (now primarily intended for expert users making custom firmware, and only for Mac). It continues to maintain redsn0w for jailbreaking most versions of iOS 4 and iOS 5 on most devices. As of December 2011, redsn0w includes the "Corona" untether by pod2g for iOS 5.0.1 for iPhone 3GS, iPhone 4, iPad 1, and iPod touch 3rd and 4th generation. As of June 2012, redsn0w also includes the "Rocky Racoon" untether by pod2g for iOS 5.1.1 on all iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch models that support iOS 5.1.1.
George Hotz, who developed the first iPhone unlock, released a jailbreaking tool for the iPhone 3GS on iOS 3.0 called purplera1n, and blackra1n for iOS version 3.1.2 on the 3rd generation iPod touch and other devices. In October 2010, he released limera1n, a low-level boot ROM exploit that permanently works to jailbreak the iPhone 4 and is used as part of tools including redsn0w.
Nicholas Allegra (better known as "comex") released a program called Spirit in May 2010. Spirit jailbreak for devices including iPad (which was just released) and then new iPhones running iOS 3.1.2, 3.1.3, and iPad running 3.2 In August 2010, comex released JailbreakMe 2.0, a web-based tool that was the first to jailbreak the iPhone 4 (on iOS 4.0.1). In July 2011, he released JailbreakMe 3.0, a web-based tool for jailbreaking all devices on certain versions of iOS 4.3, including the iPad 2 for the first time (on iOS 4.3.3). JailbreakMe 3.0 uses a flaw in PDF file rendering in Mobile Safari.
Chronic Dev Team initially released greenpois0n in October 2010, a desktop-based tool for jailbreaking iOS 4.1 and later iOS 4.2.1 on most devices including the Apple TV, as well as iOS 4.2.6 on CDMA (Verizon) iPhones.
The iPhone Dev Team, Chronic Dev Team, and pod2g collaborated to release Absinthe in January 2012, a desktop-based tool to jailbreak the iPhone 4S for the first time and the iPad 2 for the second time, on iOS 5.0.1 for both devices and also iOS 5.0 for iPhone 4S. In May 2012 it released Absinthe 2.0, which can jailbreak iOS 5.1.1 untethered on all iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch models that support iOS 5.1.1, including jailbreaking the third-generation iPad for the first time. The hackers together called the evad3rs released an iOS 6.X jailbreak tool called evasi0n. The expected release was on Sunday, February 3, 2013, though it was actually released on Monday, February 4, 2013 at noon Eastern Standard Time. The site initially gave anticipating users download errors as there was a high volume of interest in the download for the jailbreak utility, which is available for Linux, OS X, and Windows. When Apple upgraded its software to iOS 6.1.3 it permanently patched out the evasi0n jailbreak. Apple has now upgraded its software to iOS 6.1.4. which is only available for the iPhone 5. There are currently no tools for untethered jailbreaking iOS 6.1.3 and above, despite claims by several websites purporting to offer an untethered jailbreak. On April 2013, the latest versions of Sn0wbreeze was released, which added the support for tethered jailbreaking on A4 devices (i.e. devices not newer than the iPhone 4, iPad 1, or iPod touch 4).
First jailbreaks by device and iOS version
|Device/OS||Release date||Date of first jailbreak||Time (days)||Tool||Developer|
|iPhone/iOS 1.0||June 29, 2007||July 10, 2007||11||(no name)||iPhone Dev Team|
|iPod touch||September 5, 2007||October 10, 2007||36||(no name)||niacin and dre|
|iPhone 3G/iOS 2.0||July 11, 2008||July 20, 2008||9||PwnageTool||iPhone Dev Team|
|iPod touch (2nd generation)||September 9, 2008||January 30, 2009||143||redsn0w||iPhone Dev Team and Chronic Dev Team|
|iOS 3.0||March 17, 2009||June 19, 2009||94||PwnageTool||iPhone Dev Team|
|iPhone 3GS||June 19, 2009||July 3, 2009||14||purplera1n||George Hotz|
|iPad||April 30, 2010||May 3, 2010||3||Spirit||comex|
|iOS 4.0||June 21, 2010||June 21–23, 2010||2||PwnageTool||iPhone Dev Team|
|iPhone 4||June 24, 2010||August 1, 2010||38||JailbreakMe 2.0||comex|
|Apple TV (2nd generation)||September 1, 2010||October 20, 2010||49||PwnageTool||iPhone Dev Team|
|iPad 2||March 11, 2011||July 5, 2011||116||JailbreakMe 3.0||comex|
|iOS 5.0||October 12, 2011||October 13, 2011||1||redsn0w||iPhone Dev Team|
|iPhone 4S||October 14, 2011||January 20, 2012||98||Absinthe||pod2g, Chronic Dev Team, iPhone Dev Team|
|Apple TV (3rd generation)||March 7, 2012||-||-||-||-|
|iPad (3rd generation)||March 16, 2012||May 25, 2012||70||Absinthe 2.0||pod2g, Chronic Dev Team, iPhone Dev Team|
|iOS 6.0||September 19, 2012||September 19, 2012||0||redsn0w||iPhone Dev Team|
|iPhone 5||September 21, 2012||February 4, 2013||136||evasi0n||evad3rs|
|iPod touch (5th Generation)||October 23, 2012||February 4, 2013||104||evasi0n||evad3rs|
|iPad (4th Generation)||November 2, 2012||February 4, 2013||94||evasi0n||evad3rs|
|iPad Mini||November 2, 2012||February 4, 2013||94||evasi0n||evad3rs|
|iOS 7||September 18, 2013||-||-||-||-|
|iPhone 5C||September 20, 2013||-||-||-||-|
|iPhone 5S||September 20, 2013||-||-||-||-|
|iPad Air||November 1, 2013||-||-||-||-|
|iPad Mini (2nd Generation)||November 12, 2013||-||-||-||-|
Recent releases of jailbreaking tools
|Software Name||Release Date||Hardware||Firmware||Untethered?||Publisher|
|JailbreakMe 3.0||July 5, 2011||||4.2.6–4.2.8
|Seas0npass||October 18, 2011||2nd generation Apple TV||4.3–4.4.4||Yes|
|redsn0w 0.9.15 beta 3||November 1, 2012||||4.1–6.1.5||Untethered: 4.1–4.3.3, 4.2.6–4.2.8, 5.0.1, 5.1.1, 5.0/5.1 (only for iPhone 3GS with old boot ROM)
Tethered: 4.2.9–4.2.10, 4.3.4–4.3.5, 5.0, 5.1, 6.0, 6.0.1, 6.1, 6.1.2, 6.1.3, 6.1.5 (not available for devices newer than the iPhone 4, iPad 1, or iPod touch 4)
|iPhone Dev Team|
|Absinthe 2.0.4||May 30, 2012||||5.1.1||Yes||pod2g, Chronic Dev Team, iPhone Dev Team|
|evasi0n||February 4, 2013||6.0-6.1.2||Yes||pod2g, MuscleNerd, pimskeks, and planetbeing (evad3rs)|
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