Jaisalmer State

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Jaisalmer State
जैसलमेर
Kingdom 1156-1818
Princely State 1818-1156

1156–1947

Flag of Jaisalmer

Flag

History
 -  Established 1156
 -  Independence of India 1947
Area
 -  1931 41,600 km2 (16,062 sq mi)
Population
 -  1931 76,255 
Density 1.8 /km2  (4.7 /sq mi)
Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
Flag of Jaisalmer over Royal Place

Jaisalmer State is the popular name of the kingdom established by Rawal Jaisal when he moved the capital of reminiscent of the Bhati dynasty from Ludarva to Jaisalmer because the old Capital Ludarva was vulnerable. Jaisalmer continued to be ruled independently by the Bhati rajputs until 1818, when it signed treaty with the British Empire effectively making it a British Protectorate, a Princely State and enjoyed 15 gun salute.[1]

History[edit]

The state of Jaisalmer had its foundations in what remains of the Bhati Empire. Bhati rulers ruled over large empire streching from Ghazni in modern day Afghanistan to Sialkot, Lahore and Rawalpindi in modern day Pakistan[2] to Bhatinda and Hanumangarh in Modern day India.[3] The Empire started to fall when Turkic Muslim Invasions invaded the North Western Frontier of Hindu World, the Hindu Empires of Bhatis and Hindu Shahi were first frontline empires who started to collapse first. Bhatis continued to retreat slowly to East and South finding more stable home at modern day Jaisalmer District which they continued to rule until 1947. Jaisalmer was the new capital of Bhatis founded in 1156 by Maharawal Jaisal Singh and the state took its name from the capital. On 11 December 1818 Jaisalmer became a British protectorate.[4]

Traditionally, in the middle ages the main source of income for the kingdom was levies on caravans, but the economy was heavily affected when Bombay emerged as a major port and sea trade replaced the traditional land routes. Maharawals Ranjit Singh and Bairi Sal Singh attempted to turn around the economic decline but the dramatic reduction in trade impoverished the kingdom. A severe drought and the resulting famine from 1895 to 1900, during the reign of Maharawal Salivahan Singh, only made matters worse by causing widespread loss of the livestock that the increasingly agriculturally based kingdom relied upon.

Maharawal Jawahir Singh’s (1914–49) attempts at modernization also failed to turn the kingdom’s economy around and it remained isolated and backward compared with other areas of Rajasthan.

Rulers[edit]

The rulers of Jaisalmer were Rajputs.[5] They belonged to the Yadava Bhati dynasty and used the title of 'Maharawal'.[6]

Maharawals[edit]

  • 1661 - 1702 Amar Singh (b. 16.. - d. 1702)
  • 1702 - 1708 Jaswant Singh (d. af.1722)
  • 1708 - 1722 Budh Singh (d. 1722)
  • 1722 - 1762 Akhi Singh
  • 1762 - 1820 Mulraj II (b. ... - d. 1820)
  • 1820 - 1846 Guj Singh (b. ... - d. 1846)
  • 1846 - Jun 1864 Ranjit Singh
  • 1864 - 1891 Bairi Sal (b. ... - d. 1891)
  • 12 Apr 1891 - 11 Apr 1914 Shyam Singh (b. 1887 - d. 19...)
  • 9 Jul 1914 - 15 Aug 1947 Jawahir Singh (b. 1882 - d. 1949)

Dewans (chief ministers)[edit]

  • c.1885 - 1891 Mohata Nathmal
  • c.1890 - 1903 Mehta Jagjiwan
  • 189. - 1900 Thakur Kushal Singh (acting)
  • 1900 Rawatmal (acting)
  • c.1909 Lakshmi Das Sapat
  • 1911 - Jun 1912 Mohammed Niyaz Ali Kazi Hapiri (b. 1866 - d. 19..)
  • Jun 1912 - 21 Mar 1930 Murarji Rooji (Moraji Rao) Sapat
  • 19.. - 19.. M.L. Khosala
  • 19.. - 19.. Pandit Jamana Lal
  • 19.. - 19.. Munshi Nand Kishore
  • 19.. - 19.. Lala Rakhpat Raj
  • 19.. - 19.. P.K. Shurugula
  • 19.. - 19.. Brij Mohan Nath Zutshi
  • 19.. - 19.. Anand Swaroop
  • 19.. - 19.. Onkar Singh
  • c.1940 - c.1942 Lakhpat Rai Sikund

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Coordinates: 26°55′N 70°54′E / 26.92°N 70.9°E / 26.92; 70.9