Jaipur

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This article is about the municipality in Rajasthan, India. For its namesake district, see Jaipur district.
For other uses, see Jaipur (disambiguation).
Jaipur
जयपुर ਜੈਪੁਰ
Metropolitan City
Clockwise from top: Jal Mahal, Lakshmi-Narayan Temple, Albert Hall Museum, Hawa Mahal, Jantar Mantar
Clockwise from top: Jal Mahal, Lakshmi-Narayan Temple, Albert Hall Museum, Hawa Mahal, Jantar Mantar
Nickname(s): The Pink City
Jaipur is located in Rajasthan
Jaipur
Jaipur
Coordinates: 26°55′34″N 75°49′25″E / 26.9260°N 75.8235°E / 26.9260; 75.8235Coordinates: 26°55′34″N 75°49′25″E / 26.9260°N 75.8235°E / 26.9260; 75.8235
Country India
State Rajasthan
District Jaipur
Settled 18 November 1727
Founded by Jai Singh II
Named for Jai Singh II
Government
 • Type Democratic
 • Mayor Jyoti khandelwal (INC)
 • Police commissioner Janga Srinivas Rao
Area
 • Metropolitan City 623[citation needed] km2 (Formatting error: invalid input when rounding sq mi)
Elevation 431 m (1,414 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Metropolitan City 3,073,350(10th India)
 • Metro 3,073,350
 • Metro rank 10th IN
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Pincode(s) 302 0xx
Area code(s) +91-141-XXX-XXXX
Vehicle registration RJ-14 (Jaipur South), RJ-45 (Jaipur North), RJ-52 (Shahpura, Jaipur), RJ-41 (Chomu, Jaipur), RJ-47 (Dudu, Jaipur), RJ-32 (Kotputli, Jaipur)
Spoken languages
Primary Airport Jaipur International Airport (Major/International)
Website www.jaipur.nic.in

Jaipur Listeni/ˈpʊər/[2][3] is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan in Northern India. It was founded on 18 November 1727 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, the ruler of Amber, after whom the city is named. The city today has a population of 3.1 million. Jaipur is known as the Pink City of India.

The city is unusual among pre-modern Indian cities in the regularity of its streets, and the division of the city into six sectors by broad streets 34 m (111 ft) wide. The urban quarters are further divided by networks of gridded streets. Five quarters wrap around the east, south, and west sides of a central palace quarter, with a sixth quarter immediately to the east. The Palace quarter encloses the Hawa Mahal palace complex, formal gardens, and a small lake. Nahargarh Fort, which was the residence of the King Sawai Jai Singh II, crowns the hill in the northwest corner of the old city. The observatory, Jantar Mantar, is one of the World Heritage Sites.[4] Included on the Golden Triangle tourist circuit, along with Delhi and Agra, Jaipur is an extremely popular tourist destination in Rajasthan and India.

Geography and climate[edit]

Climate[edit]

Jaipur (Sanganer)
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
8
 
19
4
 
 
12
 
22
7
 
 
6
 
29
12
 
 
4
 
34
17
 
 
16
 
38
21
 
 
66
 
38
23
 
 
216
 
31
22
 
 
231
 
29
20
 
 
80
 
30
19
 
 
23
 
30
15
 
 
3
 
25
9
 
 
3
 
20
5
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: India Weather On Web[dead link]

Jaipur has a semiarid climate under the Köppen climate classification, receiving over 650 millimetres (26 in) of rainfall annually but most rains occur in the monsoon months between June and September. Temperatures remain relatively high throughout the year, with the summer months of April to early July having average daily temperatures of around 30 °C (86 °F). During the monsoon there are frequent, heavy rains and thunderstorms, but flooding is not common. The winter months of November to February are mild and pleasant, with average temperatures ranging from 15–18 °C (59–64 °F) and with little or no humidity though occasional cold waves lead to temperatures near freezing.[5]

Climate data for Jaipur
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 27
(81)
29
(84)
38
(100)
41
(106)
43
(109)
42
(108)
44
(111)
37
(99)
36
(97)
35
(95)
34
(93)
29
(84)
44
(111)
Average high °C (°F) 19
(66)
22
(72)
29
(84)
37
(99)
40
(104)
40
(104)
34
(93)
32
(90)
33
(91)
33
(91)
29
(84)
24
(75)
31
(87.8)
Average low °C (°F) 8
(46)
11
(52)
16
(61)
21
(70)
25
(77)
27
(81)
26
(79)
24
(75)
23
(73)
19
(66)
13
(55)
9
(48)
18.5
(65.3)
Record low °C (°F) 1
(34)
0
(32)
5
(41)
12
(54)
17
(63)
21
(70)
16
(61)
20
(68)
19
(66)
10
(50)
6
(43)
3
(37)
0
(32)
Precipitation mm (inches) 8
(0.31)
12
(0.47)
6
(0.24)
4
(0.16)
16
(0.63)
66
(2.6)
216
(8.5)
231
(9.09)
80
(3.15)
23
(0.91)
3
(0.12)
3
(0.12)
668
(26.3)
Source: BBC Weather[page needed]


Panoramic view from the hills surrounding Jaipur

Fauna[edit]

Jaipurian Langurs

In Jaipur there are many colonies of Rhesus macaque monkeys.

Demographics[edit]

Population growth through the years
Year Population
1881
142,600
1891
158,900
1901
160,200
1911
137,100
1921
120,200
1931
144,200
1941
175,800
1951
291,000
1961
403,400
1968
533,200
1971
636,800
1981
1,004,700
1991
1,518,200
2001
2,322,575
2011
3,046,163
2014
3,400,000

As of 2011, Jaipur had a population of 3,073,350[7] The Population of the Jaipur Metropolitan area is 3,646,590. Jaipur is the 10th largest city of India according to census of 2011. The Hindu population accounts for 80%, Muslim 14%, Jains 4.5%, Christians 0.5%, and Sikhs 1.0%. While 47.49% people lived in rural areas, 52.51% lived in urban areas. The overall literacy rate for the district was 76.44%. 87.27% males and 64.63% females were literate. The sex ratio was 898 females per 1,000 males.[7]

Hindi, Punjabi, and Rajasthani are the most common languages for daily communication. According to National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) report of 2009, Jaipur ranks third highest in the list of 35 Indian cities with a population of more than 1 million (10 lakh) for crime rates.[8]

Religion in Jaipur
Religion Percent
Hindus
  
80%
Muslim
  
14%
Jains
  
4.5%
Others†
  
1.5%
Distribution of religions
Includes Sikhs (0.5%), Buddhists (<0.5%).

Architecture[edit]

Hawa Mahal, Jaipur India
Downtown Jaipur, India
The Ganesh Pol of Amber fort. Amber is now part of Jaipur Municipal Corporation.
Jaipur View From Nahargarh Fort.

The city was planned according to Indian Vastu Shastra (Vedic Planning for the comfort and prosperity of the citizens). The directions of each street and market are East to West and North to South. The Eastern gate is called Suraj (Sun) Pol, while the Western gate is called Chand (Moon) Pol. There are three gates facing East, West, and North and a Northern gate (known as Zorawar Singh gate) which faces toward the ancestral capital of Amber, while many gates face South.

Economy[edit]

World Trade Park, Jaipur

In 2008, Jaipur was ranked 31 among the 50 Emerging Global Outsourcing cities.[9] Deutsche Bank Group Jaipur, Genpact and Infosys have their BPO in Jaipur. Mahindra SEZ located here is also one of the largest IT SEZ in India. The World Trade Park will also give a major boost to the city's economy.

Tourism[edit]

Jaipur is a major tourist destination in India. In the 2008 Conde Nast Traveller Readers Choice Survey, Jaipur was ranked the 7th best place to visit in Asia.[10]

The Presidential Suite at the Raj Palace Hotel, billed at US$45,000 per night, is listed at number 2 on World's 15 most expensive hotel suites complied by CNN Go in 2012.[11]

Culture[edit]

Jawahar Kala Kendra, designed by Ravi Jain, in Jaipur, Rajasthan.

Jaipur has a number of important cultural sites. Cultural centres like Jawahar Kala Kendra and Ravindra Manch have helped promote the culture of the state of Rajasthan. Albert Hall Museum (Government Central Museum) hosts several arts and antiquities. There is a government museum at Hawa Mahal and an art gallery at Viratnagar. The Town Hall (Old Vidhan Sabha Bhawan) is proposed to be converted into a museum. There are statues depicting Rajasthani culture around the city.

Arts and crafts[edit]

The prior rulers of Jaipur patronised a number of arts and crafts. They invited skilled artisans, artists and craftsmen from India and abroad. The communities settled in the city and made Jaipur their home. As a result, Jaipur is a major hub for arts and crafts. Some of the crafts include bandhani; block printing; stone carving and sculpture; tarkashi; zari, gota, kinari and zardozi; silver jewellery; gems, kundan, meenakari and jewellery; miniature paintings; blue pottery; ivory carving; shellac work; leatherware.

Cuisine[edit]

Typical dishes include Dal Baati Churma, Missi Roti. Sweet dishes include Ghevar, Feeni, Gajak, Chauguni ke laddu, Moong Thal.[12]

Sports[edit]

The main cricket stadium in the city, Sawai Mansingh Stadium, has a seating capacity of 30,000, and has hosted many national and international cricket matches; it also contains other sports facilities.

The city is represented in the IPL by the team - Rajasthan Royals, one of the leading teams.

Education[edit]

Jaipur contains Ten universities,Jaipuria institute of management including the The LNM Institute of Information Technology Jaipur, University of Rajasthan, Baldev Ram Mirdha Institute of Technology Jaipur, Manipal University Jaipur, National Institute of Ayurveda, Indian Institute of Health Management Research and Malviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur, Subodh College. It contains a large number of other colleges, institutes, schools and other facilities of tertiary education.

The engineering colleges have risen exponentially recently in jaipur, and the affiliation is with Rajasthan technical university (RTU), kota. Some of the notable colleges are Swami Keshvanand Institute of technology (SKIT), JECRC,dr. radhakrishnan polytechnic college Poornima college of engineering, Gyan Vihar college, APEX institute of engineering and technology, Kautlya Institute of technology and engineering etc.

The well-known schools of Jaipur are Step By Step High School, St.Anselms Pink City Sr. Sec. School,Maharaja Sawai Man Singh Vidyalaya, Maheshwari Public School, DAV Centenary Public School , St. Xavier's School, Jaipur, Army Public School, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan's Vidyashram, Delhi Public School and Maharani Gayatri Devi Girls' Public School.

Media[edit]

The largest circulated daily newspapers in Jaipur are the Rajasthan Patrika, Dainik Bhaskar, Dainik Navajyoti and The Times of India though the city has numerous other daily newspapers. In Electronic Media in Jaipur are Sahara Samay, ETV News, [NBC News 24].

The state-owned All India Radio Jaipur is broadcast both on the medium wave and FM band in the city. It competes with six private local FM stations—Radio Mirchi (98.3 MHz), Radio City (91.1 MHz), My FM(94.3 MHz), FM Tadka 95 FM (95.0 MHz), Red FM 93.5 (93.5 MHz). Gyan Vani (105.6 MHz). The city has a community FM channel in FM Radio 7 (90.4 MHz) by India International School Institutional Network. The public broadcaster Doordarshan (Prasar Bharati) provides a regional channel in addition to the mainstay channels.

Transportation[edit]

One of the many gated entries to Jaipur
Jaipur Kishangarh Express Way
Jaipur BRTS

Roads[edit]

National Highway No.8 links Delhi to Mumbai, National Highway 12 links to Kota, Baran District and National Highway 11 links Bikaner to Agra, passing through Jaipur district with a total length of 366 km. RSRTC operates bus service to all the parts of Rajasthan and New Delhi, Uttar pradesh, Haryana, Madhya pradesh, and Gujarat.

City bus[edit]

City buses are operated by Jaipur City Transport Services Limited (JCTSL).[13] of RSRTC under JNNURM. The service operates more than 300 regular and low-floor buses. The three major bus depots are Vaishali Nagar (Jaipur), Vidyadhar Nagar and Sanganer.

Jaipur BRTS[edit]

Main article: Jaipur BRTS

Jaipur Bus Rapid Transit Service was approved by government in August 2006 for implementation.[14] The responsibility for managing Jaipur BRTS has been given to JCSTL, a special purpose vehicle formed by Jaipur Development Authority and Jaipur Nagar Nigam in a joint venture.[14] The BRTS is expected to cater to city's growing traffic for next 15–20 years. In Phase I, two corridors have been proposed: a "North-South Corridor" from Sikar Road to Tonk Road and an "East-West Corridor" from Ajmer Road to Delhi Road.[14] A section of the North-South Corridor from C-Zone Bypass near Harmada to Pani Pech became operational in 2010.[14]

Rail[edit]

Jaipur is connected to Delhi and all main cities viz. Alwar, Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Pune, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Coimbatore, Chennai, Jamshedpur, Nagpur, Gurgaon, Chandigarh Agra Jodhpur etc. in India

Jaipur Metro[edit]

Main article: Jaipur Metro

A rapid transit rail project by the name Jaipur Metro is under progress. It began trial runs in September 2013 and is expected to start operating from September 2014.

Jaipur Metro Trial Run

Airport[edit]

Main article: Jaipur Airport

Jaipur International Airport is in the satellite town of Sanganer, 10 km from the city-centre, and offers sporadic service to major domestic and international locations. Terminal 1 was earlier used for international and domestic flights, while Terminal 2 was reserved for domestic carriers. Currently however, operations at Terminal 1 have been suspended for renovation reasons,and Terminal 2 is fully functional. The airport handled 255,704 international and 1,267,876 passengers in 2009–2010.[15] Jaipur Airport also provides air cargo services. The up-gradation of airport has offered improved connectivity and wider choice of services to air travelers, boosting international tourism and economic development of the region. Frequently, during winter, many flights for Indira Gandhi International Airport were diverted to Jaipur airport due to heavy fog in Delhi.[16]

Sister cities[edit]

City Province/State Country Date
Calgary Alberta Canada 1973
Fremont California USA 1993

See also[edit]

Wikipedia book Jaipur at Wikipedia books

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Census of India 2011" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 
  2. ^ "Define Jaipur". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 2014-06-26. 
  3. ^ "Definition of Jaipur". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-06-26. 
  4. ^ "The Jantar Mantar, Jaipur – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. 31 July 2010. Retrieved 1 September 2010. 
  5. ^ "World Weather Information Service". Retrieved 11 December 2009. 
  6. ^ "TABLE 7.2.11". mospi.gov.in. Retrieved 23 June 2008. 
  7. ^ a b "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011; Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 
  8. ^ "Crime Report 2009" (PDF). Retrieved 28 March 2011. 
  9. ^ Top 50 Emerging Global Outsourcing Cities, Global Services-Tholons Study, 2008
  10. ^ "Jaipur Seventh Best Tourist Destination in Asia – Conde Nast Traveller Survey". Bharatonline.com. Retrieved 28 March 2011. 
  11. ^ Arnold, Helen "World's 15 most expensive hotel suites" CNN Go. 25 March 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-11
  12. ^ "Cuisine of Jaipur". Jaipur-pinkcity.webs.com. Retrieved 28 March 2011. I wonder if the British army slang for gravy (jipper) is a corruption of Jaipur
  13. ^ "JCSTL Website". Jaipurbus.com. Retrieved 28 March 2011. 
  14. ^ a b c d "BRTS – JDA Website". Jaipurjda.org. Retrieved 28 March 2011. 
  15. ^ "Jaipur International Airport". Retrieved 19 February 2011. 
  16. ^ "Flights diverted to Jaipur". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 18 February 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2011. 

Further reading[edit]

Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

External links[edit]